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caught in nets, into which they are de- ' will endure long in the closest confineluded by representations of birds of their ment without food. own species, made of wood, and painted S. forficata is a very common insect, with some correctness of resemblance. found frequently under stones and flow. After they are taken, they are by some er-pots; it has a very swift motion, and fattened for sale with great facility and is furnished with fifteen legs on each success.

side ; it is of a chesnut colour, and is S. calidris, or redshank, is not uncom. about an inch and a half long. mon in this island, and particularly to. SCOLOPIA, in botany, a genus of the wards the south. It breeds in the marshes, Icosandria Monogynia class and order. and is remarkable for flying in a direction Essential character: calyx inferior, three completely irregular round its nest, by or four-parted; corolla three or fourwhich it is very frequently discovered. Its petalled ; berry crowned with the style, length is twelve inches. For the red. one-celled, six-seeded; seeds arilled. shank, see Aves, Plate XIII. fig. 6.

There is only one species, viz. S. pusilSCOLOPENDRA, in natural history,

la, a native of Ceylon, where it is call

ed khatu kurundu, or thorny cinnamon. centipede, a genus of insects of the order

SCOLOSANTHUS, in botany, a genus Aptera. Antennæ setaceous; two feel.

of the Tetrandria Monogynia class and ers filiform, united between the jaws ;

order. Natural order of Luridæ. Rubialip toothed and cleft; body long, depress.

ceæ, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx ed, consisting of numerous transverse

four-cleft; corolla tubular, with a revo. segments: legs numerous, as many on

lute border; drupe one-seeded. There each side as there are segments of the

is but one species, viz. S. versicolor ; this body. There are thirteen species, found

small shrub was discovered in the island in almost all parts of the world; they of Santa Cruz, by Ryan. live in decayed wood, or under stones, SCOLYMUS, in botany, golilen thistle, and some of them in fresh and salt water:

a genus of the Syngenesia Polygamia they prey on other insects. The larger. Equalis class and order. Natural order species are found only in the hotter re.

of Compositæ Semiflosculosæ. Cicho. gions of the globe; they are insects of

raceæ, Jussieu. Essential character : a terrific appearance, and possess the

calyx imbricate, spiny; pappus none; power of inflicting severe pain and in- receptacle chaffy. There are three speflammation by their bite.

cies, natives of the south of Europe. S. morsitans is a native of Asia, Africa, SCOMBER, the mackarel, in natural and South America. It is eight or ten history, a genus of fishes of the order inches long, of a yellowish brown; the Thoracici. Generic character : head head is armed on each side with a very compressed, smooth; gill membrane large curved fang, of a strong or horny with seven rays; body smooth, oblong; nature; these fangs are furnished on the lateral line carinate behind ; small fins, inside, near the tip, with an oblong generally, both above and below, near slit, through which, during the act of the tail. There are twenty-one spe. wounding, an acrimonious or poisonous cies, of which we shall notice the fol. fluid is discharged; the eyes are nu- lowing: merous on each side the head, and are S. scomber, or the common mackarel. placed in a small oval group; it has This is one of the most beautiful of fishes, twenty legs on each side of the body. and inhabits both the European and Ame

S. electrica has seventy legs on each rican seas. It is said by many to reside side ; its body is linear; it inhabits many in winter near the North Pole, and, as the parts of Europe, in decayed wood, and spring advances, to move in immense shines in the dark; the body is very fat shoals in a southerly direction, traversing and tawny, with a black line down the a vast space in a short period, and proback The motions of this insect are tor ceeding nearly in a similar line of move. tuous and undulatory, seldom continuing ment with that attributed to the herring, long in the same direction. It is possessed from the same extremities of the north. of a high degree of phosphoric splendour, Some of the most eminent naturalists, howwhich, however, seems to be only exert. ever, have entertained doubts of these ed when the animal is pressed or sudden. extensive voyages in both cases, and it is ly disturbed, when it diffuses a beautiful imagined by such that these fishes take up light, so powerful as not to be obliterat. their residence, during the rigour of win. ed by that of two candles on the same ter, in the muddy or gravelly bottoms table. It is very tenacious of life, and near the coasts, where they abound so

