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Now, as these lines are parallel to the of the post, on the half breadth plan, and keel, they will be shown by straight lines the water line ends, intersecting the parallel to each other across the body back of the arch, and a line squared out plan; otherwise, were they inclined lines from the back of the water line, to cut the in the sheer plan, they would form curves half siding of the post, would show the at their heights in the body plan; but in thickness of the bottom plank in that dieither case they form curves in the half rection. Proceed to complete the fore breadth plan, limiting the half breadth of part of the upper water line, with a 35 the ship at the height of their correspond. feet 6 inches radius, and ending of it ing lines in the sheer plan ; and these be similar as the main half breadth was; and, ing the lines we are now about to repre. for the centre of the radius, draw an ho. sent, let their formation forward and aft rizontal line at 11 feet 6 inches, under the be very nicely considered, for it is easy middle line of the half breadth plan, with to conceive, as they approach the keel, the above radius extended from the half and finish into the stem and stern-post, or breadih, or spot, given at timber S, gives vanish there, we may say they must taper the centre, where it cuts the line last very suddenly at those places, yet let pot drawrt; then sweeping an arch from S to their form partake of hollow concave in the rabbit, will complete the upper wa. flected curves but as little as possible, ter line. and not at all forward, as it has been prov. Proceed to set off the several half ed a mistaken notion of giving velocity. breadths and endings of the fourth water Proceed then, as before directed, to set line as before ; set up at S, 16 feet 8 inchoff on each corresponding timber from (s; at 0, 21 feet; at K, 22 feet 5 inches; the middle line of the half breadth plan at F, 22 feet 10 inches; at 0, 23 feet; the following half breadths : and first, for at 6, 22 feet 114 inches ; at 12, 22 feet 10 the upper, or fifth water line, set off at inches ; at 18, 22 feet 2 inches; at 24, 20 S, 19 feet; at 0, 22 feet 7 inches; at K, feet 8 inches ; at 30,16 feet 8 inches; and 23 feet 6 inches; at F, 23 feet 10 inches; at 36, 2 feet 11 inches. To sweep the at , 23 feet 11 inches ; at 6, 23 feet 11 fore part, draw a line under the middle inches. Observe, between 6 and F the line, in the half breadth plan, and paralwater lines are kept parallel, or nearly so, lel to it, at 21 feet 9 inches; then with a to the main half breadth line : set off at radius of 47 feet, from the half breadth at 12, 23 feet 10 inches ; at 18, 23 feet 4 S, sweep in the fore part to the rabbit, as inches ; at 24, 22 feet 3 inches; at 30, 19 the paper on which the draught is drawn feet 7 inches; and at 36, 8 feet 5 inches. will not extend so low as this; in this case Now, to end the aft part correctly, square of sweeping in the fore part of half down, from the nearest perpendicular, breadth lines, an additional sheet is placed where the aft-side of the rabbit of the underneath for this purpose. Ending of post is cut by the fifth or upper water the water lines being all the same abaft, line, in the sheer plan, down to the mid. refer to the ending of the upper water dle line, of the half breadth plan, from line. whence square up a line, on which set Proceed to set of the several half up the half thickness of the stern-post breadths and endings of the third water from the body plan; but, in order to do line ; at S, 12 feet 4 inches ; at 0,15 feet this, set off the half thickness of the stern. 8 inches; at K, 20 feet 3 inches; at F, 21 post from the middle line, in the after body feet; at 9, 21 feet 5 inches ; at 6, 21 feet plan, thus: set off 11 inches at the head, 41 inches; at 12, 21 feet 1 inch ; at 18, and continue it parallel to the middle 20 feet 3 inches; at 24, 18 feet : at 30, 12 line as low down as the deck transom, feet; and at 36,1 foot 5 inches. We must which is 2 feet 2 inches below the upper here remark, that, to complete this line side of the wing transom; from thence it forward with an arch, the radius would is to taper with a straight line, to 7 be too long for practice ; it must there. inches on the upper side of the keel. fore be finished by a mould or thin bat. Then the half thickness of the post may ten. be taken at each water line, in the body Proceed to set off the several half plan, and set up from the middle line in breadths and endings of the second wathe lialt breadth plan to its correspond. ter line. Set up al S, 7 feet 3 inches; at ing ending, as squared down from the 0, 13 feet 6 inches; at K, 17 feet 2 inchsheer plan, where the water lines inter- es; at F, 18 feet 11 inches; at , 19 feet sect the aft side of the rabbit on the stern 3 inches; at 6, 19 feet 24 inches; at 12, post; then, with a radius of 4 inches, 18 feet 11 inches ; at 18, 17 feet 8 inchsweep an arch within the half thickness es; at 24, 14 feet 2 inches; at 30, 6 feet? inches; and at 36, 8 inches; draw it as the But it may be necessary here just to last.

