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Sures. Wilfully destroying a ship, with the sea, except that it is rendered fit for intent to prejudice the insurers ; plun. the growth of some plants, and wholly dering a ship in distress; stealing goods unfit for that of others, by the saline of the value of 40s. from on ship board; steams and impregnations; and it is burning or destroying any of his Majes. scarcely to be conceived by any, but ty's shipping or stores ; are, by a variety those who have observed it, how far on of statutes, made felony, without benefit land the effects of the sea reach, so as to of clergy.

make the earth proper for plants which Ship money, an imposition charged on will not grow without this influence ; the ports, towns, cities, boroughs, and there being several plants frequently counties of this realm, in the time of found on high hills, and dry places, at Charles I., by writs, commonly called three, four, and more miles from the sea, ship writs, under the great seal of Eng. which yet would not grow, unless in the land, in 1635 and 1636, for providing neighbourhood of it, nor will ever be and furnishing certain ships' for the found elsewhere. The second part or King's service, &c. which was declared to portion of the shore is much more affectbe contrary to the laws and statutes of ed by the sea than the former, being frethis realm, the petition of right, and li. quently washed and beaten by it. Its berty of the subject.

productions are rendered salt by the waSHIRE, in geography, signifies the ter, and it is covered with sand, or with the same as county ; being originally derived fragments of shells in form of sand, and in from the Saxon seiran, to divide.

some places with a tartarous matter, de. SHIVERS, or SHEEVERS, in the sea. posited from the water : the colour of this language, names given to the little roll. whole extent of ground is usually dusky ers or round wheels of pulleys.

and dull, especially where there are SHOAD, among miners, denotes a train rocks and stones, and these covered with of metalline stones, serving to directa slimy matter. The third part of the them in the discovery of mines.

shore is more affected by the sea than SHOAL, in the sea-language, denotes either of the others, and is covered with a place where the water is shallow. an uniform crust of the true nature of the

SHOE for an anchor, in a ship, the place bottom of the sea, except that plants and for the anchor to rest, and fitted to re- animals have their residence in it; and ceive the stock, &c. so as to prevent the the decayed parts of these alter it a litsheets, tacks, and other running-rigging, tle. from galling or being entangled with the SHORL, in mineralogy, occurs comflukes.

monly in granite, gneiss, and other simiSHOOTING. See GUNNERY and Pro. lar rocks; often in mass, but very freJECTILES.

quently crystallized. The primitive form Shooting. See SPORTING.

of its crystals is an obtuse rhomboid, the SHOOTING, maliciously, at persons in solid angle at the summit of which is any dwelling house, or other place, 139°, having rhomboid faces, with angles though death should not ensue, is felony of 114° 12' and 65° 48': but it usually without clergy, by 9 George I. c. 22, occurs in three, six, eight, nine, or twelve commonly called the Black Act.

sided prisms, terminated by four or fiveSHOPLIFTERS, those who steal goods sided summits, variously truncated. privately out of shops. If the goods are S HORI, black. Colour black. Found in of the value of 57. though no person be in mass, disseminated and crystallized. Crysthe shop, it is felony without benefit of tals three-sided prisms, having their late. clergy. 10 and 11 William III. c. 23. ral edges truncated. Sometimes termi

SHORE, a place washed by the sea, or nating in a pyramid. It becomes electric by some large river. Count Marsigli di. by heat. When heated to redness, its vides the sea-shore into three portions ; colour becomes brownish red; and at the first of which is that tract of land 127° Wedgewood, it is converted into a which the sea just reaches in storms and brownish compact enamel. According to high tides, but which it never covers ; Wiegleb, it is composed of the second part of the shore is that which

Alumina . . . . . 41.25 is covered in high tides and storms, but

Silica - - - - - 34.16 is dry at other times; and the third is the

Iron

. 20.00 descent from this, which is always cover

Manganese . . . . 5.41 ed with water. The first part is only a continuation of the Continent, and suffers