numerously in the spring. Shaw relates, and order. Essential character: calyt that M. Pleville de Peley saw the bottoms five-cleft; nectary none; stigma capitate; near the coasts of Hudson's Bay, for a capsule berried, five-celled; seeds solitalong space together, bristled with the ry. There are two species, viz. S. aculeatails of mackarel, all their other parts be. ta and S. inermis. ing imbedded in the gravel or mud. The SCOPUS, the umbre, in natural history, mackarel is a fish highly admired, both a genus of birds of the order Grallæ. Ge. for its beauty and excellence, and has in neric character: bill long, thick, comevery age attracted particular notice and pressed, a little hooked ; nostrils linear, partiality from both these circumstances. oblique ; feet four-toed, cleft. The only The Romans prepared from it a condi. species, the umbretta, or tufted umbre, ment or essence for the table, which was is about as large as a crow, and twenty in the highest estimation. The general inches in length; its bill three inches and length of this fish is fifteen inches, but a half long; its body of a uniform brown specimens far larger have been occasion. colour, whence it derives its name. It aliy met with

is supposed to be a native of the Cape of

ten feet long, and on the Scotch coast one terest have been detailed by travellers of was taken which weighed four hundred its residence, habits, and manners. and sixty pounds. In the Indian ocean SCORPENA, a natural history, a ge. it is said to exceed even this enormous nus of fishes of the order Thoracici. Gesize. It is recorded by Pliny, who was neric character: the head large, aculeatsufficiently attached to the marvellous, ed, cirrhose, obtuse, without scales ; that the feet of Alexander met with no somewhat compressed ; eyes near each slight obstruction from a host of tunnies, other; teeth in the jaws, palate, and which it required considerable manæu. throat; gill membrane seven-rayed; bovring to break through These fishes are dy thick and fleshy; dorsal fin single, not particularly admired for food in this long, with the rays of the fore-part spi. country, in which, indeed, they are rately nous. There are nine species enume. seen, approaching the British coast only rated by Gmelin, and fourteen by Shaw. in straggling parties, or rather as solitary We shall notice only the following: individuals. By the ancients, fisheries S. porcus, or the porcine scorpæna, is were established for taking and preserv. about fourteen inches long, and an inha. ing them on the coasts of the Mediterra. 'bitant of various parts of the Mediterra. nean, in which sea they particularly nean, in considerable numbers. It lies abound, and there are at present on the near the shores under the stones, appasame coasts very extensive establishments rently in ambush for its prey, which confor this purpose. Indeed, by the inhabi. sists particularly of small fishes and seatants on those shores the movements of insects. It eats also sea.weeds. The rays tunny are watched and expected with as of its dorsal fin are furnished with strong much eagerness as those of the herring, spines, with which it often inflicts painful, or mackarel in the north. The small if not dangerous wounds. fishes are generally carried fresh to mar. S. horrida, is found in the Indian seas, ket, and the large ones are cut up into and is about thirteen inches long. The pieees of a particular size, and preserved head and body, the pectoral and the dor. in salt in barrels. The tunny is a very sal fins, are covered with numerous voracious fish, and a great persccutor of abrupt cirrhi or beards; all the fins are the common mackare).

supplied, on the fore-part, with strong SCONCE, in fortification, a small rays, and those of the dorsal extend alfield-fort, built for the defence of some most completely along the back. In vari. pass.

ous other particulars of its form it is sinSCOPARIA, in botany, a genus of thie gularly uncouth, and altogether presents Tetrandria Monogynia class and order. one of the most repulsive objects which Natural order of Personatæ. Scrophula. can meet the eye. riæ, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx SCORPIO, in natural history, a genus four-parted; corolla four-parted, wheel. of insects of the order Aptera Generic shaped ; capsule one-celled, two-valved, character : eight legs, besides two claspmany-seeded. There are three species. ers, or hands, seated on the fore-part of

