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Chapter 5.—HIGHWAY RELOCATION ASSISTANCE 19

Sec.
501. Declaration of policy.
502. Assurances of adequate relocation assistance program.
503. Administration of relocation assistance program.
504. Federal reimbursement.
505. Relocation payments.
506. Replacement housing.
507. Expenses incidental to transfer of property.
508. Relocation services.
509. Relocation assistance programs on Federal highway projects.
510. Authority of Secretary.
511. Definitions.

Chapter 1.-FEDERAL-AID HIGHWAYS
Sec. 101. Definitions and declaration of policy

(a) As used in this title, unless the context requires otherwise

The term “apportionment” in accordance with section 104 of this title includes unexpended apportionments made under prior acts.

The term "construction” means the supervising, inspecting, actual building, and all expenses incidental to the construction or reconstruction of a highway, including locating, surveying, and mapping (including the establishment of temporary and permanent geodetic markers in accordance with specifications of the Coast and Geodetic Survey in the Department of Commerce), costs of rights-of-way, and elimination of hazards of railway grade crossings.

The term “county” includes corresponding units of government under any other name in States which do not have county organizations, and likewise in those States in which the county government does not have jurisdiction over highways it may be construed to mean any local government unit vested with jurisdiction over local highways.

The term "forest road or trail" means a road or trail wholly or partly within or adjacent to and serving the national forests and other areas administered by the Forest Service.20

The term "forest development roads and trails” means those forest roads or trails of primary importance for the protection, administration, and utilization of the national forest and other areas administered by the Forest Service or, where necessary, for the use and development of the resources upon which communities within or adjacent to the national forest and other areas administered by the Forest Service are dependent. 21

The term “forest highway" means a forest road which is of primary importance to the States, counties, or communities within, adjoining, or adjacent to the national forests.

The term "highway" includes roads, streets, and parkways, and also includes rights-of-way, bridges, railroad-highway crossings, tunnels, drainage structures, signs, guardrails, and protective structures, in connection with highways. It further includes that portion of any interstate or international bridge or tunnel and the approaches thereto, the cost of which is assumed by a State highway department including such facilities as may be required by the United States Customs and Immigration Services in connection with the operation of an international bridge or tunnel.

The term "Federal-aid highways" means highways located on one of the Federal-aid systems described in section 103 of this title.

The term "Indian reservation roads and bridges" means roads and bridges that are located within an Indian reservation or that provide access to an Indian reservation or Indian land, and that are jointly designated by the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary as a part of the Indian Bureau road system.

The term "maintenance” means the preservation of the entire highway, including surface, shoulders, roadsides, structures, and such traffic-control devices as are necessary for its safe and efficient utilization.

19 New ch. added by sec. 30 of Public Law 90–495, Aug. 23, 1968 (82 Stat. 815). 20, 21 Amended by sec. 8 of Public Law 90–495, Aug. 23, 1968 (82 Stat. 815).

The term “park roads and trails" means those roads or trails, including the necessary bridges, located in national parks or monuments, now or hereafter established, or in other areas administered by the National Park Service of the Department of the Interior (excluding parkways authorized by Acts of Congress) and also including approach roads to national parks or monuments authorized by the Act of January 31, 1931 (46 Stat. 1053), as amended.

The term “parkway" as used in chapter 2 of this title means a parkway authorized by an Act of Congress on lands to which title is vested in the United States.

The term “project” means an undertaking to construct a particular portion of a highway, or if the context so implies, the particular portion of a highway so constructed.

The term “project agreement” means the formal instrument to be executed by the State highway department and the Secretary as required by the provisions of subsection (a) of section 110 of this title.

The term “public lands development roads and trails” means those roads or trails which the Secretary of the Interior determines are of primary importance for the development, protection, administration, and utilization of public lands and resources under his control.22

The term “public lands highways" means main highways through unappropriated or unreserved public lands, nontaxable Indian lands, or other Federal reservations.

The term “rural areas” means all areas of a State not included in urban areas.

The term "Secretary" means Secretary of Commerce.?

