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CRITICAL MATERIALS TO THE UNITED STATES

IN TIME OF WAR

HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

SPECIAL SUBCOMMITTEE ON MINERALS,

MATERIALS AND FUELS ECONOMICS

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON
INTERIOR AND INSULAR AFFAIRS

UNITED STATES SENATE
EIGHTY-THIRD CONGRESS

FIRST SESSION

PURSUANT TO

S. Res. 143

A RESOLUTION TO INVESTIGATE THE ACCESSIBILITY AND
AVAILABILITY OF SUPPLIES OF CRITICAL

RAW MATERIALS

PART 1
United States Department of the Interior: Bureau of Mines

OCTOBER 20, 21, 23, AND 24, 1953

Printed for the use of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs

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COMMITTEE ON INTERIOR AND INSULAR AFFAIRS

HUGH BUTLER, Nebraska, Chairman EUGENE D. MILLIKIN, Colorado

JAMES E, MURRAY, Montana GUY CORDON, Oregon

CLINTON P. ANDERSON, New Mexico GEORGE W. MALONE, Nevada

RUSSELL B. LONG, Louisiana ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah

GEORGE A. SMATHERS, Florida HENRY C. DWORSHAK, Idaho

EARLE C. CLEMENTS, Kentucky THOMAS H. KUCHEL, California

HENRY M. JACKSON, Washington FRANK A. BARRETT, Wyoming

PRICE DANIEL, Texas
KIRKLEY S. COULTER, Chief Clerk
N. D. McSHERRY, A88i8tant Chief Clerk

SPECIAL SUBCOMMITTEE ON MINERALS, MATERIALS, AND FUELS ECONOMICS

GEORGE W. MALONE, Nevada, Chairman FRANK A. BARRETT, Wyoming

JAMES A. MURRAY, Montana EUGENE D. MILLIKIN, Colorado

EARLE C. CLEMENTS, Kentucky
HUGH BUTLER, Nebraska, ex officio

JEROME S. ADLERMAN, Subcommittee Counsel
GEORGE B. HOLDERER, Subcommittee Staff Engineer
JOHN LEE COULTER, Subcommittee Research Specialist
Tuomas F. FLYNN, Jr., Subcommittee Assistant Counsel

RICHARD G. SINCLAIR, Subcommittee Accountant

II

CONTENTS

Page

Text of Senate Resolution 143..

1

Text of Trade Agreements Act of 1934.

12

Statement of —

Blue, Hon. Delwin D., Assistant Chief, Light Metals Branch, Bureau

of Mines.

299

Irving, Hon. Donald R., Ceramic and Fertilizer Branch, Bureau of

Mines.

249

Johnson, Hon. Charles H., Chief of the Base Metals Branch, Bureau

of Mines.

120, 125

Josephson, Hon. G. W., Chief, Construction and Chemical Materials

Branch, Bureau of Mines.

277

Kline, Hon. Mitchell H., Chief, Rare and Precious Metals, Bureau of

Mines, Department of the Interior...

197, 227

McKay, Hon. Douglas, Secretary of the Interior...

5

Melcher, Hon. Norwood B , Chief, Ferrous Metals and Alloys Branch,

Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior..

46

Miller, Hon. Thomas H. Assistant Director, Bureau of Mines, Depart-

ment of the Interior..

33

Pehrson, Hon. Elmer W., Regional Director, Foreign Minerals Region,

Bureau of Mines.

231

Ralston, Hon. Oliver C., Chief Metallurgist of the Bureau of

Mines..

328

Wormser, Hon. Felix E., Assistant Secretary of the Interior.

9

Zinner, Hon. Paul, Chief, Minerals Division, Bureau of Mines, Depart-

ment of the Interior..

35

Additional information:

Charts, tables, and other information relative to-

Aluminum..

301, 308

Amosite

295

Antimony

127

Asbestos

294, 298

Bauxite.

301, 324

Beryllium (beryl).

202

Bismuth.--.

143

Block, steatite talc.

255

Cadmium...

137

Celestite.

285, 297

Chromite.

76

Chrysotile

294

Cobalt.

91

Columbium..

204

Copper.-

153

Corundum..

283, 297

Crocidolite..

295

Cryolite (natural)

281

Diamonds (industrial).

288, 298

Fluorspar-

291

Germanium.

223

Graphite

262

Hafnium.

209

Iodine

279

Iron ore

66

Jewel bearings

258

Kyanite..

260

Lead.

165

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STOCKPILE AND ACCESSIBILITY OF STRATEGIC AND

CRITICAL MATERIALS TO THE UNITED STATES IN TIME OF WAR

TUESDAY, OCTOBER 20, 1953

UNITED STATES SENATE, SUBCOMMITTEE ON

MINERALS, MATERIALS, AND FUEL ECONOMICS,
OF THE COMMITTEE ON INTERIOR AND INSULAR AFFAIRS,

Washington, D.C. The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 2 p.m., in the committee room, 224 Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C., Senator George W. Malone, Nevada, chairman of the subcommittee, presiding.

Present: Senator George W. Malone, Nevada (chairman of the subcommittee).

Also present: Jerome S. Adlerman, counsel to the subcommittee; George B. Holderer, subcommittee staff engineer.

Senator MALONE. The subcommittee will be in order. Our first witness will be Hon. Douglas McKay, Secretary of the Interior.

Mr. Secretary, we are glad to see you. We believe you have some of the best engineers in the world in your Department, and we are leaning heavily on them for the record of factual material, as you know already.

The Minerals, Materials, and Fuels Economic Subcommittee of the Interior and Insular Affairs Committee is working under Senate Resolution 143 of the 83d Congress, 1st session, which reads in part as follows:

Resolved, That the Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, or any duly authorized subcommittee thereof, is authorized and directed

(1) to make a full and complete investigation and study of the accessibility of critical raw materials to the United States during a time of war;

(2) to study and recommend methods of encouraging developments to assure the availability of supplies of such critical raw materials adequate for

the expanding economy and the security of the United States. The full resolution as well as the Senate Report 689 of the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration approving the resolution is made a part of the record and will appear in the appendix as A and B.

AVAILABILITY IN TIME OF WAR

Under the terms of the resolution, the Minerals, Materials, and Fuels Economic Subcommittee of the Interior and Insular Affairs Committee, is charged with the double-barreled responsibility of ascertaining the accessibility of the critical materials to the United States in time of war as well as the availability of these materials for the expanding economy and the security of the United States.

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