100.82 no alteration from the neighbourhood of

blue

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Suori, electric. This stone was first Buxtorf has written a learned history of made known in Europe by specimens Hebrew abbreviations, as a key to underbrought from Ceylon; but is now found stand the Rabbinical authorsSome of frequently forming a part of the composi. them are the incipient letters of several tion of mountains. It is sometimes in words, joined together as one, and markamorphous pieces, but much more fre. ed at the top with points; others are the quently crystallized in three or nine-sided final letters of words; and others, again, prisms, with four-sided summits. Colour are contracted words, wherein two or usually green; sometimes brown, red, three letters are made to denote an entire blue. Found in mass, in grains, and crys. word. The Jews were particularly partallized. Crystals three, six or nine-sided tial to these methods of abbreviation, to prisms, variously truncated. Its texture which they added a few arbitrary characis toliated. Specific gravity 3. Colour ters, to express certain proper names, brown, sometimes with a tint of green, such as God, Jehovah, &c.

red, or vellow. When heated to This kind of writing was, by degrees, 200° Fahrenheit, it becomes electric, one introduced, and successfully practised of the summits negatively, and the other among the Greeks. Nicolai gives it as positively. It reddens when heated, and his opinion that Xenophon first taught the is fusible per se, with white intumes- Greeks to write by certain notes, in the cence, into a white or grey enamel. Ac- nature of characters. Laertius confirms cording to Vauquelin, it is composed of this opinion, and particularly mentions

two methods of short writing, viz. one by Silica - - - - - - 40

contractions of words, and the other by Alumina . . . . .

arbitrary marks. This art was practised Oxide of iron . - - - 12

among the Romans at an early period. Lime . . . . . .

Indeed the first invention of a system of Oxide of manganese - · 2.5

short-band, by which the writer was enabled to follow the most rapid speaker,

has been ascribed by some to the poet

97.5 Loss - - - 2.5

Ennius, and it is said that it was afterwards improved by Tyro, Cicero's freed man; and still more so by Seneca. Ennius began the practice with one thousand one hundred marks of his own contriv

ance. As an elucidation of this subject, SHORLITE, a stone which received

and to show in what estimation this art its name from M. Klaproth, is generally

was held among the Romans, we may found in oblong masses, which, when

briefly notice two of the Roman Emregular, are six-sided prisms, inserted in

perors, of very opposite characters ; granite. Its texture is foliated. Specific

Caligula, and Titus Vespasian. It was gravity 3.53. Colour greenish or yel.

deemed a great defect in one of them, to lowish white; sometimes sulphur yellow.

be ignorant of short-band ; and a perfecNot altered by heat. It is composed of

tion in the other, to be acquainted with

this highly useful and ingenious art. Alumina - - - - - - 50

Caligula was a man guilty of so many Silica . . . . . . 50

vices, that it might be imagined his igno

rance of short-hand would not have fallen 100

under the notice of an historian. And yet Suetonius mentions it as something

remarkable, that he who was so expert SHORT-HAND, STENOGRAPHY. When in other matters and wanted not capacity mankind had acquired a tolerable degree and parts, was totally ignorant of shortof expertness and exactness in the use of hand. Titus Vespasian, on the contrary, letters by the ordinary modes of writing, was remarkable for writing short-hand it became the study of the curious to exceedingly swift. He was indeed a invent more concise methods of denot. true lover of the art, and made it not ing the same words or phrases. Hence only his business, but bis diversion. It sundry schemes of abbreviation for com. afforded him great pleasure to get his pendious writing were devised; and the amanuenses together, and entertain himlearned of different nations introduced self with trying which of them could them into their respective languages, ac- write fastest; so that by common praccording as more skill and greater per- tice, he acquired such a command of fection in writing them were acquired. hand, and such a facility in imitation, that

100

be was wont to joke upon himself and ancient. The old characters varied under say, what a special counterfeit he should the hand of the copiers, and the sense have made.

