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of the shell be 13 inches, and that of the nience would arise, that he should com. hollow sphere 9.5. Then the cube of 13 mand himself to execute his own preis 2197, and that of 9.5 is 857 557 ; the cepts. difference is 1339.625, its double is The sheriff has a jurisdiction both in 2679.25, wbichi, multiplied by 7, gives criminal and civil cases, and therefore he 18754.625; and cutting off two places in has two courts : his town court for criwhole numbers, the result is 187 lb. or minal causes, which is the King's court; 1 cwt, 2 grs. 21 lb., the weight of the the other in his county court, for civil shell.

causes, and this is the court of the sheriff Shell, a particular part of a sword, himself. When the new sheriff is appoint. which serves as a shield to the hand when ed and sworn, he ought, at or before the it grasps the hilt. The regulation sword, next county court, to deliver a writ of which is directed to be worn in a cross discharge to the old sherff, who is to set belt, has its shell so constructed, that one over all the prisoners in the gaol, severally sice can fall down, by which means the by their names, (together with all the hilt hangs more conveniently.

writs,) precisely, by view and indenture Shell, a short jacket without arms, between the two sheriffs; wherein must which was worn by lighi dragoons, and be comprehended all the actions which in some instances by the infantry, before the old sherifi' has against every prisoner, the new regulations took place respect. though the executions are of record; and ing the clotbing of the British army. At till the delivery of the prisoners to the the commencement of the present war, new sheriff, they remain in the custody of some militia colonels derived no incon. the old sheriff, notwithstanding the letters siderable emolument from this mode of patent of appointment, the writ of disdress

charge, and the writ of delivery. Neither SHELVES, in naval affairs, a general is the new sheriff obliged to receive the name given to any dangerous shallows, prisoners, but at the gaol; but the office sand-banks, or rocks, lying immediately of the old sheriff ceases when the writ of under the surface of of the water.

discharge is brought to him SHERARDIA, in botany, so named in By 3 Georgel.c. 15, it shall not be law. honour of William Sherard, L. L. D. con- ful for any person to buy, sell, let, or take sul at Smyrna, a genus of the Tetrandria to farm, the office of under sheriff, or de. Monogynia class and order. Natural or puty sheriff, or seal keeper, county clerk, der of Stellatæ. Rubiaceæ, Jussieu. Es. shire clerk, gaoler, bailiff, or any other sential character: corolla one-petalled, office pertaining to the office of high shefunnel-form, superior; seeds two, three riff, or to contract for any of the said oftoothed. There are three species. fices, on forfeiture of 500l.; one moiety to

SHERIFF. As keeper of the King's his Majesty, the other to such as shall sue peace, the sheriff is the first man in the in any court of Westminster, within two county, and superior in rank to any noble. years after the offence. man therein, during his office. He may Provided that nothing in this act shall apprehend and commit to prison all per prevent any high sheriff from constituting sons who break the peace, or attempt to an under sheriff, or deputy sheriff, as by break it, and may bind any one in a recog. law he may; nor to binder the under shenisance to keep the King's peace. He riff, in any case of the high sheriff's death, may, and is bound, ex officio, to pursue when he acts as high sheriff, from con. and take all traitors, murderers, felons, stituting a deputy ; nor to binder such and other misdoers, and commit them sheriff, or under sheriff, from receiving to gaol for safe custody. He is also to the lawful perquisites of his office, or for defend his country against any of the taking security for the due answering the King's enemies, when they come into the same ; nor to hinder such sheriff or under land; and for this purpose, as well as for sheriff, deputy sheriff, seal keeper, &c. keeping the peace and pursuing felons, from accounting to the high sheriff for all he may command all the people of bis such lawful fees as shall be by them takcounty to attend him, which is called the en, nor for giving security so to do; or to posse comitatus, or power of the county ; hinder the high sheriff from allowing a which summons every person above fif. salary to his under sheriff, &c. or other teen years of age, and under the degree officers And if any sheriff shall die beof a peer, is bound to attend, upon warn- fore the expiration of his year, or before ing, on pain of fine and imprisonment. he be superseded, the under sheriff shall Yet he cannot exercise the office of a jus. Nevertheless continue in his office, and tice of the peace ; for then tbis inconve- execute the same in the name of the de. ceased, till another sheriff be appointed three quarters of an inch thick at the butt. and sworn: and the under sheriff shall be Shingles are used as a covering to the answerable for the execution of the office roofs of houses, steeples, &c. ; laid and during such interval, as the bigh sheriff nailed on oak lath, beginning at the eaves, would have been; and the security given ascending the rafters, and lapping one by the under sheriff and his pledges shall another in successive courses, from five stand a security to the King, and all per to seven inches deep. sons whatsoever, for the performing his SHIP building. The man of science office during such interval.

