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from Italy, which was certainly an advaná dominions, and for rendering more effectage to the manufacture. China silk being tual the act passed in 1763 for prohibitof a quality peculiarly adapted to several ing other articles. For the encouragepurposes, particularly in the gauze branch, ment of the throwing part of this manu. wbich, at one time consumed a large pro. facture, an act was likewise passed in portion of it, though it has since become 1765, for reducing the duties then payinconsiderable. By the act just mention- able on the importation of raw silk, for ed, the East India Company were ena- allowing a drawback on the exportation bled to increase with advantage their im- of raw and thrown silk to Ireland, and for port of silk, which at that time was not prohibiting the exportation of raw silk very considerable, raw silk being still from Ireland. In the next year an act principally brought from Turkey.
was passed to prohibit the importation of
foreign manufactured silks and velvets, Total quantity of raw silk imported into and for preventing unlawful combinations Great Britain in the year 1750. of workmen employed in the silk manu
facture; the preamble to the act stated, From Flanders · ... 1,407 lbs. that great quantities of foreign wrought
Spain and Portugal - 2,564 silks and velvets were daily brought into
Towards the end of the year 1767, it 231,959 was determined, that all future court
mournings should be shortened to one
half of the time which had been usually In 1763, an act was passed for render. observed. This was considered particular. ing more effectual the act of 19 Henry ly beneficial to the silk manufaciure, and Vi. by imposing fines on the importers the Weavers' Company presented an ador venders of the articles therein prohi. dress to his Majesty on the occasion, in bited, in addition to the forfeiture of the which they assured him that his benevogoods. This measure, though it might in lent resolution would " greatly promote some degree check the introduction of the silk manufactures of this kingdom, foreign articles, was by no means ade. give great spirit to the trade, tend to the quate to the object it had in view, as the improvement of it in many branches, and importation still continued, which, from be the means of giving constant einploy. the jealousy and discontent it excited ment to the workmen, many of whom, among the workmen in this manufacture, owing to the late mournings, have been appeared likely, in the beginning of the out of employ, and in want of bread.” year 1765, to be attended with serious They also expressed their obligations to consequences. The journeymen weavers the Queen and the rest of the royal fa. and others connected with the trade, who mily, for their patronage and encourage. conceived themselves injured by the com- ment of the silk manufacture. An ad. mon use of French silks, assembled in dress was likewise presented on the same Spitalfields and Moorfields by beat of occasion, signed by all the principal mer. drum, in order to petition Parliament for chants, manufacturers and others conredress by a total prohibition of such arti. nected with the silk trade. cles, and from thence proceeded in dif. The journeymen weavers, probably, ferent bodies to St. James's and West. supposing that, by their combination and minster Hall. This disposition, and the riotous proceedings a few years before, report that the weavers in the inland they had obtained the exclusion of fotowns were coming to London to join reign silks, now adopted the same mode their distressed brethren, excited consi. for obtaining an advance in the prices derable alarm; they were, however, pre paid for workmanship, which being resist. vented from committing any great out. ed by their employers, the men proceed. rage, and finally appeased, by a seasoned to the most disgracefulacts of violence able subscription for their relief, and an and atrocity, associating together under association among the principal mercers the name of cutters, and going about in to recall all the orders they had given for parties at night, disguised and armed with foreign manufactures. An act was also pistols, cutlasses, and other weapons ; passed, prohibiting the importation of fo. breaking into the houses of those work. reign manufactured silk 'stockings and men who did not join them, but fol. gloves into Great Britain and the British lowed their employ as usual, and sutting to pieces and destroying all the continuing the allowance of drawback on silk they found in the looms of such exportation. workmen. The value of the silks thus The continual frauds committed by the destroyed was very considerable ; and, in different classes of persons employed in some instances, they ill-treated or mur. this manufacture, by purloining part of dered those whom they found at work. the silk entrusted to them, and resorting Several were brought to justice ; but it to various expedients for increasing the was a considerable time before this law. weight of the remainder, which frequentless disposition entirely subsided. In a ly rendered the part stolen but a small dispute between masters and workmen, part of their employer's loss; and the respecting pay, the opposite interests of difficulty of convicting the persons who the parties must always render it difficult encouraged these practices by purchasto come to an amicable adjustment, and, ing the stolen silk, caused an act to be after various attempts in this instance, an passed in 1792, by which, persons buying act was passed in 1773, to authorize the or receiving, in any manner, silk, from magistrates of the cities of London and those employed to work it up, knowing Westminster, the county of Middlesex, them to be so employed, and not having and the liberty of the Tower, to settle the consent of the employer, are liable the pay of the workmen in the different to punishment by fine, imprisonment, or branches of this manufacture, in their re. whipping, although no proof should be spective districts.