changed according to the genius of the The different schemes of short-hand interpreters; so that their contractions formerly used, were probably much of are become so many enigmas, because the same nature, exceedingly arbitrary, we can refer to no other copies to ascer. and, for the most part unintelligible to tain tbe true reading, and because the any but those who practised them; and, authors are no longer in existence. for that reason, were soon forgotten and “But,” continues Lambinet, “ by the destroyed. We may guess at the fate present system of stenography, the wri. they generally experienced, by two books ters follow the words of the public oraof short-hand mentioned by Trithemius. tors, take down their speeches, the moThe first was a dictionary of short-hand, tions, the debates of the tribune, or the wbich he bought of an abbot, who was a lectures of the professors at the Lyceum, doctor of law, for a few pence, to the and produce a literal translation at last, great satisfaction of the community to in the usual characters, and in print." which he belonged, who had ordered the What the improved short-hand' is, to short-hand marks to be erased, for the which this French writer alludes, we are sake of the parchment on which they not informed. were written.' The other was a short. The ingenious attempt of the late hand copy of the book of Psalms, which learned Bishop Wilkins, towards a real he met with in another monastery, where character and philosophical language, has the learned monks had inscribed upon it, much the appearance of some short-hands by way of title, “A Psalter of the Arme. now in use. How far this attemp: might nia Language !” Several copies of a dic- have been successful we know not, had tionary and psalter, in the Roman short. the contrivance been carried to that dehand, are mentioned as extant in different gree of perfection of which the Bishop libraries; but they are, in general, the thought it capable. The reader may find same method, as may be judged by the a specimen of this philosophic character accounts of those who mention them, and in Stower's Printer's Grammar. also from the appearance of the hand. The shortest and most curious mode of writing of an old short-hand psalter, in writing, not professedly stenographic, the library of St. Germain's at Paris, a few which we have hitherto seen, is the spepages from which were transcribed for cimen of ancient Welsh, by the ingenious the use of the writer of these observa. Mr. W. Owen. This also may be seen in tions.

Mr. Stower's Grammar, p. 294 Plutarch, in his life of Cato, informs us, The art of short-writing was first al. that the celebrated speech of that patriot, tempted to be published in this country relating to the Catalinian conspiracy, was in the year 1588, in a treatise entitled taken and preserved in short-hand. There “ Characterie, or the Art of Short, Swift, are numerous epigrams of Ausonius, Mar. and Secret Writing, by Character, by tial, and Manilius, descriptive and com. "Timothy Bright, M D." Two years after mendatory of short-hand. Probably the the appearance of Dr. Bright's treatise, most ancient method of short-writing at Mr. Peter Bale published his. “ Writing present extant, is a Latin MS. entitled Schoolmaster," which he divided into * Ars Scribendi Characteris ;” or, “ The three parts: the first of which he entitled Art of Writing in Characters.” The au- “ Brachygraphy,” containing rules to thor of this tract is unknown; but we be. write as fast as a man can speak, with lieve, it was printed about the year 1412. propriety and distinction. In 1618, ap.

The ancient Irish alphabets, particular peared Willis's “ Stenography, or Shortly the first, which was purely stenogra. band Writing, by spelling Characterics." phic, named Bobeloth, have a strong re. This system consisted of len alphabets, semblance to many of our modern short. denominated words of sort; seven of hands, but they are now little known. A which were composed of the initial let. specimen of this writing may be seen in ters of words; the rest principally by the Ledwich’s Antiquities, p. 98.

omission of unnecessary letters, and by M. Lambinet, in his Researches upon symbolical figures. This system was at. Printing, observes, that modern steno. tempted to be improved upon by Henry graphy, which, like the telegraph, dates Dix's “ Brachygraphy." Omitting the in France from the foundation of the mention of numerous other methods of republic, has neither the inconvenience, short-hand writing that soon followed Ror the obscurity, nor the danger, of the these several schemes, we must proceed

VOL. XI.