and the practical shipwright have long laThere is no particular qualification in mented,'that in the theory of the art of lands required for the office of sheriff, ship-building there are so few fixed and but a sheriff cannot be elected to serve in positive principles established by demon. parliament for the county of which he is stration, or confirmed by practice ; thus sheriff. The under sheriff performs near the artist, being left to the exercise of his ly all the duties of the sherift. He is not own opinion, in general resists theoretito hold his office above one year, under cal propositions, however speciously the penalty of 2001. And no under she founded, so hard has it ever been found riff or bailiff shall practise as an attor. to overcome habitual prejudices. ney; but this is so openly evaded, that the great neglect of the theory of no person is appointed under sheriff ex. ship-building is much to be deplored in a cept an attorney.

country like this, where the practical SHIELD,an ancient weapon of defence, part is so well understood and executed. in the form of a light buckler, borne on Mathematics, engineering, and civil or the arm, to turn off lances, darts, &c. house architect, are sciences nourished

SATELD, in heraldry, the escuicheon and taught in our universities and other or field on which the bearings of coats of schools, and however superior scholars arms are placed.

may arrive in those arts, and celebrated

for their abilities, show them shipping SHILLING, an English silvercoin equal

lai draughts, or talk to them of the science to 12 pence, or the 20th part of a pound

of ship-building, and they appear as much sterling. This was a Saxon coin, being the

at a loss as though they had never heard 48th part of their pound weight. Its value

of such an art ; nevertheless, it may be at first was 5 pence; but it was reduced to

but justice to add, that some men of dif4 pence about a century before the con.

ferent professions have felt themselves quest. Afterthe conquest, the French soli.

interested in its progress to perfection, dus, of 12 pence, which was in use among

and lately we have seen the endeavours the Normans, was called by the English

of men conversant in the practical parts name of shilling; and the Saxon shilling of

of ship-building, publishing their ideas, four pence took a Norman name, and was

and this in hopes that gentlemen of more called the groat or great coin, because it

scientific abilities may be induced to add was the largest English coin then known

to their labours, and make the theory of in England. From this time the shilling

ship-building much more familiar in this underwent many alterations. In the time of Edward I. the pound troy was the

country, as few, very few, professional

shipwriglits have hitherto had it in their same as the pound sterling of silver, con.

power to employ their talents to improve sisting of 20 shillings; so that the shilling

this science by theory. weighed the 20th part of a pound, or more than half an ounce troy. But some

Ships are bodies, which, when to be put

in motion, have water for their resisting are of opinion there were no coins of this

force, and a contrary element, as air or denomination, till Henry VII. in the year

wind for their impelling force: therefore 1504, first coined silver piece of 12 pence

the theorist and practical ship-builder value, which we call shillings. Since the

should ever keep particularly in view to reign of Elizabeth, a shilling weighs the 620 part of a pound troy, or 3 dwis. 2017 Aoating bodies, and endeavour to gain a

improve himself in the knowledge of grs. the pound weight of silver making complete knowledge of the resistance of 62 shillings. And hence the ounce of sil. Auids; add to this aerostatics and mathe. ver is worth 58. 2d, or 51 shillings.

