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ter of their countrymen. Had the persons are very little calculated to raise our opi. employed in decorating the numerous nion of the merit of the artists who made magnificent works, the ruins of which them; and, indeed, the only instances we still surprise the spectator, been invited recollect of correctness and propriety from other countries, a variation of style are the sphinx, and the enormous clenchin the drawing would have been readily ed hand, now in the British Museum. Of discovered. The circumstance of their the former, Denon speaks with enthufigures, both male and female, strongly siasm : “I had only time to view the resembling each other in every instance, sphinx, which deserves to be drawn with proves that this people were not deficient a more scrupulous attention than has ever in genius; and their spirited imitations of yet been bestowed upon it. Though its animals adds to our conviction, that, had proportions are colossal, the outline is nature been more kind to the Egyptians in pure and graceful; the expression of the their forms and features, their sculptors head is mild, gracious, and tranquil; the were fully competent to give an accurate character is African ; but the mouth, the representation of personal grace. Their lips of which are thick, has a softness and limited and absurd ideas of religion were delicacy of execution truly admirable; it a decided bar to improvement, and led seems real life and flesh. Art must have them to debase rather than improve the been at a high pitch when this monument human form : hence we sometimes find the was executed: for, if the head wants what heads of animals attached to the bodies is called style, that is to say, the straight of men, and the ridiculous imputed acts of and bold lines, which give expression to their idols are represented in strange un- the figures under which the Greeks have natural positions, and those frequently designated their deities, yet sufficient repeated; hence the idea of grouping justice bas been rendered to the fine their figures was decidedly banished, ex. simplicity and character of nature wbich cept in a few cases, when the same out. is displayed in this figure.” line occurs to the depth of four and five These observations corroborate what persons, each performing the same acts. we have already advanced of the capabi. The errors of the Egyptians on this
lity of the Egyptians to execute, had
their conceptions been equally correct; head cannot be more forcibly illustrated than by mentioning their manner of ex
but as those were limited, their genius pressing a general punishment; a gigan
for excellent sculpture can only be coltic figure wields a weapon with one hand,
lected from detached objects; hence it is and with the other grasps the hair of a
that we must look for elegance in their group of kneeling figures, placed in a
representations of animals, foliage, and
flowers, which being admired by all, and circle, with three ranges of heads appear. ing above each other, the hands, knees,
not subject to the changes and varieties bodies, and profiles, exactly parallel. A
exhibited in the human frame and counsecond mistake in their sculpture was
tenance, are more readily copied In this the disproportion of their figures to the
part of our pursuit we are again assisted object decorated with them, as it fre
by Denon, who has presented us with quently happens that the same building
many traces of simplicity in the capitals
of their pillars, some of which are of about contains hieroglyphics not three inches in length, which in another part of the
the same degree of excellence with the structure are extended to several feet.
best specimens of Saxon sculpture, and Thus the temple of Apollinopolis Magna,
in some cases strongly remind us of the
works of that people ; and it may be worat Etfu, has its side covered with figures
thy of observation, that the shape of the half the height of the building, and the front with others not a sixth part of their
Egyptian capital differs very little from
the Corinthian of the Greeks: one in parsize.
ticular might be supposed to be the work Their progress in the art of sculpture of the latter, as it is surrounded by a may be traced by the several gradations range of beautiful full-grown leaves of in the execution : at first the simple out the palm, disposed as the acanthus leaf Jine, cut very deep, succeeded by rude afterwards was; another formed of a colfigures in very flat relief, and ending in lection of palm-stalks before the branches bold and perfect forms in alto relievo. and leaves are fully developed, shows Denon has given several valuable speci. that a very little taste, added to the dis. mens of their remains, amongst which position, would have raised the reputa." are a species of caryatides, or nakert tion of Egyptian sculpture to a level with figures, standing erect, with their arms that of their more polislied imitators, as crossed on their breasts: these, however, there can be no doubt that they have af
forded hints to the Greeks. The frieze the means of subsistence beyond the of the great temple at Tentyra, also mere wants of the day; it is therefore shi ws, that the ideas of the Egyptians, extremely probable, that those who emwhen confined to objects intended mere- ployed statuaries to perpetuate the mely for ornament, approached very near mory of great men, and io honour their perfection; in this instance the sculp. gods with their representations as votives tures of the wings of birds, variously and to the numerous temples, made liberal tastefully disposed, deserve the approba remuneration, and it is to be hoped equal tion of the enlightened observer.
