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the blow-pipe, without addition, into a Tourmaline has been long celebrated blackish slag Melted with borax,it forms a for its electrical effects, which are exhigreenish-coloured glass. It is composed of bited by friction, and also by heating :
but if it is made very hot, as beyond 200° Silica . . . . - 33.33 of Fahrenheit, it is deprived of its electriAlumina ...40.83 cal properties. The more transparent Iron . . . . . . 20.41 the tourmaline, the stronger its electrical Manganese . . . . 3.33 properties. It is sometimes cut and po
lished, and worn as a jewel; but on ac
97.90 count of its want of transparency it is not Loss - . .. 2.10 very highly esteemed. The green co
loured tourmaline has been described as 100 the emerald ; the blue, as the sapphire ;
and the crimson-red variety, first found in
Siberia, and since in Ava and Ceylon, has By heating, it exhibits positive electricity been called the daurite, siberite, and ruat one end, and negative at the other : as bellite. Mr. Greville is in possession of the it cools, these electricities are reversed. most magnificent specimen of the red vaIt occurs in primitive rocks, chiefly in riety; it is valued, on account of its beauty quartz and granite ; with the former, it and rarity, at 1000L. constitutes a peculiar mountain rock. It SCHOTIA, in botany, so named from is found on many parts of the continent, Richard Vander Schot, a genus of the and in Scotland. It differs from tourma. Decandria Monogynia class and order. line in colour, degree of lustre, fracture, Natural order of Lomentaceæ. Legumitransparency, and distinct concretions; nosæ, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx also in geognostic situations : tourmaline five-cleft; petals five, inserted into the occurs almost always imbedded, and in calı x, closed by the sides lying over each single crystals; but schorl is aggregated, other; legume pedicelled. There is but and occurs in beds.
one species, viz. S. speciosa, lentiscuis. Tourmaline, called also electricus tur. leaved schotia. It is a native of Senegal malin, is of a green or brown colour, and the Cape of Good Hope. passing into others, even to the indigo, SCHRADERA, i botany, so named in blue. The colours are mostly dark. It honour of Henr. Adolph Schrader, a geoccurs very seldom massive, oftener in
nus of the H Xandria Monogynia class rolled pieces, but most frequently crys.
and order. Essential character: calyx a tallized. The crystals are generally three superior rim, quite entire : corolla five or sided prisms; they are usually imbedded; six clelt; stigmas two; berry one-celled. the internal lustre is splendent and vi.
many.seeded. There are two species, treous It is hard, and easily frangible.
viz. S capitata and S. cephalotes. Specific gravity from 3 08 to 3.36. Before
SCHREBERA, in botany, a genus of the blow-pipe it melts into a grevish- the Diandria Monogynia class and order. white vesicular enamel. It was found in Essential character : calyx two-lipped: Cevlon and the Brazils, in the 16th cen- corolla from five to seven-cleft; capsule tury; and since that in Madagascar and pear-shaped, two-celled, two-valved; Ava, in many parts of the European con- seeds from eight to ten, membranaceous tinent, and in Scotland. Two specimens winged. There is but one species, viz. have been analyzed by Bergmann and S. swietenioides. Vauquelin, the former was brought from
SCHWALBEA, in botany, so named in Ceylon, the latter from Brazil.
honour of Schwalbe, a physician, a genus
of the Didynamia Angiospermia class and Tourmaline of Ceylon. of Brazil. order. Natural order of Personatæ. Silica - - - 37.0 - - - 40.0 Scrophulariæ, Jussieu. Essential cha. Alumina . . 39.0 ... 39.0 racter: calyx four-cleft, the upper lobe Lime · 15,0 ... 384 very small; the lowest very large and Oxide of iron 9.0 . . . 12.50 emarginate. There is but one species, manganese . . . 2.00 viz. S. Americana.