matics in general. Thus taught, the man SHINGLES, in building, are generally of practice would, though cautiously, add made of cedar, cypress, and oak stuff, the speculation of the theorist, as there is from one to three feet long, split into a great deal to be risked, and much to lengths from three to seven inches wide, be suffered; but could the ideas of the and shaved into the shape of a wedge, theorist and the man of practice be assi.

milated and well weighed together, much The length at the gun-deck in ships of benefit to the art of ship-building might war, or distance between the extreme be acquired, and their most useful ideas perpendiculars in merchant ships. be reduced to the test of experiment. The extreme breadth, which is the

When experience favours theory, then thickness of the bottom plank on each we arrive at the desired point; but the side, added to the moulded breadth, or difficulty and expense of accurately make broadest part of the ship in midships. ing a sufficient number of experiments Length of the keel for tonnage, which is a great hindrance to its assumption, results from the extreme breadth, and a

knowledge in this branch of science. Depth in hold, which must be always Notwithstanding these obstacles, many regulated by the properties required of opportunities offer of introducing well the vessel. digested theory, though cautiously and Burtben in tons, resulting from the by degrees, into the many various ships extreme breadth and length of the keel and vessels building in this kingdom ; and for tonnage, being multiplied into each thus we would hope, by the united ef- other by a rule given hereafter. forts of the theorist, ship-builder, and Now these are called the principal di. mariner, who should carefully notice and mensions, which we will endeavour to de. report every observation in his power of scribe, with their concomitant circumthe vessel acting in her various situations, stances, in their above order; and, first, that the different results being accurate the length on the gun-deck; this in ships Jy stated, desirable data may be reason of war must ever contain sufficient dis. ably established

tance between the perpendiculars for all It is well known that bodies of any the ports, and room between each port magnitude could not be built or put to. for working the guns, and what may be gether without designs or drawings on required at the extremities, such as the convenient scales, particularly that com. manger at the fore-part and abaft, room plex machine a ship; therefore an accu. for the after-port to come clear of the rate delineation of the whole vessel, with wing transom knee, &c. It will also ap. respect to its various lengths, heights, pear evident, that the distance between breadths, and depths, is carefully repre. each port in the clear must contain space sented by a drawing, called the sheer sufficient for two frame timbers and the draught, the construction of which, with filling timbers between, and the room or its several lines, &c. we shall endeavour openings between the timbers. Thus as familiarly as possible to describe to our we find by established practice the dis. readers.

tance between, and size of, the ports, in The principal dimensions as they are the following class of ships in the navy, generally termed, must be first decided are as follow: upon, and they are the following, viz.

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Foreside of the foremost port

abaft the foremost perpen. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In.

dicular . . . .|11 6 11 4 7 0 17 6 10 6 6 9 Aft-side of the after port, afore

the after perpendicular - 13 0 15 6 16 6 13 0 4 9 12 01 Ports - - - deepl 2 9 2 9 2 8 2 7

fore and aft 3 5 In distance from port to Port* | 7 9

7 6 7 101 In number on each side : . | 16 | 15 15 | 11 13 Thus we may find the most approved length on the gun deck . .

".1193 0188 8180 2146 0 137 0'110 0

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* Sometimes an additional timber is added between the ports at the gang

way, to make it the more convenient for the steps, &c.

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The next dimension is the extreme data, we will give the extreme breadths breadth, and without repeating the pro- of the above ships, which upon trial have portions which various authors have men. been found to answer their intended purtioned, all alike erroneous as to fixed poses by that construction.

