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Summer savory is a very warm pun. the ring, and then it becomes invisible, gent aromatic, and affords in distillation either because the outward edge is not with water a subtile essential oil, of a pe. fitted to reflect the Sun's light, or more netrating smell, and very hot acrid taste. probably because it is too thin to be
SATURN is a very conspicuous planet, seen at such a distance. As the plane though not so brilliant as Jupiter. The of this ring keeps always parallel to it. period of his sidereal revolution round self, that is, its situation in one part of the earth is 10,759 days. He moves the orbit is always parallel to that in any from west to east nearly in the plane of other part, it disappears twice in every the ecliptic, and exhibits irregularities revolution of the planet, that is, about similar to those of Jupiter and Mars. once in fifteen years, and be sometimes He becomes retrograde both before and appears quite round for nine months to. after his opposition, when at the dis. gether. At other times, the distance tance of about 109° from the sun. His between the body of the planet and the retrograde motion continues about 139 ring is very perceptible, insomuch that days, and during its continuance he de. Mr. Whiston tells us of Dr. Clarke's scribes an arc of about 6o. His diame. father having seen a star through the ter is a maximum at his opposition, and upening, and supposed him to have his mean apparent diameter is 18". Saturn, been the only person who ever saw a when viewed through a good telescope, sight so rare, as the opening, though cer. makes a more remarkable appearance tainly very large, appears very small to us. than any of the other planets. Galileo When Saturn appears round, if our first discovered bis uncommon shape, eye be in the plane of the ring, it will wbich he thought to be like two small appear as a dark line across the middle globes, one on each side of a large one, of the planet's disk, and if our eye be and he published his discovery in a elevated above the plane of the ring, Latin sentence, the meaning of which a shadowy belt will be visible, caused was, that he had seen him appear with by the shadow of the ring, as well as three bodies, though, in order to keep by the interposition of part of it be. the discovery a secret, the letters were tween the eye and the planet. The transposed. Having viewed him for two shadow of the ring is broadest when years, he was surprised to see him be. the Sun is most elevated, but its ob. come quite round, without these ap. scure parts appear broadest, when our pendages, and then, after some time, to eye is most elevated above the assume them as before. These adjoin. plane of it. When it appears double, ing globes were what are now called the ring next the body of the planet the ansæ of his ring, the true shape of appears brightest. When the ring ap. which was first discovered by Huygens, pears of an elliptical form, the parts about forty years after Galileo, first with about the ends of the largest axis are a telescope of twelve feet, and then with called the ansæ, as has been already menone of twenty-three feet, which magni- tioned. These, a little before and after fied objects one hundrell times. From the disappearing of the ring, are of unthe discoveries made by him and other as- equal magnitude; the largest ansæ is tronomers, it appears that this planet is longer visible before the planet's round surrounded by a broad thin ring, the phase, and appears again sooner than edge of which reflects little or none of the other. On the first of October, 1714, the Sun's light to us, but the planes of the largest ansæ was on the east side, and the ring reflect the light in the same on the twelfth on the west side, of the manner that the planet itself does; ard disk of the planet, which makes it proif we suppose the diameter of Saturn bable that the ring has a rotation round to be divided into three equal parts, an axis. Herschel has demonstrated, the diameter of the ring is about seven that it revolves in its own plane in 10h of these parts. The ring is detached 32' 15.4". The observations of this pbifrom the body of Saturn in such a man. losopher have added greatly to our ner, that the distance between the in. knowledge of Saturn's ring. According nermost part of the ring and the body to him there is one single, dark, conis equal to its breadth. Both the out. siderably broad line, belt, or zone, which ward and inward rim of the ring is pro. he has constantly found on the north side jected into an ellipsis, more or less ob of the ring As this dark belt is subject long, according to the different degrees to no change whatever, it is probably of obliquity with which it is viewed. owing to some permanent construction Sometimes our eye is in the plane of of the surface of the ring: this construc.