SCHWENKFELDIA, in botany, so 100.0
named in memory of Caspar Schenckfelt, Loss 2.66
a Silesian physician, a genus of the Pen.
tandria Monogynia class and order. Na100.00 tural order of Rubiaceæ. Essential cha.
racter: involucre four-leaved; corolla
funnel.form; stigmas five; berry five. a man can employ his thoughts about no. celled, many-seeded. There are three thing but either the contemplation of species
things themselves, for the discovery of SCHWENKIA, in botany, so named truth, or about the things in his own from Martin Wilhelm Schwencke, pro. power, which are his actions, for the atfessor of botany at the Hague, a genus of tainment of his own ends; or the signs the Diandria Monogynia class and order. the mind makes use of, both in the one Natural order of Luridæ. Scrophulariæ, and the other, and the right ordering of Jussieu. Essential character: corolla al- them for its clearer understanding All most equal, with the throat plaited and which three, viz. things, as they are in glandular; stamens three, barren; cap. themselves knowable ; actions, as they sule two-celled, many-seeded. There is depend on us in order to happiness; and only one species, viz. S. Americana, the right use of signs, in order to know. Guinea Schwenkia.
ledge, being toto celo different, they seem SCIÆNA, in naiural history, a genus of to be the three great provinces of the fishes of the order Thoracici. Generic intellectual world, wholly separate and character: head covered with scales; distinct one from another gill-membrane generally with about six SCILLA, in botany, squill, a genus of rays; two dorsal fins placed in a furrow, the Hexandria Monogynia class and orinto which they are often withdrawn. der. Natural order of Coronariæ. AsThere are twenty-nine species, the prin- phodeli, Jussieu. Essential character: cipal of which is the S. cirrosa or beard. corolla six-petalled, spreading, deciduous; ed sciæna, which inbabits the European filaments filiform. There are twenty-two and American seas, and is from one to species. The most remarkable is S.r...two feet in length. It was known to the ritima, or sea onion, whose roots are used ancients, and esteemed by them for the in medicine. Of this there are two sorts, table. It is of a pale yellow colour, one with a red, and the other with a striped longitudinally with dusky-blue. white root : which are supposed to be Its tail slightly lunated, and it has un accidental varieties, but the white are ge. der its chin a short fleshy beard.
nerally preferred for medicinal use. The SCIAGRAPHY, the profile or vertical
roots are large, somewhat oval-shaped, section of a building, used to show the
composed of many coats lying over each inside of it. The same term is used in
other like onions; and at the bottom come astronomy, for the art of finding the hour
out several fibres. From the middle of of the day, or night, by the shadow of the
the root rise several shining leaves, which sun, moon, stars, &c.
continue green all the winter, and decay
in the spring. Then the Gower-stalk SCIENCE, in philosophy, denotes any comes out, which rises two feet high, doctrine deduced from self-evident and and is naked half-way, terminating in a certain principles, by a regular demon. pyramidal thyrse of Powers, which are stration. Sciences may be properly divid. white, composed of six petals, and spread ed as follows: 1. The knowledge of open like the points of a star. This grows things, their constitutions, properties, naturally on the sea-shores, and in the and operations; this, in a litile more en- ditches where the salt water naturally larged sense of the word, may be called flows with the tide, in most of the warm PUOIX», or natural philosophy ; the end parts of Europe, so cannot be propagated of which is speculative truth. 2. The
in gardens; the frost in winter always de. skill of rightly applying these powers, stroying the roots, and for want of salt peralimn ; the most considerable under
water they do not thrive in summer. The this head is ethics, which is the seeking root is very nauseous to the taste, inout those rules and measures of human tensely bitter, and so acrimonious, that it actions that lead to happiness, and the ulcerates the skin if much handled means to practise them; and the next is SCIOPTIC, or Scioprric ball, a sphere, mechanics, or the application of the pow. or globe of wood, with a circular hole or ers of natural agents to the uses of lite. perforation, wherein a lens is placed. It See PuiLOSOPHY, moral. 3. The doctrine is so fitted that, like the eve of an animal. of signs, onusWTIXN; the most usual of it may be turned round every way, to be which being worcis, it is aptly enough used in making experiments of the dartermed logic. See LOGIC.
