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the constitu

converts vegetable blues to green. It is viz. S. maritima. It is a native of Cura. soon covered with a pellicle, by absorb. coa, on rocks by the coast. ing carbonic acid from the atmosphere. STRUTAIO, the ostrich, in natural hisStrontites has the property of communi. tory, a genus of birds of the order Galcating a purple or red carmine colour to line. Generic character: the bill straight, flame. Specimens have been analyzed depressed like that of u duck, and by various chemists, who have obtained rounded at the end; wings short, and different results; according to Klaproth, unfit for Aight; legs naked above the constituent parts are,

knee ; two toes placed forward. Gmelin

enumerates four species of this genus, Strontites.... 69 5

several of which have characters not a Carbonic acid . a 30.0

little dissimilar in some points, and such Water . . . . .

as have induced Brisson and Lathain to

adopt a different arrangement. Having 100

noticed this circumstance, we shall ad. here to the Linnzan system. S. camelus,

or the black ostrich, is about eight feet STRONGILUS, in natural history, a

long, and when erect measures about se. genus of the Vermes Intestina class and

ven feet, and sometimes eight in height. order. Body round, long, pellucid, gla.

One was exhibited in London in 1750, brous; the fore part globular, truncate,

weighing three hundred pounds. It is with a circular aperture fringed at the

found in various parts of Africa, and margin; the hind part of the female en.

about the Cape of Good Hope is particutire and pointed; of the male dilated

larly abundant. In the parts of Asia, into loose, distant, pellucid membranes.

near Africa, it is also met with. The idea There are two species, viz. S. equinus,

of these birds burying their eggs in the and S. ovinus; the latter is found in the

sand, where the sun brings them to ma. intestines of sheep ; the former has an

turity, is contradicted by Kolben, who opaque head and a black intestine ; it

states that he has driven the ostrich from inhabits the stomach of the horse in great

its nest innumerable times to procure its numbers ; the male is of a pale yellow,

eggs for food, adding, that these constiwith a fine yellowish membrane cover

tute a most excellent repast, and that one

is sufficient for four moderate persons. ing the intestines; the tail is three-leav. ed, with a small spine or two; female

The ostrich subsists entirely on vegetable with white filiform vesicles surrounding

productions, but will swallow, occasion

ally, the most hard and even sharp and the intestines.

pointed substances. Iron, and various STROP, in naval affairs, a piece of other metals, and even glass, have often rope, spliced generally into a circular been found in its stomach, and have un. wreath, and used to surround the body of questionably often proved fatal. It is a block, so that the latter may be hung related, upon respectable authority, that to any particular situation about the masts, an ostrich will carry a man upon its back, yards, or rigging. Strops are also used and move with very considerable speed ; to fasten upon any large rope, for the pur. some make the same remark wiih repose of hooking a tackle to the eye of spect to two men. When unincumbered The strop, in order to extend, or pull with by any burden its speed is truly extraordiredoubled effort upon the same rope. nary, and will exceed, in some instances, STROPHE, in ancient poetry, a certain

the ordinary rapidity of a horse. Os. number of verses, including a perfect

triches are taken by the natives near the sense, and making the first part of an

Cape, after a pursuit of two or three days, ode. What the couplet is in songs, and

from mere exhaustion, through which the stanza in epic poetry, the strophe is

they suffer themselves to be destroyed

merely by clubs. Dogs are sometimes in odes.

employed to hunt them down, followed STRUMPFIA, in botany, so named in by men on horseback, who contrive, by memory of Christopher Car. Strumpff, means of a long hooked staff, to lay professor of chemistry and botany at hold of one of the legs of the bird, and Halle in Madgeburgh, a genus of the thus bring it to the ground. Sometimes Syngenesia Monogynia class and order. they are approached and destroyed by Natural order of Compositæ Numentaceæ. the stratagem of advancing against them Essential character : calyx five-toothed, in one of the skins of their own species. superior; corolla five-petalled ; berry They are applied to various purposes. one-seeded. There is only one species, Their feathers form an admirable orna

ment for the ladies: their skins are of suf. STRYCHNOS, in botany, a genus of the ficient thickness to be manufactured for Pentandria Monogynia class and order. the purposes of leather; the fat part of Natural order of Luridæ. Apocineæ, Justheir bodies is in high, but perhaps fanci. sieu. Essential cbaracter: corolla five. ful, estimation in many parts for paralytic parted; berry one-celled, with a woody and rheumatic complaints; even their rind. There are three species: we shall eggs are used as goblets, and, if some au. notice the S. nux vomica, poison nut. It thors may be credited, young ostriches is a native of the East Indies, and is comconstitute an agreeable variety for the ta- mon in almost every part of the coast of ble. See Aves, Plate XIV. fig. 1.