given upon the trial, to whom the silk On the extension of the war in 1779.
In thie year 1793, this manufacture was much inconvenience was experienced from the want of a sufficient supply of
affected more, perhaps, than any other, Italian thrown silk, caused in a great
by the general commercial distress which measure by an act of 2 William and Ma.
then prevailed. The merchants, and parry, by which the importation of Italian
ticularly the East India Company, had thrown silk was prohibited, unless im
large quantities of silk in their ware
houses and the manufacturers were over. ported according to the Navigation Act, and directly by sea, from some of the
stocked with goods, which brought the ports of the country of its growth or pro.
trade into a state of almost complete stag. duction: this regulation was therefore
nation, by which most of the workmen ennow suspended, and organzine silk, of 898
of gaged in it were thrown out of employ, the growth or production of Italy, was a
and experienced great distress. A public permitted to be imported from any port
subscription was opened for their relief, or place, or in any ships or vessels what.
and very liberally supported, from which
the unemployed workmen and their fasoever. In consequence of this permis. sion, the silks of Italy were brought to
milies were supplied with bread; and England by a circuitous route over land,
when, from the approach of winter, their and imported from Ostend and other
necessities increased, their relief was ex. ports of Flanders, till the peace. At a
tended to other essential articles. By the period of the war, when the falling-off of
report of the committee who superintendthe silk trade was very considerable, Mr.
ed the distribution, it appeared that there John Callaway, of Canterbury, fortunate.
were given away 795 chaldrons of coals, ly introduced a new article, which afford.
583 pair of blankets, and in bread 121,741
quartern loaves. It was considered as a ed employment to many hands. It was called Canterbury muslin, by which name
moderate computation, that 5,000 persons it is still known, and many elegant varie.
were totally unemployed, and that 5,000
more were only about half employed. ties having been produced : it gives employment to many hundred persons in
In the course of the succeeding three London and elsewhere.
or four years, the manufacture recovered
its usual activity, and in the year 1798 As the prohibition of the importation was in a more fourishing situation than of foreign manufactured silks did not ex. it had been in for several years previous. tend to Italian crapes and tiffanies, which In the following year, the revival of vel. were permitted to be imported under a vets, as an article of female dress, proved heavy duty, it was thought proper, in very favourable to the workmen, as it ren1791, in consequence of improvements dered the employment of a greater num. in the manufacture of these articles, to ber of hands necessary; and in 1800, few restrict this permission, by prohibiting persons in this line were out of employ, the importation of silk crapes and tiffa. although the trade was somewhat checknies, of the manufacture of Italy, unless ed by a considerable advance in the prices brought directly from thence, and by dis- of raw and thrown silks.