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to lay before the reader such a system of yet this should never be resorted to, bat stenography, as, if generally known, for some obvious advantage of beauty or would supersede the necessity of every brevity. other system ; having been the result of The short-hand alphabet, as some supgreat labour and ingenuity, as well as re- pose concerning the Hebrew, consists of commended, and its practical utility suffi. consonants only, the vowels being suppliciently demonstrated, by the practice of ed by dots differently placed. These consome of the first literary characters of sunants running neatly into each other, our age, and the best judges of the art. will form the marks for words, never liftThis system is that invented by the late ing the pen in writing a word, except in ingenious and worthy Mr. John Byrom, a very few instances, and for the sake of M. A. F. R. S. commonly known by the preserving the beauty of the writing, appellation of Doctor; availing ourselves, which will always be attended with a corat the same time, of the very judicious im- respondent degree of brevity and legiprovements introduced by Mr. Molineaux, bility; a circumstance, perhaps, peculiar of Macclesfield, whose introduction to to ihe method of Mr. Byrom, where Byrom's short-hand is certainly the most beauty, brevity, and legibility, are hapbeautiful and complete work on the sub- pily combined. ject ever yet produced to the public. It The twenty-one consonants which comis published for the author, by Longman pose the short-hand alphabet are formed anil Co. London.

out of simple lines, to some of which are The short hand alphabet, as exhibited attached small loops or twirls. These in the annexer plate, consists of the short. lines derive their respective powers and est and simplest marks in nature; and on properties by their difference of posi. ihe proper formation and combination of tion, and by some of them being made these characters depend the beauty and curvilineal.' accuracy of the writing. We will endea. The horizontal characters are always vour to lay down such directions as ap- to be written from left to right; the perpear necessary to acquire a general know pendicular ones are invariably written ledge of the art; referring our readers to downwards; and with respect to the ob. Mr. Molineaux's Treatise, for more ample lique characters, it is to be observed, that instructions on the subject.

those which lean to the left are generally The great end of short-writing being to written upwards, while those having their convey the sounds of words by the fewest, inclination to the right hand are always · as well as the most simple characters, all written downwards. Not any of the twirl. those letters, which are not distinctly ed letters (the duplicate characters desounded in pronunciation, are to be omit. noting h, j, w, and sh, which are never ed, except in a few cases, where either joined to any other letters, but simply the word would be rendered ambiguous, stand for the words had, just, would, and or present an unsightly appearance, with. should, excepted) ought never to be writout certain of its quiescent letters : for ten so as to end with the loop. This obinstance, it is evident that the letters wa servation must not be forgotten by the kd, properly joined together, might be learner, and he will never be at a loss allowed to represent walked, provided the about the manner of joining the looped reader could always remember to sound characters to other letters. the a broad as in wall; but as the word, It will be observed that some of the let. so contracted, might easily be mistaken ters are denoted by two, and the letter ! for the word waked, it is always best to even by three different characters; but as spell it with the letter l; thus, wulkd. these characters are formed in the same This example will suffice for other words manner, having only a simple change of of the like nature. The omission of vow. position, and as they will be found to be of els, especially in the middle of words, has singular advantage in the joining of them been a fault too common with writers on to some letters, no ambiguity can possithe present subject : yet it must generally bly arise by their occasional use. The be observed, that in short-writing it is little mark, denoting the abbreviation for proper to insert those vowels only, which the two Latin words et cetera, is formed out are absolutely necessary in the pronunci- of the letters t and s, and is well calculatation, which is a great saving of time, as ed for the purpose to which it is applied. well as conducive to the beauty of the It is the only character (if we except the writing. It is sometimes convenient, for little mark for the very common terminathe sake of facility in joining, to substitute tion o ing) which has the apparance of one letter for another: ask for 9, ks, *, &c. an arbitrary mark in the whole system ;. and even this is formed not strictly upon ment With respect to the long and short an arbitrary but an alphabetical principle. sounds of vowels, it is convenient, when