Coromandel, flowering during the cold S. casuarius, or the galeated cassowary, season. The wood is hard and durable, is nearly equal in magnitude to the ostrich, and is used for many purposes by the but has a much shorter neck, and there. natives. The root is used to cure infore is greatly inferior in height. On the termitting fevers, and the bites of venotop of its head is a species of helmet three mous snakes. The seed of the fruit is inches high, and one thick at the base. the officinal nux vomica; it is about an Each wing, or what appears as such, is inch broad, and nearly a quarter of an destitute of feathers, and has five bare inch thick, covered with a kind of woolly shafts like those of a porcupine, and the matter; internally it is tough and hard, body is covered with loose webbed fea- like horn; to the taste extremely bitter, thers of a rusty black colour. It is never but having no remarkable smell; it confound beyond the tropical limits, and is sists chiefly of a gummy matter; the reno where abundant within them. It is un- sinous part is very inconsiderable. Nux able to fly, but runs with great speed; vomica is reckoned amongst the most and though it lives only on vegetables and powerful poisons of the narcotic kind; it fruits, which it is said to swallow unbro- proves fatal to dogs in a very short time. ken, it is courageous, and even some. Loureiro relates, that a horse died within times ferocious, and employs its legs to a quarter of an hour, after taking an inannoy its adversary by kicking

fusion in wine of the seeds in an half S. Nova Hollandia, or the New Holland roasted state.

but considerably longer.

Monadelphia Polyandria class and order. S. rhea, or the American ostrich, is Natural order of Columniferæ. Tiliacex, stated to have been seen by various tra. Jussieu. Essential character: calyx simvellers, but no specimen appears to have ple; style simple, with a five-cleft stigma; been received in this country. It is said pome juiceless, fibe-lobed, one-seeded, to bo most numerous in the valleys of the opening five ways. There are two spe. Andes. It subsists partly on fruits, but cies, viz. S. malacodendron; and S. pen. refuses scarcely any thing that is thrown tagynia ; both natives of Virginia. to it, however inconvenient and perni. STUDDING sails, are those which are cious to it. Its favourite food consists of extended in moderate and steady breezes Alies, in taking which, it is peculiarly ac. beyond the skirts of the principal sails, tive and skilful. Each of its eggs is sup- where they appear as wings to the yard. posed to contain two pounds of fluid, and arms. it lays between fifty and sixty of these. STURNUS, the stare or starling, in na. It calls its young ones by a sound ex- tural history, a genus of birds of the ortremely resembling the whistle of a hu. der Passeres. Generic character: the bill man being, and defends itself by kick. straight and depressed; nostrils suring. Its feathers are in high estimation rounded and protected by a prominent among the Indians for the embellishment rim ; tongue hard and cloven; middle toe of their persons, and are used in forming joined to the outermost, as far as the first ornamental coverings for shade.

joint. There are seventeen species, of STRUTHIOLA, in botany, a genus of which we shall notice the following: the Tetrandria Monogynia class and S. vulgaris, the common starling, order. Natural order of Veprecuculæ. weighs about three ounces, and is well Thymeleæ, Jussieu. Essential character: known nearly throughout the old world. corolla none; calyx tubular, with eigbt It builds-in rocks, houses, and the holglands at the mouth; berry juiceless, lows of the trunks of trees; but rarely on one-secded. There are five species, all the branches, unless when availing itself natives of the southern promontory of of the deserted nest of some other biri. Africa.