The term “State" means any one of the fifty States, the District of Columbia, or Puerto Rico.24

The term “State funds” includes funds raised under the authority of the State or any political or other subdivision thereof, and made available for expenditure under the direct control of the State highway department.

The term “State highway department” means that department, commission, board, or official of any State charged by its laws with the responsibility for highway construction.

The term "Federal-aid system” means any one of the Federal-aid highway systems described in section 103 of this title.

The term “Federal-aid primary system” means the Federal-aid highway system described in subsection (b) of section 103 of this title.

The term “Federal-aid secondary system” means the Federal-aid highway system described in subsection (c) of section 103 of this title.

The term “Interstate System” means the National System of Interstate and Defense Highways described in subsection (d) of section 103 of this title.

The term “urban area” means an area including and adjacent to a municipality or other urban place having a population of five thousand or more, as determined by the latest available Federal census, within boundaries to be fixed by a State highway department subject to the approval of the Secretary.

(b) It is hereby declared to be in the national interest to accelerate the construction of the Federal-aid highway systems, including the National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, since many of such highways, or portions thereof, are in fact inadequate to meet the needs of local and interstate commerce, for the national and civil defense.

It is hereby declared that the prompt and early completion of the National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, so named because of its primary importance to the national defense and hereafter referred to as the "Interstate System”, is essential to the national interest and is one of the most important objectives of this Act. It is the intent of Congress that the Interstate System be completed as nearly as practicable over the period of availability

22 Amended by sec. 6(a) of Public Law 87-866, Oct. 23, 1962 (76 Stat. 1145).

23 Transferred to the Secretary of Transportation by sec. 6(a) of Public Law 89-670, Oct. 15, 1966 (80 Stat. 931).

24 Amended by sec. 21(e) (1) of Public Law 86–70, June 25, 1959 (73 Stat. 141), and by sec. 17(a) of Public Law 86–624, July 12, 1960 (74 Stat. 411).

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of the eighteen years' appropriations authorized for the purpose of expediting its construction, reconstruction, or improvement, inclusive of necessary tunnels and bridges, through the fiscal year ending June 30, 1974, under section 108(b) of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 (70 Stat. 374), and that the entire System in all States be brought to simultaneous completion. Insofar as possible in consonance with this objective, existing highways located on an interstate route shall be used to the extent that such use is practicable, suitable, and feasible, it being the intent that local needs, to the extent practicable, suitable, and feasible, shall be given equal consideration with the needs of interstate commerce.

(c) It is the sense of Congress that under existing law no part of any sums authorized to be appropriated for expenditure upon any Federal-aid system which has been apportioned pursuant to the provisions of this title shall be impounded or withheld from obligation, for purposes and projects as provided in this title, by any officer or employee of any department, agency, or instrumentality of the executive branch of the Federal Government, except such specific sums as may be determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, after consultation with the Secretary of Transportation, are necessary to be withheld from obligation for specific periods of time to assure that sufficient amounts will be available in the highway trust fund to defray the exp aditures which will be required to be made from such fund.

(d) It is the sense of Congress that funds authorized to be appropriated from the Highway Trust Fund may be used to pay only those administrative expenses of the Federal Highway Administration (including the Bureau of Public Roads) which are incurred under this title and are attributable to Federal-aid highways. No funds authorized to be appropriated from the Highway Trust Fund shall be used to pay the administrative expenses of any other Federal department, agency, office, or instrumentality, or any other agency, instrumentality, or entity established by Federal law, executive order, or otherwise by the Federal Government, either by transfer or* funds, reassignment of personnel or activities, contract, or otherwise, unless the expenditures are to meet obligations incurred under this title, which are attributable to Federal-aid highways and are

(1) contracted for in accordance with the Act of March 4, 1915, as amended (31 U.S.C. 686) and (A) relate to work or services of a type not usually performed by the Federal Highway Administration or (B) relate to the furnishing of materials, supplies, or equipment; or

(2) are specifically identified in the budget and included in an appropriation Act.28

Sec. 102. Authorizations

The provisions of this title apply to all unappropriated authorizations contained in prior Acts, and also to all unexpended appropriations heretofore made, providing for the expenditure of Federal funds upon the Federalaid systems. All such authorizations and appropriations shall continue in full force and effect, but hereafter obligations entered into and expenditures made pursuant thereto shall be subject to the provisions of this title. Sec. 103. Federal-aid systems

(a) For the purposes of this title, the three Federal-aid systems, the primary and secondary systems, and the Interstate System, are continued pursuant to the provisions of this section.