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The length of the keel for tonnage, as of water, with a very quick rising, to was before observed, is produced from possess the requisite qualities for fast the former dimension, and a length given sailing, as the sloop of war; while anby a rule, although long established, is other vessel keeping the dimensions very defective, and the tonnage or burthen the same, may be constructed as full of the vessel, as it is sometimes called, is under water as the most burthensaid to be produced therefrom. It may some merchant ships. Sometimes the be therefore readily seen, that those two production of this rule is called builder's dimensions only cannot possibly give any tonnage, as a contradistinction to the true burtlen, for those two dimensions true tonnage, and by this result builders may be alike in two vessels, of the great are paid a certain price per ton for buildest difference in their construction ima. ing any vessel. ginable, for one vessel may be so con. structed from the same dimensions, as

THE RULE FOR CASTING THE TONNAGE, to be very sharp under her load draught in the royal navy, is to take the length * Sometimes an additional timber is added between the ports at the gang.way, to

make it the more convenient for the steps, &c. VOL. XI.

on a straight line along the lower side of the rabbit of the keel, froin a perpendicular or square from the back of the main stern post, at the height of the wing-transom, to a perpendicular or square at the height of the upper deck (and middle deck of tlıree decked ships) from the fore-part of the stern. The only difference in merchant ships is to take this length as before, from the back of the main-post, at the height of the wing-transom, to the same height forward to the foreside of the stern ; then from the length between those perpendiculars subiract three-fifths of the extreme breadth for the rake for. ward, and two inches and a half for every foot the wing-transom is high above the lower part of the rabbit of the keel for the rake abaft. The remainder is the length of the keel for ton. nage.

Although this is the dimension sought, yet, to show the fallacy of acquiring ibis tonnage, the whole of the rule shall be here subjoined.

Then multiply the length of the keel for tonnage by the extreme breadih, and the product by half that breadth, and di. vide the whole by 94 ; the quotient will be the tonnage.

This extreme breadth to be taken from the outside to the outside plank or thick. stuff, in the broadest part of the ship, either above, on, or below the wales, de. ducting from the said thickstuff or plank all that it exceeds the thickness of the plank of the bottom, which shall be ac. counted the extreme breadth ; so that the moulding breadth, or breadth of the frame, will then be less than the extreme breadth so found. For the thickness of the bottom plank, see the foregoing dimensions.

By this rule, the following lengths of the keel for tonnage of the same class of ships are found, of

East India ships .. 1257
Ditto . . . . .

Ditto . . . . .

818 West India ships ... 544 Ditto

441 Ditto . . . . . 329 Hence it is obvious, had the length and breadth of the ships in the royal navy, and those in the merchant-service, been the same, the tonnage would also have been the same, although the construction under water is so very different; therefore no dependence can be placed on those rules for the conformation of the real burthen of vessels. And as to builder's tonnage, it is equally as fallacious, because depth is not taken at all into consideration, and it is easy to imagine that two vessels may, by this rule, be the same tonnage, and one some feet deeper than the other; consequently, what results to the builder is, to regulate his price accordingly. Hence, there remains scarcely one undeviating method in the construction of ships. We will allow, it is not to be expected to obtain any rule, in this particular, that would be quite exact; because the true burthen, or tonnage, a ship should carry, not only depends upon the cubical dimensions of the ship's bottom, but her own gravity with respect to the whole of the hull; and, in short, on the weight of every article which makes a part of the ship. Therefore, the nearest rule that approximates to the burthen different built vessels are found by experience to carry, should be adopted ; as the fallacy of the rule in present use discovers no one thing whatever, as may be easily seen by any person, though a novice in the art of ship-building

Lastly, the depth in hold, which, in naval ships, must be always governed by the height which the suns are in. tended to be above the water, and loadwater line; as the depth is taken from the upper side of the limber-strake to the upper side of the lower deck beam in midships. In merchant vessels, the depth in hold is regulated for the different cargoes that each may be designed to carry; and bere, again, as there can be no certain rule observed, we will give the depth in bold of the saine acknow. ledged superior vessels.

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