tion cannot be owing to the shadow of two very unequal parts can admit of no a chain of mountains, since it is visible doubt." The diameters of Saturn are all round on the ring ; for there could not equal: that which is perpendicular be no shade at the ends of the ring; to the plane of his ring appears less by a similar argument will apply against one-eleventh than the diameter situated the opinions of very extended caverns. in that plane. If we compare this form It is pretty evident that this dark zone with that of Jupiter, we have reason to is contained between two concentric cir conclude that Saturn turns rapidly round cles, for all the phenomena correspond his shorter axis, and that the ring moves with the projection of such a zone. The in the plane of his equator. Herschel has nature of the ring Dr. Herschel thinks confirmed this opinion by actual observano less solid than that of Saturn itself, and tion. He has ascertained the duration of it is observed to cast a strong shadow up. a revolution of Saturn round his axis to on the planet. The light of the ring is also amount to 0.428 day. Huygens observed generally brighter than that of the planet, five belts upon this planet nearly parallel for the ring appears sufficiently bright to the equator. when the telescope affords scarcely light SATYRIUM, in botany, a genus of the enough for Saturn. The Doctor con. Gynandria Diandria class and order Nacludes that the edge of the ring is not fat, tural order of Orchideæ. Essential chabut spherical, or spheroidical. The di racter; nectary serotiform, or twin.infat. mensions of the ring, or of the two rings ed behind the flower. There are twentywith the space between them, Dr. Her one species. schel gives below:
SAUCISSE, or Sausage, in the military
art, a long train of powder, sewed up in Inner diameter of smaller ring 146,345 a roll of pitched cloth, about two inches Outside diameter of ditto . 184,393 in diameter, serving to set fire to mines. Inner diameter of larger ring 190,248 There are usually two saucisses extended Outside diameter of ditto • 204,883 from the chamber of the mine, to the Breadth of the inner ring . 20,000 place where the engineer stands; that in Breadth of the outer ring - 7,200 Case one should fail, the other may take Breadth of the vacant space,
effect or dark zone - - - - 2,339 SAUCISSON, in fortification, a mass of
large branches of trees bound together; There have been various conjectures and differing only from a fascine, as this relative to the nature of this ring. Some is composed of small branches of twigs. persons have imagined that the diameter Saucissons are employed to cover the of the planet Saturn was once equal to men, and to make epaulements. the present diameter of the outer ring, SAVILLE, (Sır HENRY,) in biography, and that it was hollow, the present body a very learned Englishman, the second being contained within the former sur. son of Henry Saville, Esq. was born at face, in like manner as a kernel is con Bradley, near Halifax, in Yorkshire, No. tained within its shell; they suppose vember the 30th, 1549. He was entered that, in consequence of some concussion, of Merton College, Oxford, in 1561, or other cause, the outer shell all fell where he took the degrees in arts, and down to the inner body, and left only the was chosen fellow. When he proceeded ring at the greater distance from the master of arts, in 1570, he read, for that centre, as we now perceive it. This con degree, on the Almagest of Ptolemy, jecture is in some measure corroborated which procured him the reputation of a by the consideration, that both the planet man eminently skilled in mathematics, and its ring perform their rotations about and the Greek language; in the former the same common axis, and in very nearly of which he voluntarily read a public lecthe same time. But from the observations ture in the University for some time. of Dr. Herschel, he thus concludes: “It In 1578, he travelled into France, and does not appear to me that there is suffi- other countries; where diligently im. cient ground for admitting the ring of proving himself in all useful learning, in Saturn to be of a very changeable nature, languages and the knowledge of the and I guess that its phenomena will here. world, he became a mosi accomplished after be so fully explained, as to recon. gentleman. At his return, he was made cile all observations. In the meanwbile tutor in the Greek tongue to Queen Eliwe must withhold a final judgment of its zabeth, who had a great esteem and reconstruction, till we can have more ob. spect for him. servations. Its division, however, into. 