describe to our readers what is meant by Lastly, for the first or lower water line: the term fair, as it often occurs in the forset up at s, 3 feet; at 0, 8 feet ; at K, 12 mation of the several lines; which is, that feet 6 mches; at F, 15 feet 3 inches; at all the lines should please the eye, bav.

, 16 feet 2 inches; at 6, 16 feet 1 inch; ing no inequalities, but produce a beau. at 12, 15 feet 3 inches; at 18, 12 feet 04 tifulline, (one sense of the word fair,) and inch ; at 14,7 feet; at 30,2 feet 1 inch, this is not an incongruous term, for Ho. and at 36, 4 inches.

garth calls a curve, or serpentine line, the Now, all the water lines being drawn line of beauty, of which no architecture in the half breadth plan, and their deli. has such a variety as that of a ship. cacy of shape, if we may so term it, well Now complete the top sides, or upper examined, we may proceed to show whe- part of the body and sheer plan, above ther they will likewise make fair timbers the lower height of breadth. Thus, set in the body plan : thus transfer the seven off the upper height of breadth, in the ral half breadths of the water lines, as sheer plan: at S, 25 feet 10 inches; at 0, taken at , and set them off from the 24 feet 6 inches; at K, 23 feet 10 inches; middle line, on their corresponding wa. at F, 23 feet 5 inches; at , 23 feet 4 ter lines, in the fore body plan, which inches; at 6, 23 feet 4 inches; at 12, 23 will be found to answer with the shape feet 44 inches ; at 18, 23 feet 6 inches; at of , already drawn; then proceed in 24, 24 feet 1 inch; at 30, 25 feet; and at the same manner with the other timbers 36, 27 feet 1 inch; and at the after perbefore , drawing curves through the pendicular 28 feet 3 inches. Then, by several half breadths, and ending them at drawing a curve through those heights the keel to the inside of the rabbit ; but as intersecting the lower height of breadth, timber S comes upon the stem in the forward and aft, the upper height of sheer plan, the keeling will also come on breadth line will be represented. Then the stem in the body plan; therefore its transfer these heights from the sheer to height must be taken above the line, at the body plan, and thereat draw horizonthe upper edge of the rabbit, as conti. tal lines across the body plan, then square nued before the stem, to where timber up the several timbers from the lower to S intersects the fore side of the rabbit on the upper height of breadth, as between the stem, and transfer that height to the those beights the timbers are straight, fore body plan, to intersect the half and of one breadth. Then, with a 15 feet thickness of the stem above the base line, radius, called the length of the upper or upper edge of the rabbit; in midships breadth sweep, draw arches upwards, then, with a radius of 4 inches, sweep an from the breadth squared up, and at that arch from that height within the half centre in each upper breadth line. Draw thickness of the stem, then a line drawn in the sheer plan the top-timber line, for through the several half breadths of s, it is at this height that the top side is li. and ending over the back of the arch, at mited to a certain breadth, called the the keeling timber, S will be drawn; and, top-timber breadth. Set up above the to complete the keel, draw a square line upper edge of the keel, in the sheer plan, from the back of the timber, to intersect at timber S, 37 feet 3 inches ; at 0, 36 the height of the keeling at the half feet 9 inches; at K, 36 feet 1 inch; at F, thickness of the stem, and the timber S 35 feet 8 inches; at 0, 35 feet 6 inches; will be complete below the breadth. at 6, 35 feet 9 inches; at 12, 36 feet 4 Thus, having the perpendicular fore and inches; at 18, 36 feet 11 inches; at 24, aft appearance of the several timbers in 37 feet 10 inches; at 30, 38 feet 10 inchthe fore body, they may now be strictly es; and at 36, 40 feet. Draw a curve examined, and any unfairness readily through these heights, and that will be pointed out; again, as a further proof, the top-timber line in the sheer plan. square up perpendicular lines close for. Then set off the several top-timber half ward, about 2 feet asunder, or less, (the breadths, in the half breadth plan, by same may be done close aft hereafter, setting up at S, 20 feet 4 inches; at 0, for the proof of the fairness of the water 21 feet; at K, 21 feet 11 inches; at F, 22 lines abaft,) then transfer the several half feet; at @, 22 feet 2 inches; at 6, 22 feet breadths, as before, from the half breadth 14 inch; at 12, 22 feet; at 18, 21 feet 7 to the body plan, and if they make hand- inches; at 24, 20 feet 8 inches; at 30, 18 some curves in the body plan, when feet 10 inches ; at 36, 16 feet; and at the drawn, the water lines may be said to be after end, 12 feet; and at the fore end, constructed with exactness.