to the merit of the work. We must now turn our attention to the The Romans were fully sensible of the acknowledged masters of the sublime art superior excellence of the Greeks in of sculpture, the ancient Greeks, to whom sculpture, and although we cannot apevery nation of the earth still pays a willing prove of their motives in plundering homage, and from wliose matchless works them of their best works, yet we invoeach sculptor is happy to concentrate and luntarily feel satisfied, that it is through improve his observations on the human their rapacity that we now possess those figure, presented by them to his contem. fascinating models for imitation, which plation in its most graceful perfection. bas formed the taste of the Italian sculpSuch, indeed, has been the excellence tors, and excited that emulation, which and correctness of their imitations of na. enabled artists to rouse the public mind ture, and the refined elegance of their to a state of enthusiasm sufficiently pow. taste, that many ages have elapsed, not erful to crowd churches and palaces with one of which has afforded a single in- mementoes of the great and good Be. starce of improvement, even in the dis. sides this superior branch of the art, we position of their scrolls, or other fanciful are not less indebted to the ancient Gre. ornaments.
cians for the invention and distribution of As modelling figures in earth has been the most refined taste in the inferior parts a practice for ages, previous to their of sculpture: under this head we need sculpture in stone, it may be supposed only remind the reader of the grand conthat this was the original method of mak. ceptions distributed from the base to the ing isolated resemblances of men ; in- summit of Grecian buildings, in reliefs of deed, the facility with which alterations various rich ornaments. and improvements might be accomplish. It appears almost superfluous to mened seems to point out the propriety of tion the Laocoon, the Venus de Medicis, using that material before the art of cut the Apollo Belvidere, the Melcager, the ting stone was inventeil. Calisthenes, Antinous, the Niobe, &c. &c. of The Gre. who was an Athenian, made a number of cian school, as efforts never to be exceedmodels, with which he adorned his resi. ed, or perhaps equalled. How does this dence ; but it is of the sculptor, and not fact exalt the character of the people thus the modeller, that we are to treat at pre- favoured, and how does it humble the sent. Of the latter, we might mention a pride of the moderns! And yet the very considerable number, whose names knowledge of infinite superiority attachhave reached us with their works, were ed to them should not de press the efforts they necessary, and yet, compared with of the student, but rather rouse him to the statues distributed in every part of increased exertion ; at all events recol. Europe, they are a very inconsiderable lecting, that Phidias, Praxiteles, Agesanportion of the eminent men, who have der, Polydore, and Athenodorus, studied flourished in the different states of models far beyond the reach of perfect Greece. When we contemplate the imitation, even the animated human beautiful specimens of their consummate form. Art, we are at a loss which most to ad. Our limits will not permit us to enlarge, mire, the softness and delicacy given to or enter into an inquiry as to the compathe marble, or the exquisite skill ilemon- rative merits of the different modern strated in every feature and muscle, which schools of Europe, of which Italy bears could only have been acquired by the away the unrivalled palm, through seveznost attentive observation of living sub. ral concurrent circumstances, and of those jects, placed in each natural and easy atti. it is immediately obvious, that piety and tude. Had not the people generally admire superstition are the principal; the le. ed and respected the arts, so great a de. gends of their saints produce an incredi. gree of perfection would never have been ble variety, for illustrating the violent attained; for the operation of producing a emotions of the soul in ardent devotion fine figure requires a mind at ease, and and the pangs of martyrdom, and it can.