'In 1585, he was made Warden of Merton College, which he governed six and 1. Four Books of the Histories of Cor: thirty years with great honour, and im- nelius Tacitus, and the Life of Agricola, proved it by all the means in his power. with Notes upon them, in folio ; dedicat. In 1596, he was chosen Provost of Eton ed to Queen Elizabeth, 1581. College; which he filled with many 2. A view of certain Military Matters, learned men. James I. upon his acces. or Commentaries respecting Roman War. sion to the crown of England, expressed fare. 1598. a great regard for him, and would have 4. Rerum Anglicarum Scriptores post preferred him either in church or state; Bedam, &c. 1596. This is a collection of but Saville declined it, and only accepted the best writers of our English History, the ceremony of knighthood, from the to which he added chronological tables King, at Windsor, in 1604. His only son, at the end, from Julius Cæsar to William Henry, dying about that time, he hence. the Conqueror. forth devoted his fortune to the promot. 4. The works of St. Chrysostom, in ing of learning. Among other things, in Greek, in eight volumes, folio, 1613. 1619, he founded, in the University of This is a very fine edition, and composed Oxford, two lectures, or professorships, with great cost and labour. In the preone in geometry, the other in astrono. face he says, “that having himself visit. my; which he endowed with a salary of ed, about twelve years before, all the 1601. a year each, besides a legacy of public and private libraries in Britain, 6001. to purchase more lands for the same and copied out of thence whatever he use. He also furnished a library with thought useful to his design, he then sent mathematical books, near the mathemati- some learned men into France, Germany, cal school, for the use of his professors; Italy, and the East, to transcribe such and gave 1001. to the mathematical chest parts as he had not already, and to collate of his own appointing; adding after the others with the best manuscripts." wards a legacy of 401. a year to the same At the same time he makes his acknowchest, to the University, and to his pro- ledgments to several eminent men for. fessors jointly. He likewise gave 1201. their assistance; as Thuanus, Velserus, towards the new building of the schools, Schottus, Casaubon, Ducæus, Gruter, besides several rare manuscripts and Hoeschelius, &c. In the eighth volume printed books to the Bodleian Library; are inserted Sir Henry Saville's own and a good quantity of Greek types to the notes, with those of other learned men. printing-press at Oxford.
The whole charge of this edition, includ. After a life thus spent in the encou ing the several sums paid to learned men, ragement and promotion of science and at home and abroad, employed in finding literature in general, he died at Eton Col. out, transcribing, and collating the best lege, the 19th of February, 1622, in the manuscripts, is said to have amounted to seventy-third year of his age, and was bu. no less than 80001. Several editions of ried in the chapel there. On this occa. this work were afterwards published at sion the University of Oxford paid bim Paris. the greatest honours, by having a public 5. In 1618, he published a Latin work, speech and verses made in his praise, written by Thomas Bradwardin, Arch. which were published soon after in 4to. bishop of Canterbury, against Pelagius, under the tiile of “ Ultima Linea Sa. entitled De Causa Dei contra Pelagium, villii."
et de virtute Causarum ; to which he As to the character of Saville, the
prefixed the life of Bradwardin.
6. In 1621, he published a collection of highest encomiums are bestowed upon him by all the learned of his time ; by
his own Mathematical Lectures on EuCasaubon, Mercerus, Meibomius, Joseph
clid's Elements in 4to. Scaliger, and
7. Oratio coram Elizabetha Regina especially the learned Bishop Montague, who, in his • Diatribæ
Oxoniæ habita, anno 1592. Printed at upon Selden's History of Tythes," styles
Oxford, in 1058, 4to. him, “ that magazine of learning, whose
8 He translated into Latin King James's
Apology for the Oath of Allegiance. He memory shall be honourable amongst not
also left several manuscripts behind him, only the learned, but the righteous, for
written by order of King James; all cver.”
