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by their displacement from real property acquired for such project. How-
ever, the Secretary shall not require a State to pay relocation payments
where not authorized by State law.

(d) Payments under this section shall be subject to such rules and regula-
tions as may be prescribed by the Secretary, and shall not exceed $200 in
the case of an individual or family, or $3,000 in the case of a business concern
(including the operation of a farm) or nonprofit organization. In the case
of a business (including the operation of a farm) and in the case of a non-
profit organization, the allowable expenses for the transportation under this
subsection shall not exceed the cost of moving 50 miles from the point which
such business or organization is being displaced. Such rules and regulations
may include provisions authorizing reimbursement for payments made to
individuals and families of fixed amounts (not to exceed $200 in any case)
in lieu of their respective reasonable and necessary moving expenses.

(e) This section shall apply only with respect to projects approved under
section 106 of this title after the date of enactment of this section."
Sec. 134. Transportation planning in certain urban areas

It is declared to be in the national interest to encourage and promote the
development of transportation systems, embracing various modes of transport
in a manner that will serve the States and local communities efficiently and
effectively. To accomplish this objective the Secretary shall cooperate with
the States, as authorized in this title, in the development of long-range
highway plans and programs which are properly coordinated with plans
for improvements in other affected forms of transportation and which are
formulated with due consideration to their probable effect on the future
development of urban areas of more than fifty thousand population. After
July 1, 1965, the Secretary shall not approve under section 105 of this title
any program for projects in any urban area of more than fifty thousand
population unless he finds that such projects are based on a continuing
comprehensive transportation planning process carried on cooperatively
by States and local communities in conformance with the objectives stated
in this section.76
Sec. 135. Urban area traffic operations improvement programs

(a) The Congress hereby finds and declares it to be in the national in-
terest that each State should have a continuing program within the desig-
nated boundaries of urban areas of the State designed to reduce traffic
congestion and to facilitate the flow of traffic in the urban areas.

(b) The Secretary may approve under this section any project on an extension of the Federal-aid primary or secondary system in urban areas for improvements which directly facilitate and control traffic flow, such as grade separation of intersections, widening of lanes, channelization of traffic, traffic control systems, and loading and unloading ramps, if such project is based on a continuing comprehensive transportation planning process carried on in accordance with section 134 of this title.

(c) The sums authorized to carry out this section shall be apportioned
in accordance with section 104(b) (3) of this title.

(d) The Secretary shall report annually on projects approved under this
section with any recommendations he may have for further improvement
of traffic operations in accordance with this section."
Sec. 136. Control of junkyards 78

(a) The Congress hereby finds and declares that the establishment and
use and maintenance of junkyards in areas adjacent to the Interstate System

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76 New sec. added by sec. 5(a) of Public Law 87–866, Oct. 23, 1962 (76 Stat. 1145).
78 New sec. added by sec. 9(a) of Public Law 87-866, Oct. 23, 1962 (76 Stat. 1145).

77 Former sec. added by sec. 4 of Public Law 89–139, Aug. 28, 1965 (79 Stat. 578),
was repealed by sec. 102(a) of the Highway Safety Act of 1966, Public Law 89-564,
Sept. 9, 1966 (80 Stat. 731); and new sec. added by sec. 10 of Public Law 90–495,
Aug. 23, 1968 (82 Stat. 815).

78 New sec. added by the Highway Beautification Act of 1965, Title II, Public Law 89–285, Oct. 22, 1965 (79 Stat 1028).

and the primary system should be controlled in order to protect the public investment in such highways, to promote the safety and recreational value of public travel, and to preserve natural beauty.

(b) Federal-aid highway funds apportioned on or after January 1, 1968, to any State which the Secretary determines has not made provision for effective control of the establishment and maintenance along the Interstate System and the primary system of outdoor junkyards, which are within one thousand feet of the nearest edge of the right-of-way and visible from the main traveled way of the system, shall be reduced by amounts equal to 10 per centum of the amounts which would otherwise be apportioned to such State under section 104 of this title, until such time as such State shall provide for such effective control. Any amount which is withheld from apportionment to any State hereunder shall be reapportioned to the other States. Whenever he determines it to be in the public interest, the Secretary may suspend, tor such periods as he deems necessary, the application of this subsection to a State.

(c) Effective control means that by January 1, 1968, such junkyards shall be screened by natural objects, plantings, fences, or other appropriate means so as not to be visible from the main traveled way of the system, or shall be removed from sight.

(d) The term "junk" shall mean old or scrap copper, brass, rope, rags, batteries, paper, trash, rubber debris, waste, or junked, dismantled, or wrecked automobiles, or parts thereof, iron, steel, and other old or scrap ferrous or nonferrous material.