Bot to be disputed, that they have in many made of coarse and perishable stone, and instances very nearly approached the ex- that they are, in truth, little better than pression and excellence of their masters: copies of each other, which circumstance of those, Michael Angelo Buonaroti has may be partly accounted for; besides, by been honoured by his countrymen with the situations they occupied on the walls the title of divine, nor was Benini much of sacred edifices, and their being inva. less deserving of this honour.
riably placed in niches, and those in the The French, although favoured with a pointed style of architecture, whence it climate little inferior to that of Italy, and became a matter of necessity to introsituated upon its borders, have less dis. duce but one figure, and that in an upright tinguished themselves in sculpture than position; yet, under all these disadvan. might have been expected; but the na- tages, a competent judge may discover in tional character is too volatile for the pro- the majority of the works of our ancient ductions of tedious and incessant exer- sculptors a freedom and correctness that tion, absolutely necessary in the sculptor; would, with due encouragement, have hence it is, that very few French names produced works little, if at all, inferior are celebrated as statuaries. It would, to those of the Italian school. If we exa. however, be unjust, not to mention Rou. mine the turns or lines of the faces of the biliac, who honoured England with his kings and saints, scattered over the surworks, which deserve every praise for faces of our cathedrals and some parish just conception, and perhaps there is no churches, it will be found that the artists moderninstance of more beautiful contrast who made them were capable of express. than in his monument to the memory of ing dignity and piety, and their drapery Lady Nightingale, in Westminster Abbey, is generally correspondent to the position on which the lifeless figure of the dying of the limbs, and in large graceful folds. lady, and the eager and terrified husband, The admirer of this art cannot fail of being have, and ever will be greatly admired. highly gratified, by tracing the progress The skeleton, wrapped in sepulchral dra. of English sculpture in that vast field for pery, aiming a dart at the breast of the observation, Westminster Abbey; where, female, needs no other encomium than in the cloisters, they will find the rude that of the celebrated anatomist, John figures of abbots coeval with the time of Hunter, who pronounced it a most per. William of Normandy, from which period fect representation. Francois Girardon down to the present moment, there is alshould also be mentioned as doing honour most an annual succession of figures, orto the French nation, by his numerous namental and monumental. Works, and by none more than his tomb The Abbey having been partly rebuilt of Cardinal Richlieu, originally placed in by Henry III. the structure was continued the college of the Sorbonne, at Paris. as the abbots could obtain the means;
The Germans and Dutch have distin- consequently there is an actual gradation guished themselves greatly in painting, in the excellence of the sculpture, down but taking the subject in an enlarged point to the reign of Henry VII.' The latter of view, they have done next to nothing monarch determined to excel all his prein sculpture ; neither has the Spanish na decessors, and his chapel, or burial-place, tion any very strong claim to distinction is one blaze of rich decoration, in every on this head. The sculpture of Great Bri. possible direction. Having thus directed tain is almost entirely confined to the in the attention of the reader to the place teriors and exteriors of churches, and the where a perfect knowledge of this substatues which adorn them are all, withoutject may be obtained, we shall proceed exception, ancient: when the religion of to notice another branch of the art, which our ancestors was the same as that of the has been continued in Great Britain from greatest part of the continent of Europe, the time of the reformation, at which pe. they gave large sums for the production riod sculpture received its fiat, as far as of shrines and saints without number; but relates to the use of it for pious purposes. they seem to bave had no idea of encou. We know but little of the statutes which raging the noblest part of the art, by se were placed about the altars and shrines lecting men of superior genius, and em of old times in this country, as they were ploying them on groups or single figures destroyed without mercy, but vast num. in white marble, the only substance calcul. bers of tombs remain uninjured in every lated to give due effect to the skill of the county : in speaking of those, we must statuary; this parsimonious conduct, and premise, that very little opportunity was probably very indifferent rewards, was given the artist to expand and improve the cause that all our old statues are his ideas, as a slavish custom prevailed of