kened room. This, savs Mr. Locke, seems to be the SCIRPUS, in botany, club rush, a ge. most general, as well as natural, division nus of the Triandria Monogynia class of the objects of our understanding. For and order. Natural order of Calamarize. Gyperoideæ. Jussieu. Essential charac. teeth in the upper jaw wedge-formed, in ter: glumes chaffy, imbricate every way: the lower sharp ; five grinders in each corolla none; seed one, beardless. There side of the upper-jaw, and four in each of are sixty-nine species.
the lower; clavicles in the skeleton ; tail SCIRE facias, is a judicial writ, and spreading towards each side; long wbisproperly lies after a year and a day after kers. These animals live principally on judgment given ; whereby the sheriff is seeds and fruits. They are extremely ac. commanded to summon or give notice to tive and nimble, climbing trees with the defendant, that he appear and show great rapidity, and bounding from one to cause why the plaintiff should not have another with a spring truly astonishing. execution. A scire facias is deemed a Some are supplied with membranes, judicial writ, and founded on some mat. which enable them to extend this leap ter of record, as judgment recognizances, into something approximating to a short and letters patent, on which it lies, to en- Aight. Some are subterraneous, and force the execution of them, or to vacate others build in trees. They are sprightor set them aside; and if execution is not ly, elegant, and interesting taken out within a year, it is necessary to S. maximus, or the great squirrel, is the revive the judgment by scire facias. But largest known species, being equal in if execution has isued within that time, size to a cat. It is found in the East Ina further writ of execution may be bad dies, where it pierces the cocoa for the without a scire facias. This writ is so sake of the liquor, to which it is extremefar in nature of an original, that the de. ly attached. It is easily tamed. fendant may plead to it, and it is in that S. vulgaris, or the common squirrel, respect considered as an action. Where. abounds almost throughout Europe, and fore a release of all actions, or a release in the temperate climates of Asia. Its of all executions, is a good bar to a scire length is about seven inches to the tail, facias.
which measures about eight. During the SCIRRHUS, in surgery and medicine, a summer's day, it generally remains in its hard tumour of any part of the body, void nest, appearing to be annoyed by the of pain, arising from the inspissation and heat; but at night it is full of alertness induration of the fluids contained in a and vivacity, and devoted to excursion gland, though it may appear in any other and repast. It constructs its nest generally part, especially in the fat, being one of in the fork of two branches of trees, and the ways wherein an inflammation termi- with particular precaution, with respect nates. Lee SURGERY.
to dryness, warmth, and cleanliness. The SCITAMINEÆ, in botany, the name of young are produced sometimes about the the eighth order in Linnæus's Fragments beginning of summer, in general about of a Natural Method, consisting of beauti- the middle of it, and are three or four in ful exotic plants, some of which, as the number. Its food consists of various nuts banana, furnish exquisite fruits, and others and fruits, of which it stores considerable have a fine aromatic scent; among these quantities for its winter consumption ; are the amomum, or ginger; the canna, it is fond also of certain species of fungi. Indian flowering reed; and musa, the In confinement it will take a vast variety banana, or plantain tree. The plants of vegetable substances; but appears to of this order are ali natives of very warm prefer sugar to every other nourishment. countries; they grow to great heights, See Mammalia, Plate XVIII. fig. 1. but they are only perennial at the roots. S.cinereus, or the grey squirrel, is peSome of these plants are cultivated in culiar to North America, and is about the high perfection at the botanical garden size of a half-grown rabbit. It resembles at Liverpool.
the former in its shape and manners. SCIURIS, in botany a genus of the These animals have occasionally commitDiandria Monogynia class and order. ed extreme ravages in some of the states Essential character: corolla unequal, of North America, in the cultivated lands; with the upper lip trifid, the lower bifid and to reduce their numbers, the legis. and shorter; stamina five, but three bar- lature proclaimed a reward for their de. ren; capsule five, united, one-celled, one struction. In the year 1750, a sum of no seeded. There is only one species, viz. less than eight thousand pounds was disS. aromatica, found in the woods of Gui. tributed in premiums, to persons who ana.