TOTAL QUANTITI OF SILK UPORTED INTO GREAT BRITAIX,
1302 .. 111,737 .. 75,588 .. 372,404 .. 396,210 .. 955,9.99 1303 . . 405,621 .. 74 5.18 .. 323,630 ... 384,764 .. 1,138,567 1804 .. 694.878 .. 90,362 .. 317,141 .. 449,182 .. 1,481,56 1805 . . 844,659 .. 72,041 .. 267,850 .. 433,272 .. 1,617,822
The annual quantity imported on an not easily removed. If the liquor is preaverage of the above years, is 1,251,629 viously saturated with potash, and evapounds, from which deducting 79,206 porated, another yellow silky salt sepa. pounds, the average quantity of raw and rates, which detonates on coals like comihrown silk imported during the above mon nitre, and appears to be a triple comperiod, it leaves 1,172,423 pounds for the bination of the former bitter substance quantity consumed in the manufacture, with nitrate of potash. llence it appears, that the total annual SILPHA, in natural history, the carrion value of this manufacture must be about bretle. Antennæ clavate ; the club perfo. 3,510.0001. of which but a small propor- liate: shells margined; head prominent; tion is destined for exportation, the total thorax somewhat flattened, margined. annual value exported being about There are about 140 species, divided into 700,0001; more than half of which goes sections. A. Lip dilated, bifid; jaw-oneto America. During the year 1808, the tooiher. B. Lip rounded, entire; jaw
and at the same time the interruption of bifil. D. Lip emarginate, conic; jaw bifid. commercialintercourse with the continent E. Lip heart-shaped, emarginate, crenate. of Europe stopped, for a considerable F. Lip square, emarginate. G. Lip long, time, the risual supply of silk from Italy; entire; antenne serrate. H. Lip and jaw from which circumstances, the manufac. unknown. The insects of this gemus are ture was brought into a very unprece. usually found among decaying animal and dented situation, silk being sold in Lon- vegetable substances; frequenting dungdon at prices far greater than had ever hills, carrion, &c. and deposit their eggs been given before, while many of the chiefly in the latter. The larvæ are of a masters were obliged to discharge the lengthened shape, roughened with mi. principal part of their workmen, from the nute spines and protuberances. S. vespil. demand for silk goods having, for a time, lo is the most remarkable among Europe. almost entirely ceased. These tempora- an species: this is not uncommon in our re embarrassments all manufacturers are own country. The animal is about three. liable to, particularly such as, like this, quarters of an inch long, and is distin. depend on other countries for their mate. guished by having the wing-sheaths conrials.
siderably shorter than the abdomen. It Suk, in chemistry, in its natural state, seeks some decaying animal substance, in contains a kind of yellow resinous mat. which it may deposit its eggs, and for the ter, which gives its fine golden colour. greater security contrives to bury it When raw silk is infi:sed in water, a under ground. Sometimes three or four portion of gummy matter is dissolved, insects, working in concert, have been and a light amber.coloured liquor is pro. knoirn to drag under the surface the boduced. Alcohol extracts a much deeper dy of a mole in the space of an hour, so yellow, and makes a tincture that loses that no trace of it has appeared above none of its colour by long exposure to the ground: the eggs are white and oval : sun-beams, which bleaches the silk itself. from these are hatched the larvæ, which, Nitrous acid acts powerfully on silk; but, when full grown, are more than an inch when concentrated nitric acid is distilled long. Each larvæ forms for itself an oval off silk, and the remaining liquor duly cell in the ground, in which it changes to evaporated, much oxalic acid is obtained; a yellowish chrysalis, resembling that of and the residue, if evaporated, still fur a beetle, out of which, in somewhat less ther yields, with the remaining oxalic than three weeks, proceeds the perfect acid, a quantity of yellow, granular crys. insect. This species diffuses a strong tals, extremely bitter, not acid, and stain. and unpleasant smell; it flies with coning the saliva and hands of a deep yellow, siderable strength and rapidity, and is generally seen on the wing during the bot. cubes, octahedrons with angular facets, test part of the day.
or sometimes in the form of the dodecaSILPHIUM, in botany a genus of the bedron. Syngenesia Polygamia Necessaria class4. The sulphurated oxide of silver and and order. Natural order of Compositæ antimony. In this ore of silver the sul. Oppositifoliæ. Corymbiferæ, Jassieu.- phur is combined with the metal in this Essential character: calyx squarrose; state of oxide; in the former, in the mcseed down, margined, two-horned; re tallic state. This ore is called red silver ceptacle chaffy. There are eight spe. ore. It is of a deep red colour, some. cies.