or beak head, 17 feet. Draw a curve VOL. XI.

through these several half breadths, and to their corresponding timbers in the half the top-timber half breadth will be re- breadth plan, and if curves drawn through presented. Transfer the several heights those breadths should prove fair, the of the top-timber line from the sheer to top-side is rightly constructed ; if otherthe body plan, and at those heights draw wise, each must be altered until they horizontal lines; then from the half agree. breadth plan transfer the several top-tim. What remains to be described relates ber half breadths, and set them off from equally to both the fore and after bodies; the middle line in the body plan upon for their being thus far completed, we their corresponding heights; then with a have an opportunity of shifting the sevemould, about three inches curve, (called ral timbers to the various lengths that the top-timber hollow,) fixed well at the compose them from the keel upwards, top-timber half breadth, and back of the such as the floors, futtocks, and top-tim. upper sweep, at , draw a line to the bers. First, the length of the floors for a top of the side, and on the midship ship of this magnitude is 26 feet long at timber will be found froin the keel to the , or midships, and the lengths of those gunwale.

forward and aft may be determined by a Make a mould to , from the upper diagonal line thus drawn in the body breadth upwards, some length above the plan; set up the middle line above the gunwale, by which mould most of the upper edge of the keel 14 feet 6 inches, timbers in the top-side may be drawn, by and on the base line, 14 feet on each side keeping them nearly parallel to each the middle line, draw lines to those spots, other, by so fixing the mould as to inter- and the length of each floor is limited be. sect the upper breadth sweep and top tween those lines. Then, to determine timber half breadth. But observe, the the heads or lengths of the lower or first top.timbers, as they approach the back. futtocks, set up the middle as before 22 lead in the fore body, they flair out, or feet 10 inches, and along the base line on curve the reverse of the midship timbers, each side 24 feet, drawing diagonal lines and considerably so in ships with a beak as for the floors, and the length of the head; this not only gives more room on lower futtocks are limited from the side the forecastle, but assists the cat-heads to of the keel to the diagonal line at their cull the anchors clearer of the bow, and heads. Then, for the lengths of the sethis fairing, though much less in other cond futtocks, set up the middle line 28 ships, has a tendency to keep off the feet 8 inches, and up each side line from spray of the sea, and make a dry fore the base 10 feet, and draw the diagonals castle.

and the lengths of the second futtocks as Above the top-timber line in this ship, limited from their junction at the floorand sometimes at the plank sheer in head, called the heel, to the diagonal last others, the top-side is perpendicular; con. drawn or head. Then, for the lengths of sequently an angle, called the knuckle, the third futtocks, set up the middle line is formed at the intersection, and as many 34 feet 8 inches, and up each side 18 feet of the foremost timbers as partake of this 5 inches; then diagonals, when drawn to shape, before they can be broken in fair these spots, will limit the length of the with the others, are called knuckle tim. third futtocks from its beel at the first bers.

head. The fourth futtocks, when they Forward and aft to the top-sides run can be gotten, are in one length from the higher than the top-timber line, set up second futtock head to the top of the their greatest heights to prove that their side, and the top-timbers from the third breadths at that place may make a fair futtock head to the top of the side. line in the half breadth plan. Set up The heads of the timbers being shown from F to forward, in the sheer plan, 2 in the body plan, direct the stations for feet 10 inches above, and draw a line pa. the ribbands thus : place the floor ribband rallel to the top-timber line; and from 12 about 20 inches below the floor head, to 24, in the after body, 4 feet 6 inches; and parallel thereto; then the next or and from 24, quite aft, 6 feet 6 inches; first futtock ribband about midway bethese risings above the gunwale, or the tween the Aoor and first futtock heads, midships, are called drafts. Transfer and so with the others, keeping their those heights from the sheer plan to in. heights forward and aft, the most conve. tersect their corresponding timbers in nient for supporting the heads and heels the body plan, as they are then limited of the timbers, before they need be disby curves parallel to the top-timber line; turbed by working the planks outside. then transfer their several half breadths Now these are called the ribband lines,