SCOPOLIA, in botany, so named in hoc the head; eight eyes, three placed on nour of Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, pro- each side of the thorax, and two on the fessor of chemistry and botany at Pavia; a back; two feelers projecting cheliform ; genus of the Pentandria Monogynia class the lip is bifid, and the tail long, jointeu, and terminated by a sharp, crooked of Great Britain shall be the same as was sting; on the under side, between the before settled with regard to that of Engbreast and abdomen, are two instruments land. The united kingdoms shall be reresembling a comb. There are ten spe presented by one parliament There cies, all of which are armed with a slight. shall be a communication of all rights and ly pungent sting; and in hot climates privileges between the subjects of both some of them are highly dangerous : kingdoms, except where it is otherwise they prey upon worms, spiders, flies, &c. agreed. When England raises 2,000,0001. and even on one another. S. afer, or by land-tax, Scotland shall raise 48,0001. great African scorpion, is the largest, and The standards of the coin, of weights, and by far the most formidable, of the whole measures, shall be reduced to those of genus: it is held in great dread by the England throughout the united kingdoms. inhabitants : its poison is evacuated The laws relating to trade, customs, and through two very small oblong foramina, the excise, shall he the same in Scotland situated on each side the tip of the sting as in England. But all the other laws of Scorpions are viviparous insects, produc. Scotland shall remain in force, though aling a very considerable number of young terable by the Parliament of Great Bri. at once: these are at first entirely white, tain; and particularly, laws relating to but acquire their dusky colour in the public policy are alterable at the discrespace of a few days: they are observed tion of Parliament. Laws relating to prito cast their skin from time to time, in the vate right are not to be altered, but for manner of spiders. the larva and pupa the evident utility of the people of Scotare eight-footed, nimble, and resembling land. Sixteen peers are to be chosen to the perfect insect.

represent the peerage of Scotland in ParScorpion, scorpio, in astronomy, the liament, and forty-five members to sit in eighth sign of the zodiac, denoted by the the House of Commons. The sixteen character m. The stars in the constel. peers of Scotland shall have all privileges Jation scorpio, in Ptolemy's catalogue, are of Parliament, and all peers of Scotland 20:in Tycho's 10 : and in Mr Flamstead's shall be peers of Great Britain ranking 49.

next after those of the same degree at Scorpion, in the ancient art of war, an

the time of the union, and shall bave all engine chietly useli in the defence of ihe privileges of peers, except sitting in the ' walls of forufied pluces, by throwing ar.

House of Lords, and voting on the trial rows, fire-balls, or great stones.

of a peer. SCORPIURUS, in botany, caterpillar,

It was formerly resolved by the House a genus of the Diadelphia Decandria class

of Lords, that a peer of Scoiland, claim. and order. Natural order of Papiliona.

ing and having a right to sit in the Britisha cex or Leguminose. Essential character:

House of Peers, had no right to vote in legume divided by isthmuses, or trans

the election of the sixteen Scotch peers ; verse partitions, revolute cylindrical.

and that if any of the sixteen Scotch peers There are four species, all natives of the

are created peers of Great Britain, they south of Europe.

thereby cease to sit as representatives of SCORSONERA, in botany, viper's

the Scotch peerage, and new Scotch grass, a genus of the Syngenesia Polyga. peers must be elected in their room. mia Equalis class and order. Natural or. SCOTOGRAPH, an instrument to ender of Compositæ Semiflosculosa Cicho. able a person to write in the dark, inventracer, Jussieu. Essenualcharacter: calyx ed by Mr. John Isaac Hawkins, and inimbricate with scales, scariose at the cluded in a patent taken out by him in edge; pappus feathered, sessile ; recep. 1803 for several other inventions relating tacle naked. There are nineteen spe- to the graphic art. cies.

Plate Scotograph explains the construc. SCOT, a customary contribution, laid tion of this instrument. Fig. 1, is a plan of upon all subjects according to their abili. it; fig. 2, 3, and 4, parts; and fig 5, a ties. Whoever were assessed to any con- perspective view of the whole put togetribution, though not by equal portions, ther. A B D E is a small box, covered were said to pay scot and lot.