times transparent, and sometimes nearly SILVER, which is divided by mineralo. opaque, frequently having the lustre of gists into three species, the native, anti- steel on the surface. The primitive forin monial, and the arsenical, has been rec. of its crystals is the rhomboidal dodecakored among the noble or perfect me. hedron. tals, and has been known from the earliest 5. The muriate of silver, which has ages of the world. Its scarcity, beauty, been long known to mineralogists by the and utility, have always rendered it an name of corncous silver, is found in irre. object of research among mankind, so gular masses, of a greyish colour, frethat the nature and properties of this me- quently opaque, but sometimes semital have been long studied and minutely transparent. It is soft, and very fusible. investigated. In the midst of the rage Native silver is generally found in irrefor the transmutation of metals, which for gular shapes; sometimes in masses of no centuries fired the imaginations of the al. determined form, sometimes branched, chymists, silver occupied a great share of occasionally in capillary filaments, and their attention and labour, with the hope not uncominonly in leaves. Thus it apof discovering the means of converting pears in most mines, and particularly in the baser and more abundant metals into those of Siberia, where Patrin tells us lie this, which is more highly valued on ac- never met with it crystallized. It is found count of its scarcity and durability. When in the mines of Peru in a vegetable form, the dawn of science commenced, and its imitating the leaves of fern. This variety light bad dissipated the follies and extra of figure in native silver is occasioned by vagances of these pursuits, the earliest a vast number of little eight-sided crys. chemists were much employed in examin. tals, so disposed upon each other as to ing the properties and combinations of give the whole the appearance of a vege. silver; nor has it been overlooked or ne table. The curved cylindrical filaments. glected by the moderns. Silver, wbich is in which form silver is sometimes found, neither in such abundance nor so univer are of various sizes, from the thickness sally diffused as many other metals, exists of a finger, to the diminutive size of a in nature in five different states; in the hair. Native silver, as we have observed, native state ; in that of alloy with other is seldom found pure, but is generally metals, especially with antimony; in that mixed with other metals; such as gold, of sulphuret, sulphurated oxide, muriate, copper, mercury, iron, lead, &c. This and carbonate,
last metal almost always contains a por. 1. Native silver, which is characterized tion of silver, though frequently so sinall by its ductility and specific gravity. is fre as not to be worth the expense of sepa. quently tarnished on the surface, ofa, rey rating it. In the reign of Edward the or blackish colour, and appears under'a First nearly 1600 pounds weight of silgreat variety of forms. In this state it is ver were obtained, in the course of three zot perfectly pure. It is lisually alloyed years, from a mine in Devonshire, which with a little gold or copper.
had been discovered about the year 900. 2. The alloy of silver and antimony, The lead mines in Cardiganshire have, at which is the most frequent, is distinguish- different periods, afforded great quantied by its brittleness and lamellated struc. ties of silver. Sir Hugh Middleton is ture from native silver, which it resembles said to have cleared from them 2000 in lustre and colour It crystallizes in pounds in a month. The same mines prisms, which are six-sided, and pretty yielded, about the year 1745, eighty regular.