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and only appear as diagonal lines in the fore ; now draw a curve line through all body plan, but they take their names the half breadths, and intersecting the from the ribbands, which are pieces of back of each arch, the ribband line at the oak or fir timber, about 6 inches square, floor head will be represented in the the longer the better; but those close for- balf breadth plan. In the same manner ward and aft are called harpins, and are all the ribband lines may be represented. trimmed by moulds and bevellings to the These lines will also prove the fairness form of the ship at those places. Rib- of the bodies, but horizontal water lines band lines form curves on a ship's bottom should always have the preference, as by the intersection of a plane inclined, they cut the body in a more acute direcor canted, as shipwrights term it, to the tion, and its unfairness would be more plane of elevation, and their curves on the readily discovered, for it is possible to half breadth plan are denominated by have fair ribband lines to appearance, them canted, or level, according as their and the body itself remain unfair. several half breadths are taken off from Hitherto the timbers have only been the body plan, whether diagonally, or in considered as perpendicular to the upper a direction square from the middle line, side of the keel, and square from the which is a level or perpendicular to the plane of elevation, or sheer plan, and plan of elevation; and although they hence called square timbers. But forward agree in one and the same line on the and aft, in the turn of the body, they are ship's bottom, they represent very differ. canted, that is, they incline aft towards the ent curves in the half breadth plan. middle line in the fore body, and forward

Draw the ribband line at the floor head, in the after body, in the half breadth plan, in the half breadth plan, by taking these or form obtuse angles to the plane of ele. several half breadths from the middle line vation; the utility of this is to straigthen of the body plan, in the direction of the the form of the timbers, and reduce the ribband line; thus we shall find , 16 bevellings, both highly essential in the feet; F, 15 feet 1 inch; K, 13 feet 11 conversion. Now to determine the situinches; 0, 10 feet 4 inches ; and S, 8 feet ation of the cant timbers in the fore body, 6inches ; in the fore body; and 6, 15 feet the foremost cant timber, which is Y, 9 inches ; 12, 15 feet 1 inch ; 18, 14 feet; should be so canted as to stand as square 24, 11 feet 7 inches ; 30,7 feet 6 inches; with the main breadth line as possible, and 36, 1 foot 11) inches. Then set up therefore it will be on that line before timthese several half breadths on their cor- ber S, 15 feet 2 inches on a straight line, responding timbers from the middle line and at the side of the deadwood, which is in the half breadth plan ; but what their 8 inches from, and parallel to, the middle endings differ from the water lines we line of the half breadth plan, 4 feet 10 inwill next explain. Take the height ches before S; then the after cant timber, where the diagonal line, or ribband, cuts which is P, is before 0 at the main the half thickness of the stem in the body breadth, 2 feet 9 inches, and at the side plan, and transfer that height to inter of the deadwood, 2 feet 4 inches; draw sect the fore side of the rabbit of the straight lines to those spots, and the cant stem in the sheer plan, from whence of the foremost cant timber Y, and the square down the fore side of the rabbit to after one P, will be represented on the the middle line in the half breadth plan, half breadth plan, the intermediate ones, and then square up a line; then take the which are 7, may be drawn by equally ti. half thickness of the stem from the mid. viding them at the deadwood, between dle line in the body plan, in the direction those already drawn, to where they shall of the ribband line, and set it up from intersect their respective square timbers, the middle line in the half breadih plan at the main breadth line, as here they reon the line last drawn; then with com. main at the same station, unless they are passes take the breadth of the rabbit in moved to make the side of a port. the direction of the ribband line, in the Tbe cant timbers in the after body may body plan, and sweep an arch from the next be described in the half breadth plan, half thickness of the stem, in the half in order to which the cant of the fashion. breadth plan, and the back of the arch piece, or after timber, must first be deter. will be its ending forward ; the ending mined, observing, as in the fore body, io abaft is so nearly the same, only that the let it cant as nearly as possible square heights are taken up the half thickness from the body at that place. Now, as the of the post in the body plan, and trans fashion-piece comes against the fore side ferred to the aft side of the rabbit of the of the transoms, the wing transoms must post in the sheer plan; proceed as be- be drawn in the half breadth plan; thus