In winter, starlings are seen in immense VOL. XI.


multitudes, in company willı several other or “Naturalist's Miscellany,” may be con. Britislı birds, especially fieldfares and red- sulteil with satisfaction. wings; and their fight is particularly STYLUS, in botany, the slender part of marked by whirling and nearly circular the pistillum, resembling a pillar, which movements, which, while they extremely stands upon the seed-bud, and elevates delay their actual progress, do not abso. the stigma. The number of styles, gene. lutely prevent it. They assemble in the rally speaking, is equal to that of the mornings to make their excursions for seed buds, each seed-bud being furnished food, which consists of worms and insects, with its own particular style. The style returning to their stations in the evening, either falls with the other parts of the and, at both seasons, exhibiting extraordi. flower, or accompanies the fruit to matunary tumult and clamour. In confinement, rity. they eat with avidity pieces of raw meat; STYPTIC, in pharmacy, medicines and, in a state of nature, they are sup which, by their astringent qualities, stop posed to prefer animal food to vegetable, hæmorrhages. recurring to the last only when the for STYRAX, in botany, storar, a genus of mer is not to be found. They are ex. the Hecandria Monogynia class and order. tremely docile and mimetic, and may be Natural order of Bicornes. Guaiacanz, taught not merely a great variety of Jussieu. Essential character: calyx infesounds, but even words and phrases. rior; corolla funnel-form; drupe two

STYLE, a word of various significa. seeded. There are four species, the most tions, originally ded:iced from a kind of remarkable of which is the S. benzoin, bodkin, where with the ancients wrote on benzoin storax, or benjamin tree, as it is plates of lead, or on wax, &c. and which corruptly called, is of quick growth, rising is still used to write on ivory leaves, and to a considerable height: it is deemed, paper prepared for that purpose, &c. in Sumatra, which is its native country, to

STILE, in dialling, denotes the gnomon be of sufficient age in six years, or when or cock of a dial, raised on the plane the trunk is about seven or eight inches thereof, to project a shadow.

in diameter, to afford the benzoin; the STYLE, in botany, is a part of the pistil bark is then cut through longitudinally, of plants, and is of various figures, but al. at the beginning of the principal lower ways placed on the germen: it gives ori branches, from which the drug exudes in gin to the stigma.

a liquid state, and by exposure to the sun STYLE, in matters of language, a parti and air soon concretes, when it is scraped cular manner of expressing one's thoughts off from the bark with a knife or chissel. agreeably to the rules of syntax; or, the The quantity which one tree affords nemanner wherein the words, constructed ver exceeds three pounds; nor are the according to the laws of syntax, are ar trees found to sustain the effects of these ranged among themselves, suitably to the annual incisions longer than ten ortwelve genius of the language.

years. The benzoin which issues first STYLEPUORUS, in natural history, a from the wounded bark is the purest, be. genus of fishes of the order Apodes. Ge. ing soft, extremely fragrant, and very neric character: cyes pedunculated, white; that which is less esteemed is of standing on a short, ibick cylinder; snout a brownish colour, hard, and mixed with lengthened, directed upwards, retractile various impurities. In Arabia, Persia, and towards the lead, by means of a mem. other parts of the east, the coarser sort is brane; mouth without teeth; three pair consumed in fumigating and perfuming of branchiæ beneath the throat: pectoral the temples, and in destroying insects. fins small; dorsal extending completely SUBALTERN, a subordinate officer, or along the back: caudal short, with spiny one who discharges his post under the rays; body very long and compressed. command, and subject to the direction, of There is only one species of this wonderanother: such are lieutenants, sub-lieute. ful genus, which was first described to. nants, cornets, and cnsigns, who serve wards the close of the last century. under the captain ; but custom has now

S.chordatus is a native of the West In- appropriated the term to those of much dia seas, and is nearly three feet in length, lower rank, as serjeants and the like. We incluiing the process at the end of the also say subaltern courts, jurisdictions, tail, which is about twenty inches. For a &c. suich are those of inferior lords, with minute description of this singular ani. regard to the lord paramount; hundred mal, which was taken swimming near the courts, with regard to county courts, &c. surface of the water, between Cuba and SUBCONTRARY position, in geometry Blartinique, the “Linnæan Transactions," is when two similar triangles are so placed

as to have one common angle at the ver and surprising, which strikes the soul, tex, and yet their bases not parallel. and makes a sentiment or composition