which are in the Bodleian Library. He Several noble instances of his munifi. wrote notes likewise upon the margin of cence to the republic of letters have als many books in his library, particularly ready been mentioned: in the account of Eusebius's Ecclesiastical History; wbich his publications, many more, and even were afterwards used by Valesius, in his greater, will appear. These are,
edition of that work, in 1659. Four of his
Letters to Camden, are published by length determined he should try his. forSmith, among Camden's Letters. 1691. tune there, not as a scholar, but as a mas, 4to.
ter; or, if this design should not sucSAUNDERS, or SANDERS. See San. ceed, they promised themselves success TATUM
in opening a school for him at London. SAUNDERSON, (DR. NICHOLAS,) in Accordingly he went to Cambridge in biography, an illustrious professor of 1707, being then twenty-five years of age, mathematics in the University of Cam and his fame in a short time filled the bridge, and a fellow of the Royal Society, University. Newton's Principia, Optics, was born at Thurlston, in Yorkshire, in and Universal Arithmetic, were the foun1682. When he was but twelve months dations of his lectures, and afforded him a old, he lost not only his eye-sight, but noble field for the display of his genius; his very eye-balls, by the small-pox; so and great numbers came to hear a blind that he could retain no more ideas of vi- man give lectures on optics, discourse on sion than if he had been born blind. At the nature of light and colours, explain an early age, however, being of very the theory of vision, the effect of glasses, promising parts, he was sent to the free the phenomenon of the rainbow, and other school at Penpiston, and there laid the objects of sight. foundation of that knowledge of the As he instructed youth in the princiGreek and Latin languages, which he af- ples of the Newtonian philosophy, he terwards improved so far, by his own soon became acquainted with its incomapplication 19 the classic authors, as to parable author, though he had several hear the works of Euclid, Archimedes, years before left the University; and fre. and Diophantes, read in their original quently conversed with him on the most Greek.
difficult parts of his works: he also held Having acquired a grammatical educa. a friendly communication with the other tion, his father, who was in the excise, eminent mathematicians of the age, as instructed him in the common rules of Halley, Cotes, De Moivre, &c. arithmetic. And here it was that his ex- Mr. Whiston was all this time in the ma. cellent mathematical genius first appear thematical professor's chair, and read leced; for he very soon became able to tures in the manner proposed by Mr. Saunwork the common questions, to make derson on his settling at Cambridge ; so very long calculations by the strength of that an attempt of this kind looked like his memory, and to form new rules to an encroachment on the privilege of his himself, for the better resolving of such office ; but as a good natured man, and questions as are often proposed to learn an encourager of learning, he readily ers as trials of skill.
consented to the application of friends At the age of eighteen our author was made in behalf of so uncommon a per. introduced to the acquaintance of Richard son. West, of Underbank, Esq., a lover of Upon the removal of Mr. Whiston from mathematics, who, observing Mr. Saun- his professorship, Mr. Sanderson's merit derson's uncommon capacity, took the was thought so much superior to that of pains to instruct him in the principles of any other competitor, that an extraordi. algebra and geometry, and gave him nary step was taken in his favour, to every encouragement in his power to the qualify him with a degree, which the prosecution of these studies. Soon after statute requires : in consequence he was this he became acquainted also with Dr. chosen, in 1711, Mr. Whiston's successor Nettleton, who took the same pains with in the Lucasian professorship of mathemahim. And it was to these two gentle tics; Sir Isaac Newton interesting himmen that Mr. Saunderson owed his first self greatly in his favour. His first perinstruction in the mathematical sciences; formance, after he was seated in the chair, they furnished him with books, and often was an inaugural speech made in very read and expounded them to him. But elegant Latin, and a style truly Cice. he soon surpassed his masters, and be- ronian ; for be was very well versed in came fitter to teach, than to learn any the writings of Tully, who was his fa. thing from them.