(b) The Federal-aid primary system shall consist of an adequate system of connected main highways, selected or designated by each State through its State highway department, subject to the approval of the Secretary as

25 Amended by sec. 3 of Public Law 88–423, Aug. 13, 1964 (78 Stat. 397); sec. 4(a) of Public Law 89–574, Sept. 13, 1966 (80 Stat. 766); and sec. 4(a) of Public Law 90495, Aug. 23, 1968 (82 Stat. 815).

26 New subsecs. (c) and (d) added by sec. 15 of Public Law 90–495, Aug. 23, 1968 (82 Stat. 815).

*So in original—probably should be "of."

provided by subsection (e) of this section. This system shall not exceed 7 per centum of the total highway mileage of such State, exclusive of mileage within national forests, Indian, or other Federal reservations and within urban areas, as shown by the records of the State highway department on November 9, 1921. Whenever provision has been made by any State for the completion and maintenance of 90 per centum of its Federal-aid primary system, as originally designated, said State through its State highway department by and with the approval of the Secretary is authorized to increase the mileage of its Federal-aid primary system by additional mileage equal to not more than 1 per centum of the total mileage of said State as shown by the records on November 9, 1921. Thereafter, it may make like 1 per centum increases in the mileage of its Federal-aid primary system whenever provision has been made for the completion and maintenance of 90 per centum of the entire system, including the additional mileage previously authorized. This system may be located both in rural and urban areas. The mileage limitations in this paragraph shall not apply to the District of Columbia, Hawaii, Alaska, or Puerto Rico.

(c) The Federal-aid secondary system shall be selected by the State highway departments and the appropriate local road officials in cooperation with each other, subject to approval by the Secretary as provided in subsection (e) of this section. In making such selections, farm-to-market roads, rural mail routes, public school bus routes, local rural roads, county roads, township roads, and roads of the county road class may be included, so long as they are not on the Federal-aid primary system or the Interstate System. This system may be located both in rural and urban areas, but any extension of the system into urban areas shall be subject to the condition that such extension pass through the urban area or connect with another Federal-aid system within the urban area.27

(d) (1) The Interstate System shall be designated within the United States, including the District of Columbia, and, except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3) of this subsection, it shall not exceed forty-one thousand miles in total extent. It shall be so located as to connect by routes, as direct as practicable, the principal metropolitan areas, cities, and industrial centers, to serve the national defense, and to the greatest extent possible, to connect at suitable border points with routes of continental importance in the Dominion of Canada and the Republic of Mexico. The routes of this system, to the greatest extent possible, shall be selected by joint action of the State highway departments of each State and the adjoining States, subject to the approval by the Secretary as provided in subsection (e) of this section. All highways or routes included in the Interstate System as finally approved, if not already coincident with the primary system, shall be added to said system without regard to the mileage limitation set forth in subsection (b) of this section. This system may be located both in rural and urban areas.“

(2) In addition to the mileage authorized by the first sentence of paragraph (1) of this subsection, there is hereby authorized additional mileage for the Interstate System of two hundred miles, to be used in making modifications or revisions in the Interstate System as provided in this paragraph. Upon the request of a State highway department the Secretary may withdraw his approval of any route or portion thereof on the Interstate System within that State selected and approval in accordance with this title prior to the enactment of this paragraph, if he determines that such route or portion thereof is not essential to completion of a unified and connected Interstate System (including urban routes necessary for metropolitan transportation) and will not be constructed as a part of the Interstate System, and if he receives assurances that the State does not intend to construct a toll road in the traffic corridor which would be served by such route or portion thereof. After the Secretary has withdrawn his approval of any such route or portion thereof the mileage of such route or portion thereof and the additional mileage authorized by the first sentence of this paragraph shall be available for the designation of

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27 Amended by sec. 8(a) of Public Law 87-866. Oct. 23, 1962 (76 Stat. 1145).