SUBDUPLE ratio, is when any number ravish and transport. or quantity is contained in another twice: Longinus makes five sources of the subthus 3 is said to be subduple of 6, as 8 is lime : the first, a certain elevation of the duple of 3.

mind, which makes us think happily : the SUBDUPLICATE ratio, of any two second is the pathetic, or that natural ve. quantities, is the ratio of their square roots. hemence and enthusiasm which strikes This is the opposite to the duplicate, which and moves us; these two are wholy owing is the ratio of the squares: thus, if the to nature, and must be born with us; quantities be a and b, the duplicate ratio whereas the rest depend partly on art : the is a bd; but the subduplicate ratio is third is the turning of figures in a certain ✓a:

manner, both those of thoughts and of SUBER, or SUBEric acid, in chemistry. speech: the fourth, nobleness of expresThe vegetable substance denoted by the son ; which consists of two parts, the name of suber is the epidermis, or outer

choice of words, and the elegant figuracovering of trees. This substance is an

tive diction; the fifth, which includes all alogous to common cork, which is the the rest, is the composition and arrangeepidermis of the quercus suber, from ment of the words in all their magnifiwhich the name of this peculiar vegetable

egetable cence and dignity. substance is derived. It is a light, soft,

SUBMULTIPLE, in geometry, &c. A elastic substance, is insoluble in water,

submultiple number, or quantity, is that but readily absorbs this liquid. Common which is contained a certain number of cork is the same substance, having great times in another, and which, therefore, er density, and accumulated in greater repeated a certain number of times, be. quantity. This matter is very combusti comes exactly equal thereto: thus 3 is a ble, and burns with a white, vivid flame, submultiple of 21 ; in which sense sub. leaving behind a very black, light, vos multiple coincides with an aliquot part. luminous, coaly matter. When this mat. SUBMULTIPLE ratio, is that between the ter is distilled, it yields ammonia. When quantity contained and the quantity concork is treated with nitric acid, carbonic taining : thus the ratio of 3 to 21 is subacid gas and nitrous gas are evolved, multiple. In both cases, submultiple is The cork is decomposed, and converted, the reverse of multiple, 21, e. g. being a -partly into a yellow, soft, unctuous mat. multiple of 3, and the ratio of 21 to 3 a ter, which swims on the surface, and part. multiple ratio. Jy into suberic acid ; the nature and pro SUBNORMAL, in geometry, a line perties of which have been already de. which determines the point in the axis of scribed. See CORK, where will be found a curve, where a normal, or perpendicuan account of the SUBERIC acid, SUBER lar raised from the point of contact of a ATES, &c.

tangent to the curve, cuts the axis. Or SUBLIMATION, in chemistry, a pro.

the subnormal is a line which determines cess by which certain volatile substances

the point, wherein the axis is cut by a are raised by heat, and again condensed line falling perpendicularly on the tangent by cold into a solid form. Thus, sulphur

in the point of the contact. exposed to heat in close vessels, is volati. SUBPÆNA, is a writ, whereby all perlized or sublimed in the form of very sons under the degree of peers are called white powder, known by the name of into Chancery, in such case only where “ flowers of sulphur.” The formation of the common law fails, and has made no soot in our chimneys is another instance provision; so as the party, who in equity of sublimation. Benzoin, sublimated, hath wrong, can have no other remedy gives flowers of benzoin, a very beautiful by the rules and course of common law. substance, which is now more properly It is, therefore, the commencement of a called benzoic acid. Sublimation may be suit in equity. But the peers of the realm performed, in many cases, with common in such cases are called by the Lord Chan. flasks : thus, if a small quantity of sal am. cellor's or Lord Keeper's letters, giving moniac is put into a flask, and heat applied notice of the suit intended against them, to is, the entire salt arises in the form of and requiring them to appear. There is white smoke, and condenses in the upper also a subpæna ad testificandum, or a subpart of the flask, in the forin of minute pæna to give evidence for the summoncrystalline particles, which is a sublimate. ing the witnesses, as well in Chancery as