vourite in prose, as Virgil and Horace His father, otherwise burdened with a were in verse. From this uime he applied numerous family, finding a difficulty in himself closely to the reading of lectures, supporting him, his friends began to think and gave up his whole time to his pupils. of providing both for bis education and He continued to reside among the genmaintenance. His own inclination led tlemen of Christ College till the year him strongly to Cambridge, and it was at 1723, when he took a house in Cam
bridge, and soon after married a daughter after he became blind; and, what lie of Mr. Dickens, rector of Boxworth, in thougbt next to impossible to be done Cambrilgeshire, by whom he had a son without sight, that he professed geomeand a daughter.
try, describing his diagrams so exactly In the year 1728, when King George to his scholars, that they could draw visited the University, he expressed a de- every line in its proper direction. St. sire of seeing so remarkable a person ; Jerome relates a still more remarkable and accordingly our professor attended instance in Didymus, of Alexandria, who, the King in the senate, and by his favour though blind from his infancy, and therewas there created doctor of laws. , fore ignorant of the very letters, not only
Dr. Saunderson was naturally of a learned logic, but geometry also, to a strong, healthy constitution ; but being very great perfection, which seems most too sedentary, and constantly confining of all to require sight. But if we conhimself to the house, he became a valetu. sider that the ideas of extended quantity, dinarian: and in the spring of the year 1739 which are the chief objects of mathema. he complained of a numbness in his limbs, tics, may as well be acquired by the sense which ended in a mortification in his foot, of feeling as that of sight, that a fixed and of wbich he died the 19th of April that steady attention is the principal qualificayear, in the 57th year of his age.
tion for this study, and that the blind are, There was scarcely any part of the by necessity, more abstracted than others, mathematics on which Dr. Saunderson (for which reason, it is said, that Demohad not composed something for the use critus put out his eves, that he might of his pupils. But he discovered no in- think more intensely,) we shall perhaps tention of publishing any thing, till, by find reason to suppose, that there is no the persuasion of his friends, he prepared branch of science so much adapted to his Elements of Algebra for the press; their circumstances. which, after his death, were published At first, Dr. Saunderson acquired most by subscription, in two vols. 4to. 1740. of his ideas by the sense of feeling; and
He left many other writings, though this, as is commonly the case with the none perhaps prepared for the press. blind, he enjoyed in great perfection. Among these were some valuable com. Yet he could not, as some are said to Inents on Newton's Principia, which not have done, distinguish colours by that only explain the more difficult parts, but sense ; for, after having made repeated often improve upon the doctrines. These trials, he used to say it was pretending are published in Latin, at the end of his to impossibilities. But he could with posthumous Treatise on Fluxions, a va- great nicety and exactness observe the luable work, published in 8vo. 1756. His smallest degree of roughness, or defect manuscript lectures too, on most parts of of polish, in a surface. Thus, in a set natural philosophy, might make a consi. of Roman medals, he distinguished the derable volume, and prove an acceptable genuine from the false, though they had present to the public, if printed.
been counterfeited with such exactress as Dr. Saunderson, as to his character, to deceive a connoisseur who had judged was a man of much wit and vivacity in from the eye. By the sense of feeling, conversation, and esteemed an excellent also, he distinguished the least variation ; companion. He was endued with a great and he has been seen in a garden, when regard to truth, and was such an enemy observations have been making on the sun, to disguise, that he thought it his duty to take notice of every cloud that interto speak his thoughts at all times with rupted the observation, almost as justly unrestrained freedom. Hence his senti- as they who could see it. He could also ments on men and opinions, his friend. tell when any thing was held near his ship or disregard, were expressed with face, or when he passed by a tree at no out reserve ; a sincerity which raised him great distance, merely by the different many enemies.
impulse of the air on his face. A blind man, moving in the sphere of His ear was also equally exact. He a mathematician, seems a phenomenon could readily distinguish the 5th part of difficult to be accounted for, and bas ex. a note. By the quickness of this sense cited the admiration of every age in which he could judge of the size of a room it has appeared. Tully mentions it as a and of his distance from the wall. And thing scarcely credible in his own master if ever he walked over a pavement, in in philosophy, Diodotus, that he exer- courts or piazzas which reflected a sound, cised himself in it with more assiduity and was afterwards conducted thither