Ounces of silver out of every ton of lead. 3. The sulphuret of silver, which is the lead orcs from Brunghill and Skeknown to mineralogists by the name of korn produced also a considerable quanvitreous silver ore, is of a dark grey co. titv of silver. The lead ovly, in one of lour, and has some metallic lustre. It the smelting houses at Holywell, in Flintis usu ally crystallized in the form of shire, produced no less than $1,521 ounces, or 31263 pounds of silver, from quartz, mixed with fine blackish mica, or the year 1754 to 1776. “There are else consists of ferruginons rock. These some lead ores in this country.” says Dr. beds are of very considerable thickness, Watson, “which, though very poor in and contain a great quantity of native as lead, contain between three and four hun. well as of mineralized silver. The veins dred ounces of silver in a ton of that me. are richer in mineral, and their produce tal. It is commonly observed, that the more considerable, where they traverse poorest lead-ores yield the most silver, so the beds of ferruginous rock, than in any that a large quantity of silver is probably other part. The most remarkable mine thrown away in England, from not hav. of silver in Spain is that of Guadalcanal, ing the poorest sort of lead-ores properly in Andalusia, which was formerly very assayed."
rich, and well known to the Romans. It silver in its mineral state occurs mas. is situated in the Sierra Morena, or black sive, disseminated, in blunt cornered mountain, on the confines of Andalusia piece, in plates, and in membranes : it is and! Estremadura, fifteen leagues to the said to occur also in Spanish America in north of Seville, and several miles to the rolled pieces. Its crystallizations are very north-east of the famous quicksilver mine various, as the cube, octahedron, prism, at Ald Almaden. The mineral obtained pyramidal, &c. : the crystals are small and here is the ruby silver ore. But it is in microscopic. It is chiefly found in primi. the centre of the Andes, in situations tive earths, especially in those which are which though immediately exposed to depositied in beds, though it is not confin. the perpendicular rays of thc suin, are ed to these alone. It is very rarely met constantly covered with snow, that nawith in granite, but not uncommonly in ture has most abundantly distributed this the fissures of micaceous rocks, and in metal. In twenty degrees of southern la. other places of a similar nature, but of titude, within the torrid zone, we find the more recent formation. In the secondary famous mountain of Potosi, situated near earths silver often occurs, being found in the source of the Rio de la Plata. This chalk, slate, &c.; but almost always mi. mountain is one of the most considerable neralized by sulphur or arsenic. It is a in Peru; its height is immense ; and it singular fact, that the situations of gold appears, from the description of travel. and silver mines should often be diane lers, that from top to bottom it is full of trically opposite in point of tempera. veins of silver. When these mines were ture. Gold is common in the hottest first discovered, in the year 1545, the parts of the earth, while we generally veins were so rich as to be almost entirely find silver mines in the cold regions. composed of silver without any mixture. Thus, the chief parts of the world where At present, however, the produce is very silver is to be met with are, Sweden, different, scarcely more than five drachms Norway, and the higher latitudes near being obtained from a hundred weight of the pole: if we find it in hot climates, it ore ; still, from the great abundance of is seldom on level ground; but, on the mineral, the produce is very considercortrary, raised to a great height, to- able. According to the observations of wards the tops of mountains that are per- several Spanish naturalists, the mountain petually covered with ice and snow. It of Potosi alone, from the time it was first is thus situated in the Alpine mountains discovered, in 1545, till the year 1638, of Europe and America; and such are that is, in the space of ninety-three years, the mines of Allemont in France, and yielded four hundred millions of pesos, those of Potosi in the Andes. The prin. or ounces of silver. cipal silver mine in Europe is that of Ko. The analysis of silver varies accord. nigsberg, in Norway, to the north of ing to its nature and combinations. NaChristiana. This is the richest, the tive silver, after being broken down and most important, and one of the most sin. washed, is rubbed with liquid mercury, gular mines in that quarter of the globe. which by strong trituration dissolves and The district in which it is situated is combines with ibe silver. This amalgam mountainous; and the mines are divided is subjected to pressure, to separate, the into superior and inferior, on account of excess of mercury. It is then distilled, their relative position. The earth is com- and afterwards beated in a crucible to posed of beds nearly in a vertical posi. volatilize the mercury, and the silver tion, and running from north to south. remains pure. When silver is combined Some are composed of quartz mixed with antimony and sulphur, the ore is with mica, of granite and of chalk: to be strongly roasted, to separate the while others are formed of whitish-grey antimony or sulpbur. It is then melted