had been engaged in killing them, and SCIURUS, the squirrel, in natural his. who must have destroyed between six tory, a genus of Mammalia, of the order and seven hundred thousand. It is not Glires. Generic character; two fore easily destroyed by the gun, on account of the perpetual versatility of its move. possible, with its fure feet extremely dis. ments, and some of the best marksn en tant from each other, presents such a sur: are often baffled by this extreme agility. face to the air beneath, as gives it consiIt is easily familiarized, and appears sus derable buoyancy, and converts its elastic ceptible of affection and gratitude to its bounds into a species of Aight. The mem. benefactors.
brane is also highly serviceable in che. The S. variegatus, or varied squirrel, rishing the young ones, which are prois nearly twice the size of the last, and duced usually in May, and about three at differs also in nabits, as it resides in holes a birth. See Mammalia, Plate XVIII, fig. 4. under the roots of trees, where it pro. S petaurista, or the sailing squirrel, is duces its young, and, like the rest of the an inhabitant of Java ind the Indian Islgenus, accumulates its stores It is a na- ands, and can spring to an immense dis. tive of Mexico.
tance from tree to tree, by means of a S. striatus, or the striped squirrel, is membrane similar to that of the precedmet with in the north of Asia and Ame. ing, which is extremely thin in the midrica, is subterraneous in its habitation, dle, and thicker towards the extremities. like the last, and is also addicted to This is the largest of all the flying squirhoarding, for winter, nuts and grain. rels, and is eighteen inches long, excluIt is distinguished, however, from every sively of the tail. For the Barbary squirother species, by being provided with relan, the black squirrel, see Mammalia, bags or pouches attached to its cheeks, Plate XVIII, fig. 2. and 3. in which, for the convenience of carriage, SCLERANTHUS, in botany, knawel, a it can deposit large quantities of food, to genus of the Decandria Digynia class and take home with it after having swallowed order Natural order of Caryophillei. a full meal. These squirrels abound in Portulaceæ, Jussieu. Essential character: Siberia, amidst the woods of maple and calyx one-leafed, inferior; corolla none; fir, at the roots of which they make seeds two, inclosed in the calyx. There their burrows. They never mount trees, are three species. but when they have no other means of SCLERIA, in botany; a genus of the escape from an enemy, yet then they Monoecia Triandria class and order. Es. climb them with great celerity. They sential character; male, calyx glume are very discriminating in their selection from two to six-valved, many-flowered, of food, and have been seen frequently awnless; female, calyx from two to sixto exchange cargoes contained in their valved, one-fowered, awnless; stigmas pouches for a species of food which they one to three; seed nut subglobular, casually and unexpectediy met with, and somewhat bony, coloured. There are which they happened to prefer to the nine species. former. They retain in captivity much SCLEROCARPUS, in botany, a genus of their native wildness, and appear to of the Syngenesia Polygamia Frustranea evince no feelings of regard to their class and order. Natural order of Disprotectors.
coideæ. Corymbiferæ, Jussieu. EssenS. volans, or the common flying squir- tial character: calyx six-leaved, three rel, is the only one of that description in exterior larger, like the leaves, three inEurope, and is found there only in the terior smaller, like scales, alternate ; papcoldest climates. In the north of Asia it pus none; receptacle chaffy. There is occurs more frequently. Its colour above only one species, viz. S. Africanus, a nais a white grey, and beneath a perfect tive of the Cape of Good Hope. white. It is about six inches in length to SCLEROTICA, in anatomy, one of the the tail. It resides generally in hollow tunics or coats of the eye; it is hard, trees near the top, is solitary in its habits, opaque and extended from the cornea associating even in pairs only in the to the optic nerve ; its fore part is transspring. It feeds principally on the cat. parent and is called the cornea. kius of the birch, and in winter secludes SCOLEX, in natural history, a genus itself in its nest, occasionally quitting it of the Vermes Intestina class and order: in fine weather. By means of an expan. body gelatinous, variously shaped, broadsile furry membrane, reaching from the ish on the fore-part and pointed behind; fore feet to the hind ones, these animals sometimes linear and long, sometimes are enabled to spring or fly to the dis. wrinkled and short, round, fesuous, or tance of thirty or forty yards. Climbing depressed: head protrusile, and retracnearly to the top of one tree, it directs its tile. Two species only are mentioned, viz. movements always downwards, and by the pleuronectidis and Jophii; the for. spreading this membrane as widely as mer is found in the intestinal mucus of the turbot, sole, plaise, gwiniard, and but with such very extraordinary excep. the lump fish, seldom visible to the naked tions, woodcocks collect together about cye. The other, as its name denotes, is the middle of March, to return to their discovered in the intestinal mucus of the native country. They are often, howlophus piscatorius : the body is minute, ever, like other voyagers, detained by and hardly visible to the naked eye. unfavourable winds, and in such circum
SCOLIA, in natural history, a genus of stances sportsmen find them in considerinsects of the order Hymenoptera: able numbers, and destroy them with mouth with a curved sharp mandible, unmerciful eagerness. The woodcock is crenate within ; jaw compressed, project. more remarkable for stupidity tban ining, entire and horny; tongue infected, telligence, and is easily taken in traps trifid, very short ; lip projecting, mem. and springes, which are placed for it branaceous at the tip and entire ; four near tepid springs, in passages artificially feelers, equal and filiform, in the middle of managed, as this bird never attempts to the lip; antennæ thick, filiform, the first overcome obstacles in its way, even by joint longer. There are about twenty leaping only off a small stone. It is, from species.