We have already observed that the vow. time will allow of it, to express the broad els are expressed in short-hand by means sound of a vowel by making its represen. of dots, distinguished by their relative si. tative dot a little larger than in the usual tuations with respect to the consonants to method of expressing the vowels. When which they are supposed to be joined. two, or more, different vowels occur, Although it is proper, in the spelling of without any intervening consonant, they words, to use no more vowels than are may be distinguished by making the first strictly necessary to convey the sound: yet a little thicker and stronger, diminishing as all writing must be rendered extremely their respective strengths until the last illegible by their total omission in the mid. vowel is expressed, by being made of the dle of words, we will here lay down pro. usual thickness. Two es, or two o 8, per directions for their use and applica may be expressed by two dots of the same

tion. Whenever a vowel constitutes a per. size. In swift writing, we know, these . fect syllable in any word, whether that minutiæ cannot always be strictly attend. syllable be incipient, radical, or termina ed to. It is, nevertheless, convenient to tive, it must always be inserted, unless in have a method so simple and useful to the case of following a very rapid speaker; resort to, when time will allow; and it is and the vowels which are then unavoida. one of the many excellencies peculiar to bly omitted should be inserted as soon this system, that it will admit of these oras convenient afterwards, while the sub- thographical attentions. ject is fresh in the writer's memory ; by The letter y, at the beginning of which means the legibility of the writing words, is a consonant; but at the end of will be effectually secured and preserved. words, or when it follows a consonant, it

The manner of placing the vowels in is a vowel, and, as such, is represented, this system is, of all others, the most natu- in short-hand, by a dot in the i's place, ra), and the freest from ambiguity.A simple as in the word buti, beauty. stroke, however placed, will naturally sug- As the horizontal characters may be gest the idea of supplying five different written at the top, or middle, or bottom, places for the five vowel points : viz. the of the line, the vowels may be sometimes top, the middle, the bottom; and the cen- indicated by their situation between the tres of the halves, when so divided. Care, parallels, as same, at the top : sin, in the however, must be taken not to place the middle ; and sun, at the bottom of the dot forthe vowel a, over the perpendicular line. or oblique characters ; nor the same vow. There are few monosyllables, beginel point before the horizontal ones. By a ning with a vowel, that are immediately very slight attention it will be observed, followed with either h or w; for which that in this plan of short writing the same reason the following rule, peculiar to general method is to be observed as in these two letters, will seldom cccasion common writing; i. e. not to write per. any ambiguity, and affords a convenient pendicular letters from the bottom up- method of expressing a great variety of wards, nor any letters from the right to very common words. The letters h and the left;consequently all the vowel points w, having a vowel point before them, belonging to upright consonants are to are to be considered as denoting, by one be placed immediately before or after the mark, the two letters, ht, wt, respectively, consonant, as the case may require ; those with the prefixed vowel between them; connected with the horizontal characters as in the words, hat, hit, hot, hut ; wat, wel, exactly over, when they precede, and wit, wot, &c. under, when they follow the consonant. Having said thus much concerning the

The vowels are always reckoned from nature and use of the vowel points, we the beginning of the consonant. When, will proceed to give some further directherefore, any inclined consonantis begun tions relative to the form and proportion at the bottom of the short-hand line, and of the short-hand characters; the various written upwards, the vowels are always ways of joining the curvilineal ones with counted from the bottom, on each side of the greatest ease and elegance ; together the character, upwards. A due attention with some rules, designed to obviate a to the manner of placing the vowel points, few apparent difficulties which may be in the cases of curved or semicircular let. supposed to occur, more or less, to every ters, as it is exhibited in the annexed learner of short-hand. plate, will explain the matter, beyond the 1. All the perpendicular and inclined possibility of misconception or embarrass. letters are made to touch, as it were, two

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