28 Amended by sec. 17(c) of Public Law 86-624, July 12, 1960 (74 Stat. 411); and sec. 14(a) of Public Law 90–495, Aug. 23, 1968 (82 Stat. 815).

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interstate routes or portions thereof as provided in this subsection. The provisions of this title applicable to the Interstate System shall apply to all mileage designated under the third sentence of this paragraph, except that the cost to the United States of the aggregate of all mileage designated under the third sentence of this paragraph shall not exceed the cost to the United States of the aggregate of all mileage approval for which is withdrawn under the second sentence of this paragraph, as such cost is included in the 1968 Interstate System cost estimate set forth in House Document Numbered 199, Ninetieth Congress, as revised. In considering routes or portions thereof to be added to the Interstate System under the third sentence of this paragraph, the Secretary shall, in consultation with the States and local governments concerned, give due regard to (A) routes or portions thereof in States in which the Secretary has heretofore or hereafter withdrawn his approval of other routes or portions thereof, and (B) the extension of routes which terminate within municipalities served by a single interstate route, so as to provide traffic service entirely through such municipalities.29

(3) In addition to the mileage authorized by paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection, there is hereby authorized additional mileage of not to exceed 1,500 miles for the designation of routes in the same manner as set forth in paragraph (1), in order to improve the efficiency and service of the Interstate System to better accomplish the purposes of that System.30

(e) The Secretary shall have authority to approve in whole or in part the Federal-aid primary system, the Federal-aid secondary system, and the Interstate System, as and when such systems or portions thereof are designated, or to require modifications or revisions thereof. No Federal-aid system or portion thereof shall be eligible for projects in which Federal funds participate until approved by the Secretary.

(f) Repealed. 31 (g) Repealed.

Sec. 104. Apportionment

(a) Whenever an apportionment is made of the sums authorized to be appropriated for expenditure upon the Federal-aid systems, the Secretary shall deduct a sum, in such amount not to exceed 334 per centum of all sums so authorized, as the Secretary may deem necessary for administering the provisions of law to be financed from appropriations for the Federal-aid systems and for carrying on the research authorized by subsections (a) and (b) of section 307 of this title. In making such determination, the Secretary shall take into account the unexpended balance of any sums deducted for such purposes in prior years. The sum so deducted shall be available for expenditure from the unexpended balance of any appropriation made at any time for expenditure upon the Federal-aid systems, until such sum has been expended.

(b) On or before January 1 next preceding the commencement of each fiscal year, except as provided in paragraphs (4) and (5) of this subsection, the Secretary, after making the deduction authorized by subsection (a) of this section, shall apportion the remainder of the sums authorized to be appropriated for expenditure upon the Federal-aid systems for that fiscal year, among the several States in the following manner: (1) For the Federal-aid primary system:

One-third in the ratio which the area of each State bears to the total area of all the States; one-third in the ratio which the population of each State bears to the total population of all the States as shown by the latest available Federal census; one-third in the ratio which the mileage of rural delivery routes and star routes in each State bears to the total mileage of rural delivery and star routes in all the States at the close of the next preceding calendar year, as shown by a certificate of the Postmaster

29 New subsec. (d) (2) added by Public Law 90–238, Jan. 2, 1968 (81 Stat. 772); and amended by sec. 21 of Public Law 90–495, Aug. 23, 1968 (82 Stat. 815).

30 New subsec. (d) (3) added by sec. 14(b) of Public Law 90-495, Aug. 23, 1968 (82 Stat. 815).

31 Repealed by sec. 21(d) (1) of Public Law 86–70, June 25, 1959 (73 Stat. 141). 32 Repealed by sec. 17(b) of Public Law 86-624, July 12, 1960 (74 Stat. 411).

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