this indolent tendency, decoyed into the SCOLOPAX, the curlero, in natural his. direction, which, however smooth and tory, a genus of birds of the order Grallæ. pleasant at first, terminates in ruin. Its Generic character: the bill long and in. Hesh is highly valued, but is considered curvated : face covered with feathers; as affording its full relish only when the nostrils linear and longitudinal near the bird is dressed entirely undrawn, in base; tongưe short and sharp-pointed; which state, with more epicurism than toes connected by a membrane to the delicacy, it is generally eaten. See first point. There are fifty species, of Aves, Plate XIII fig. 5. which the following are the chief: S. ar. S. gallinago, ortbe snipe, weighs about quat a, or the common curlew, is generally four ounces, is about twelve inches long, about two feet long, and is to be met with and to be found in nearly every country in England throughout the year, either of the world. Its food consists of worms on the coasts or near the mountains. and insects, which it seeks near small Slugs and worms, which its bill extracts streamlets, and in general in wet grounds. from the ground, in the morning and the It eats also slags. It is a bird of extreme evening, constitute its inland subsistence; caution and vigilance, and the sight of and when on the shores of the sea it the sportsman or the dog impels it to feeds on marine animals. These birds immediate concealment amidst the dry are often observed in large focks, and herbage of its haunts, from which the are used by many for food. Those kill. resemblance of colour renders it aled on the coasts, however, are rank and most impossible to discriminate it. On fishy.
the approach of the enemy, it bursts s, rusticola, or the woodcock. These from its shelter with such uncommon va. birds are about fourteen inches in length. riety of direction and velocity of moThey are migratory in this country, and tion, as renders its destruction by the gun supposed to proceed from Sweden. They one of the greatest achievements of the arrive about the beginning of October, sportman's art. Snipes are sometimes but have never been observed on their approached nearly, by the accurate imifirst reaching land, and are supposed al. tation of their sounds, and shot upon the ways to effect this by night or in misty ground, and they are often taken by weather. When first seen, they are ex. snares, like the woodcock. The fla. tremely weak and exhausted, and have vour and the preparation of them are sometimes scarcely retained strength also similar. They are in this country enough to Ay to a very short distance, migratory, but cases have occurred of having been destroyed in numbers by a their breeding in it. stick only. Before the rigours of winter S. ægocephalus, or the common godwit, set in, they reside in moory and moun. is of the weight of twelve ounces, and tainous districts; but in the extreme cold ranks in the highest order of delicacies. they change their haunts for such as are It is found in almost every country, and lower and warmer, and frequent particu- in the marshy grounds of Lincolnshire larly warm springs in glens and dells, co. and Cambridgeshire is particularly abunvered with sheltering trees and brush. dant, feeding on insects and small worms, wood. They occasionally breed in this but approaches the sea shore on the adcountry, some few instances of this hav. vance of the rigours of winter. These ing been unquestionably authenticated; birds, in several parts of the country, are