placing all the statues on them in a pos- couragement increasing, the art began to ture, of all others, the most ridged and rouse from its torpid state, and at length ungraceful, which was on their backs, and Cibber Aourished, to whom we are indebtwith the hands joined in prayer: under ed for many very excellent statues, and this obvious disadvantage our ancient some rich embellishments at St. Paul's ca. sculptors contrived to make many excel. thedral. Without invidiously mentioning lent and interesting figures in beautiful names and making comparisons, it would transparent alabaster although almost all be impossible to enter more fully into the the males are represented in armour. As progress of sculpture since the daie jirst the effigies of persons were frequently ac- mentioned; we shall therefore merely say companied by that of their consoris, more that numerous proofs exist, that the mo. scope for genius and variety prevailed in dern English possess a genius for sculp. the latter, and consequently we find fe. ture equal to the inhabitants of any nation, males in the habits of their times, and re. but unfortunately it seems to be nearly presented in the rich ornaments of the confined to the execution of monuments, sex, and making due allowance for the on which a routine of genii, ancient gods stiffness of their cumbent position, the and goddesses, and virtues, are constantly drapery is frequently placed in true and introduced, to the total extinction of well conceived folds : as to expression in tasie, as they must each possess their atthe features heyond a mere state of quiet, tributes, to point out their names. as it would not have been proper, it is not Little need be said of the mechanical to be discovered in any instance. Some part of this art, as various chissels, a malof the tombs under consideration are let, compasses, and materials for polish. divided into compartments, in each of ing marble, are all that is required; the which small bas reliefs are introduced of essential is seated in the mind, and as the children of the deceased, or monks Roubiliac used to say, “the figure is in or nuns telling their beads; these are fre the substance of the marble, I only extriquently well executed, and so far so, as cate it from the enclosure, or pick it out.” to make us wish the artist had been in. SCUTAGE, was anciently a tax impos. dulged to the full extent of his abilities. ed on such as held lands, &c. by knight's
It appears, upon an attentive compari. service, towards furnishing the King's son, that the figures, executed between army: hence scutagio habendo was a writ the reigns of Henry III and Henry VII, that lay for the king, or other lord, against are infinitely superior to those placeri on tenants holding by knight's service, to tombshuring and after the time of Henry serve in person, or send a sufficient man VIII. as in his and the two preceiling in their room, or pay a certain sum, &c. seigns, the effigies were generally exhibit. SCUTELLARIA, in botany, skull-cap, ed either kneeling at praver, or cumbent, a genus of the Didynamia Gymnosperin a most miserable taste indeed, which mia class and order. Natural order of was made still more disgusting by the cus. Verticillatæ. Labiatæ, Jussieu. Essential tom of painting and gilling the diapery. character: calyx with an entire mouth, In the period of the interregnum, nothing after flowering closed by a lid. There was done in the art of sculpture, as, un. are sixteen species: these are all pefortunately, the era alluded to completed rennial plants, chiefly herbaceous, with the destruction begun at the reformation, square stalks, and opposite leaves; the by the application of a blind principle of fiowers are either solitary, axillary, and dislike, which prevented the preservation naked, or else in terminating bracted of the statues of saints, not as objects to spikes, with one bracte, or floral leaf, to excile devotion, but as the only memen. each flower; they are chiefly natives of tos that existed that the art had ever been the south of Europe. encouraged in England
SCUTTLES, in a ship, square holes cut As might have been anticipated, sculp. in the deck, big enough to let in the body ture sunk into a state of total neglect, if of a man, serving to let people down into not of conteinpt; but after the restoration, any room below upon occasion, or from the ancient habits of the people recurring, one deck to another. They are generally states of the dethroned king, and of his before the main-mast, before the knight son and successor, were erected in every in the forecastle ; in the gun-room, to go direction, and in some instances they are down to the stern-sheets; in the roundtolerable figures; but the monumental of house, to go down into the captain's cabin. the same late are wretched indeel, as they when forced by the enemy in a fight aloft. are cial in Roman armour, and their heads There are also some smaller scuties, and shoulders sustain enormous wigs, En- which have gratings over them: and all of them have covers, that people may not ed it utterly uninhabitable for terrestrial fall down through them in the night. animals; for the centre of the earth be. Scuttle is also a name given to those little ing the common cenire of gravity; and windows and holes which are cut out in the nature of fluids being such, that they cabins, to let in light.