SUBLIME, in discourse, is defined by other courts. There is also a subpæna in Boileau, to be something extraordinary the Exchequer, as well in the court of

equity there, as in the office of pleas; SUCCINATES. See SUCCINIC acid which latter is a writ that does not require SUCCINIC acid, in chemistry, obtained personal service, and is the commence- from the decomposition of amber, was forment of a suit at common law there. merly called volatile salt of amber, and

SUBSTANTIVE, in grammar, a noun, regarded as an alkaline salt. It was not or name, considered simply and in itself, till towards the end of the seventeenth without any regard to its qualities, or century, that its acid properties were disother accidents, in contradistinction to covered. See AMBER. the noun termed adjective, or that which T he name of the acid is derived from expresses a certain quality or accident of succinum, the Latin name for amber. It the noun substantive. See GRAMMAR. may be obtained by the following process:

SUBTRACTION. See ARITHMETIC Introduce a quantity of amber, in pow. and ALGEBRA.

der, into a retort, and let it be covered SUBTANGENT of a curve, in the with dry sand. Adapt a receiver, and higher geometry, is the line which deter- distil with a moderate heat in a sand mines the intersection of the tangent with bath. There passes over first a liquid, the axis; or that determines the point which is of a reddish colour, and afterwherein the tangent cuts the axis pro. wards a volatile acid salt, which crystallonged. In any equation, if the value of lizes in small wbite or yellowish nee. the subtangent comes out positive, it is a dles in the neck of the retort ; and if the sign that the points of intersection of the distillation be continued, a white, light tangent and axis fall on that side of the oil succeeds, which becomes brown, ordinate where the vertex of the curve thick, and viscid. The acid which is oblies, as in the parabola and paraboloids : tained in this way is contaminated with but if it comes out negative, the point of the oil ; and therefore, to separate this intersection will fall on the contrary side oil, it may be dissolved in hot water, and of the ordinate, in respect of the vertex, passed through a filter, on which has been or beginning of the abscissa, as in the placed a little cotton moistened with oil hyperbola and hyperboliform figures. of amber, which retains the oil, and pre. And universally, in all paraboliform and vents it from passing through along with hyperboliform figures the subtangent the acid. The acid may then be evapo. is equal to the exponent of the power rated and crystallized. The crystals are of the ordinate, multiplied into the ab. four-sided, rhomboidal plates, which, if scissa. See TANGENT.

pure, are white. Their taste is sour, · SUBTENSE, in geometry, the same

and they redden an infusion of litmus.

They are soluble in twenty-four parts of with the chord of an arch. Hence the subtense of an angle is a right line, sup

cold water, but in much less of hot.

They are soluble also in alcohol. This posed to be drawn between the two extremities of the arch that measures that

acid is volatile and inflammable : its base

is a compound of carbon and hydrogen. angle. SUBTRIPLE ratio, is when one num

It combines with the alkalies, earths, and

metallic oxides, forming there with salts ber, or quantity, is contained in another

called succinates. Most of these crystalthree times : thus, 2 is said to be sub

lize, as the succinate of potash, soda, lime triple of 6, as 6 is triple of 2.

&c. but the succinate of magnesia will SUBULARIA, in botany, a genus of the not crystallize, but by evaporation forms Tetradynamia Siliculosa class and order. a viscid mass. The metallic succinates Natural order of Siliquosæ or Cruciformes are likewise soluble and crystallizable. Crucifera, Jussieu. Essential character: SUCCULENTÆ, in botany, the name silicle cntire, ovate; valves ovate, concave of the thirteenth order in Linnæus's Fragcontrary to the partition ; style shorter ments of a Natural Method, consisting of than the silicle. There is only one flat, Aeshy, succulent plants, of which the species, viz. S. aquatica, awl-wort, a na. greater part is evergreen: among these tive of the northern parts of Europe. are the cactus, Indian fig; sedum, lesser

SUCCESSOR, in law, is he who follows house leak; and the saxifrage. or comes in another's place. An aggre SUCTION, the act of sucking or draw. gate corporation, or body composed of ing up a fluid, as air, water, milk, or the many persons, may bave a fee simple es. like, by means of the mouth and lungs. tate in succession without the word suc. There are many effects vulgarly attributcessors; and take goods and chattels in ed to suction, which, in reality, have very action or possession, and they shall go to different causes. As when any one the successors.

sucks water, or any other liquor, up

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