with morocco leather, to be carried in the SCOTLAND. By 5 Anne, c. 8, the uni. pocket; its lid, F G, is made in two on of England and Scotland was effect. pieces, joined together by hinges in the ed, and the twenty-five articles of union, middle, so as to turn back, as shown in fig. agreed to by the Parliaments of both na. 5, and is kept shut by a small spring tions, were ratified and confirmed as fol. catch : a a (fig. 1.) is a small brass shell, low's: viz, the succession to the monarchy fixed along one side of the box, at about

one half of its depth from the bottom; it is paper with a proper degree of force to also seen in the end section (fig. 4) bde write legibly. In using the machine, f, is a small pentagraph made of brass : the lid, F G, is to be half shut, as shown one end of the rod, b, is jointed to a small in fig. 5. and thus form a support for the hinge, g, by which its motion allows the hand while writing; the pencil, h, is held whole pentagraph to be lifted up: the in the hand, and pressed down to touch other end of the rod, b, is jointed to the the brass shelf, a a, and used in the same rod f, and the small handle, h, or pencil, manner as a common pen or pencil, takwhich the writer holds in his hand when ing care always to begin at the end of in use, is attached to the other end by an the shelf; the side of the box, and a small universal joint, which allows it to move ledge upon the edge of the shelf, limits in any direction, to imitate as much as the height of the letters. When the pen. possible the motion of a pen : e and dare cil arrives at the end of the shelf, it is to the other two bars, completing the pen. be brought back again, and the end of it tagraph : ; is the point which forms the is to be placed upon the end of the lever, letters; is screwed into the bar d: F Gisl, and forced down ; the click, k, then a piece of wood glued to the bottom of takes into one of the teeth of the wheel, the box, with a small piece of ivory fast. t, and turns it round one tooth ; the pres. ened upon the top of it, to support the sure is then to be removed, and the paper while it is written upon: the sur spring, mi, lifts up the lerer, l, just the face of this ivory is about the same proper height to catch the next tooth of height as the brass shelf, a a, as is seen in ihe whcel, as is shown in fig. 4: this opethe section fig 4.: H and I are two small ration moves the paper forward just the rollers, (one of which is shown separately proper space to write another line. One in fig. 2.) on which the paper is rolled; of the viscs of the pentagraph is to re, it is fastened to them at both ends, by a duce the writing to half the size that it is small brass lever, k, (fig. 2.) which shuts made on the brass shelf, whereby double down in a groove made in the roller: the number of lines are contained on a when the paper is put under this lever, slip of paper that would be if written the and shut down, it is held fast, and by full size, and the lines are but half the turning the roll is wound upon it: 1m are length, so that room is left at the ends of two small milled heads, one on each roll, the rollers for the ratchet wheel and to turn them; at one end of the roll, I, a milled nuts. The rollers will hold a slip small ratchet wheel, t, of six teeth, is fix. of thin paper twenty inches long, and con. ed; it is turned round by a click, k, (fig. tain 100 lines, each of two inches long : 4.) jointed to a small lever, I, which is this will contain a considerable quantity thrown up by a spring, m: n (fig. 1.) is a of information, and when it is all written piece of brass plate screwed to the side of and rolled upon the roll, I, the lever, k, the box: it is shown separately in fig. 3. (fig. 2.) of the other roller will be exposand has two branches, to receive the pic ed to view ; then the pentagraph is to be vots of the two rollers, III ; these arms lifted up upon its hinge, 5, and the lever are elastic, and press against the ends of raised up by putting the nail under the the rollers, and cause them to turn ra. end of it: this release's one end of the pather stiffty, so that they will not be liable per: and by pulling it, the other roll will to be moved by the elasticity of the pa. be unwound; and when the small lever per which is rolled upon them. The of that roller is taken up, the paper will pentagraph is of the common kind: the be quite loose : another paper will be fix. three points, g i, and the end of h, being ed with equal ease by first fixing it to the all in one line, as explained in the article roil H, and rolling it upon it, and then PENTAGRAPH: the point i, which forms fastening it to the other. If at any time the letters, is a short piece of silver wire, any particular line of the writing is want. screwed into the bar d, and pointed at ed, it will be easily brought into view, the end to make this mark : the paper is by turning the rollers by their nuts, rubbed over with whiting, or chalk; and 1, m. when at any time the point is worn away, This instrument would be particularly it may be renewed by screwing it through useful to persons who have occasion to the bar a little further : the point is al. make memorandums while on horseback, ways made to project so far, that when or travelling in a coach, as any degree of the blunt point at the end of the pencil, pressure may be given upon the brass h, rests upon the brass shelf, a a, the pen- shelf while writing, so as to avoid being tagraph will be set a little upon the disturbed by the most violent shocks, strain, and by that means press upon the which cannot be done upon common paper for fear of breaking the pencil point, was almost one of the original propensior of piercing the paper by it. Its use to ties of man, and may be said to have been blind people, who bave learned to write, born with him in every climate. This is very obvious.