equally yield to equal powers; and the SCYLLEA, in natural history, a genus power of attraction being every where of the Vermes Mollusca class and order. equalat equal distances from the centre; Body compressed, and grooved along the it follows, that the superficial parts of the back; mouth consists of a terminal tooth. water will every where conform themless aperture ; tentacula, or arms, three selves to an equidistant situation from the on each side, and placed beneath. Two centre, and, consequently, will for the species are noticed, viz. the Pelagica and surface of a sphere, so far as they extend. Gompliodensis.
Hence, that the sea seems higher than SCYTHROPS, the channel-bill, in na- the earth or land, results from the fallacy tural history, a genus of birds of the or- of vision, whereby all objects and the der Pica. Generic character: the bill parts of land as well as sea, the further large, convex, cultrated, furrowed at the ihey are ofi' from us, the higher they ap. sides, hooked at the tip ; nostrils round, pear; the reason of all which is plain froin naked at the base of the bill; tongue car. optics : for it is well known, that the dentilaginous, split at the point; toes two be- ser any medium is, through which we fore, and two behind ; tail of ten feathers. behold objects, the greater is the refracOf this genus only one species is known. tion; or the more their images appear This is an inhabitant of New South Wales, above the horizontal level; also the greatand is generally designated as the New er quantity of the medium the raysyass *South Wales channel bird. Its size is through, the more will they be bent from that of a crow; but its length is considera- their first direction ; on both these acbly greater, measuring two feet seven counts, the appearances of things remote, inches. It is seldom seen, excepting in and on the sea, will be somewhat above the morning and evening, generally in the horizon, and the more so as they are pairs, sometimes in very small flocks; its the more remote. noise resembles the screaming sound of With regard to the depth or profundity alarm uttered by poultry in danger. It is of the sea, Varenius affirms that it is in migratory, and supposed to feed on the some places unfathomable, and in other seeds of trees, on fruits, and the exuviæ of places very various, being in certan places beetles. The tail is sometimes unfolded it 4, 45., 17., 22, 4) English miles, like a fan, both during the Aight and sit.
in other places deeper, and much less in ting of the bird, and gives it an interest.
bays than in oceans In general the depthis ing and dignified appearance. It appears
of the sea bear a great analogy to the not to be easily tameable ; but of the na.
height of mountains on the land, so far as ture, manners and habits of this bird, lit.
is hitherto discovered : and it is a general tle is at present ascertained.
rule among sailors, and is found to hold SEA, is frequently used for that vast true in many instances, that the more the tract of water encompassing the whole shores of any place are steep and higli, earth; but is more properly a part or din forming perpendicular cliffs, the deepvision of these waters, and is better de er the sea is below; and that, on the fined, a lesser assemblage of water, which contrarv, level shores denote shallow seas. lies before, and washeth the coasts of Thus the deepest part of the Mediterra. some particular countries, from whence it nean is generally allowed to be undertle is generally denominated, as the Irish Sea, height of Malta. And the observation of the Mediterranean Sea, the Arabian Sea, the strata of earth and other fossils, on &c.
and near the shores, may serve to form a What proportion the superficies of the good judgment as to the materials to be sea bears to that of the land is not pre- found in its bottom. For the veins of salt cisely known, though it is said to be and of bitumen doubtless run on the somewhat more than two-thirds. As the same, and in the same order, as we see waters of the earth must necessarily rise them at land: and the strata of rocks hat to the surface thereof, as being specifically serve to support the earth of hills and lighter than the earth, it was necessary elevated places on shore, serve also, n there should be large cavities therein, for the same continued chain to support he receptacles to contain them, otherwise immense quantity of water in the basin they would have overspread all the su- of the sea. perficies of the earth, and so have render. The coral fisheries have given occasion