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set off from the middle line, in the half som at the fore side of the rabbit on the breadth plan at timber 36, 16 feet 6 inch. stern post, and the lower counter will be es, the half breadth of the wing transom, represented at the middle line; then set from thence level out a line aft, then, off abaft the aft-side of the wing transom from the sheer plan, square down the aft. 8 feet 10 inches, and square up a line to side of the wing transom at the post to the height of the upper counter, and their the middle line in the half breadth plan, intersection will be the knuckle of the and at the side, on to the line last levelled upper counter; then to the two knuckles out, then an arch drawn through these draw a curve about 2 inches hollow, and two spots, whose centre of radius is in the that will represent the upper counter. middle line, will represent the aft-side of Both counters being formed at the middle the wing transom. Then draw in a horizon- line, the upper part of the stern timber tal line, in the half breadth plan, from a must be thus finished; set up, as before, line at the side of the wing transom trans. 14 feet 7 inches, the height of the top-timferred from the sheer to the body plan, ber line aft, draw a horizontal line; then which is similar to a water line, then, from set off abaft the aft side of the wing tranthe aft-side of the transom, set forward som 11 feet, and square it up to the topupon the line last drawn, about 16 inches, timber line ; a straight line now drawn and that is the aft-side of the fashion-piece from the upper counter knuckle, and at that place : then let the heel of it, set. through the intersection at the top-timting off the half thickness of the dead. ber line, and the stern timber at the midwood as before, be set off before timber 36, dle line is complete. 6 feet 2 inches, a line drawn through those Then observe, as the stern in its breadth spots is the aft-side appearance of the cant rounds two ways, that is, both up and aft, fasbion-piece; then set off the cant of the the stern timber at the side will alter from foremost cant timber, which is 29, thus; that at the middle line, and must be thus abaft square timber 28, set off 2 feet 9 drawn : take the round top of the upper inches on the main breadth line, and 22 counter, which is 10 inches, and set it inches at the side of the deadwood, draw. below its knuckle at the middle timber in ing a line which will represent the fore the sheer plan, and draw an horizontal Inost cant timber, 29; then equally divide line; then take the round aft, which is 16 the heels of seven more on the deadwood inches, (on a level,) and set it forward between those already drawn, and like. from the knuckle of the middle timber, wise on the main breadth line, and the and square it down to the line last drawn, joints of all the cant timbers will be re. and where it intersects will be the knuckle presented in the half breadth plan. of the upper counter at the side. In

It was observed above, that the wing the same manner set down 8 inches for transom was limited by the aft-side of the the round-up, and forward 15 inches for fashion-piece, and so are all the other the round aft, and that will be the knuctransoms, unless to assist their conversion kle of the lower counter at the side ; then by shortening those below the deck tran). a curve being drawn, similar to that at the som, which are six in number, by intro. middle timber, from one knuckle to the ducing fashion-pieces abatt that already other, will form the upper counter at the described.

side : then, to finish the lower counter at Now to complete the sheer plan, let the side, set down 5 inches the round up, the stern timber or shape of the stern at below the upper side of the wing transom the aft-side be described thus; draw aft in the sheer plan, and draw an horizontal an borizontal line at the upper side of the line ; then take 7 inches, the round aft of wing transom at the post, and above it set the wing transom, and set it forward from up 4 feet, and draw another horizontal the aft-side of the wing transom upon its line, which will be the height of the lower upper side, and square it down to the line counter; then set up from the wing tran- last drawn, and the intersection will be som 7 feet 6 inches, drawing another ho. the aft-side of the side stern timber; then rizontal line, which will be the height of a curve drawn similar to that at the mid. the upper counter, then set off abaft the dle from the side lower counter knuckle aft-side of the wing transom 6 feet 10 to the aft-side last set off, will represent inches, and square it up the line at the the lower counter at the side. But as the height of the lower counter, and the in straight line for the upper part of the tersection with the knuckle of the lower side timber will not be parallel to that at counter; then, from the said knuckle, the middle, owing to the stern narrowing draw a curve line about 5 inches hollow, to upwards, its rake must be determined as intersect the upper side of the wing tran. follows; upon any straight line set off 26

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