will still appear in the ardent and irresistSCRATCH, in the language of the salt- ible impulse of youth to make represenworkers of our country, the name of a tations of objects in wood, and the atcalcareous, earthy, or stony substance, tempts of savages to embody their conwhich separates from sea-water in boiling ceptions of their idols. If a command it for salt. This forms a thick crust, in from the Author of our being was neces. a few days, on the sides and bottoms of sary to prevent the ancient Israelites from the pans, which they are forced to be at making graven images, it may be naturalthe pains of taking off once in a week, orly inferred, that the inhabitants of the rest ten days, otherwise the pans burn away, of the earth possessed similar propensiand are destroved.

ties. The descriptions of the Scriptures SCREW, one of the five mechanical demonstrate that the art had been powers. See MECHANICS.

brought to great perfection at the period SCRIBING, in joinery, &c. is a term of which they treat; but they could not used when one side of a piece of stuff is to be so particular as to enable us to judge be fitted to another that is irregular. In whether their excellence approached the order to make these join close all the way, remains we possess, derived from other they scribe it ; that is, they lay the piece sources. to be scribed close to the other they in. To proceed methodically on this subtend toscribe it to, and opening their com- ject, it becomes necessary to make a dis. passes to the widest distance, these two tinction between carving and sculpture : pieces stand from each other, they bear the former belonging exclusively to wood, the point of one of the legs against the and the latter so stone. It is extremely side they intend to scribe to, and with the probable that every essay at imitating other point draw a line on the stuff to be animated objects was in each nation made scribed. Thus they form a line on the in wood originally, and it is vain to sup. irregular piece parallel to the edge of the pose the tools were any other at first regular one : and if the stuff be cut exact. ihan the sharp edges of broken stones or ly to the line, when these pieces are put flints ; a visit to the Museum will afford together they will seem a joint.

the curious spectator a competent idea SCROPHULARIA, in botany, fig-wort, of the art of carving with instruments of a genus of the Didynamia Angiospermia the above description. The least enlightclass and order. Natural order of Perso. ened nations possess individuals of supe. natæ. Scrophulariæ, Jussieu. Essential rior observation, who see the defects of character. calix five cleft; corolla sub. their neighbours, and by instruction or globulur, resupine ; capsule two celled. ridicule, produce an attempt at reformaThere are twenty-two species.

tion : this has evidently been the case SCROTUM. See ANATOMY.

amongst the Egyptians and Greeks, who, SCROWLS, or SCROLLS, in architec. of all the people of antiquity, made the ture, the same with volutes.

earliest and greatest progress in the art SCRUPLE, a weight equal to the third of sculpture. If the former commenced part of a dram, or to twenty grains, their imitation of nature in wood, it is Among goldsmiths it is equal to twenty. probable they soon discovered that it was four grains.

incapable of a durability commensurate SCUDDING, in naval affairs, is the with their wishes; they therefore adopted movement by which a ship is carried pre. a close grained and beautiful granite, cipitately before a tempest, and is either which not only required tools of iron, but performed with a sail extended on her those of the most perfectly tempered steel, foremast, or, if the storm is excessive, to cut it; and with such they have left us without any sail, which is then called at this very distanit time vast numbers of scudding under bare poles. In sloops excavated figures, as complete and as litand schooners, and other small vessels, tle injured as if exccuted within our own the sail employed for this purpose is called memory the square-sail. In larger ships it is the In examining the various sculptures of fore-sai).

the Egyptians, we find that a general SCULPTURE. It is bevond human character prevails throughout their outresearch to ascertain when this art was lines, which demonstrate that the sculpfirst practised, and by what nation. We tors were natives of Egypt, and that they may, however, safely conjecture that it rigidly copied the expression and charac

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