(e) The term “automobile graveyard" shall mean any establishment or place of business which is maintained, used, or operated for storing, keeping, buying, or selling wrecked, scrapped, ruined, or dismantled motor vehicles or motor vehicle parts.

(f) The term "junkyard” shall mean an establishment or place of business which is maintained, operated, or used for storing, keeping, buying, or selling junk, or for the maintenance or operation of an automobile graveyard, and the term shall include garbage dumps and sanitary fills.

(g) Notwithstanding any provision of this section, junkyards, auto graveyards, and scrap metal processing facilities may be operated within areas adjacent to the Interstate System and the primary system which are within one thousand feet of the nearest edge of the right-of-way and which are zoned industrial under authority of State law, or which are not zoned under authority of State law, but are used for industrial activities, as determined by the several States subject to approval by the Secretary.

(h) Notwithstanding any provision of this section, any junkyard in existence on the date of enactment of this section which does not conform to the requirements of this section and which the Secretary finds as a practical matter cannot be screened, shall not be required to be removed until July 1, 1970.

(i) The Federal share of landscaping and screening costs under this section shall be 75 per centum.

(j) Just compensation shall be paid the owner for the relocation, removal, or disposal of the following junkyards

(1) those lawfully in existence on the date of enactment of this subsection

(2) those lawfully along any highway made a part of the interstate or primary system on or after the enactment of this subsection and before January 1, 1968, and

(3) those lawfully established on or after January 1, 1968. The Federal share of such compensation shall be 75 per centum.

(k) All public lands or reservations of the United States which are adjacent to any portion of the interstate and primary systems shall be effectively controlled in accordance with the provisions of this section.

(1) Nothing in this section shall prohibit a State from establishing standards imposing stricter limitations with respect to outdoor junkyards on the Federal-aid highway systems than those established under this section.

(m) There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section, vut of

any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, not to exceed
$20,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1966, not to exceed $20,000,000
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1967, and not to exceed $3,000,000 for the
fiscal year ending June 30, 1970. The provisions of chapter 1 of this title re-
lating to the obligation, period of availability, and expenditure of Federal-aid
primary highway funds shall apply to the funds authorized to be appropriated
to carry out this section after June 30, 1967.79
Sec. 137. Limitation on authorization of appropriations for certain purposes

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, neither sections 131, 136, and 319(b) of this title, nor any provision of law relating to highway safety enacted after May 1, 1966, shall be construed to be authority for any appropriations for any fiscal year for which appropriations are not specifically authorized by fiscal year in such sections or provisions.

(b) Any appropriation to carry out section 131, 136, or 319(b) of this title or any provision of law relating to highway safety enacted after May 1, 1966, must be authorized by a provision of law specifically setting forth the total amount authorized to be appropriated for the fiscal year to carry out such section or other provision of law.

(c) The highway trust fund established by section 209 of the Highway Revenue Act of 1956 shall not be available for any appropriation to carry out sections 131, 136, and 319(b) of this title, and any provision of law relating to highway safety enacted after May 1, 1966, in an aggregate amount which exceeds the amount of tax that would be imposed under section 4061 (a) (2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 if such section imposed a tax at the rate of 1 per centum plus such additional amounts as are appropriated from the general fund to the highway trust fund for such purposes, but the total of all appropriations made from such fund to carry out these sections and provisions of law shall never exceed the total of all appropriations made to such fund based on the imposition of such tax plus such additional amounts as are appropriated from the general fund to the highway trust fund for such purposes. So Sec. 138. Preservation of parklands 81

It is hereby declared to be the national policy that special effort should be made to preserve the natural beauty of the countryside and public park and recreation lands, wildlife and waterfowl refuges, and historic sites. The Secretary of Transportation shall cooperate and consult with the Secretaries of the Interior, Housing and Urban Development, and Agriculture, and with the States in developing transportation plans and programs that include measures to maintain or enhance the natural beauty of the lands traversed. After the effective date of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1968, the Secretary shall not approve any program or project which requires the use of any publicly owned land from a public park, recreation area, or wildlife and waterfowl refuge of national, State, or local significance as determined by the Federal, State, or local officials having jurisdiction thereof, or any land from an historic site of national, State, or local significance as so determined by such officials unless (1) there is no feasible and prudent alternative to the use of such land, and (2) such program includes all possible planning to minimize harm to such park, recreational area, wildlife and waterfowl refuge, or historic site resulting from such use.

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Sec. 139. Additions to Interstate System

Whenever the Secretary determines that a highway on the Federal-aid primary system meets all of the standards of a highway on the Interstate System and that such highway is a logical addition or connection to the Interstate

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79 Amended by sec. 8(a) of Public Law 89,574, Sept. 13, 1966 (80 Stat. 766); and sec. 6(e) of Public Law 90–495, Aug. 23, 1968, (82 Stat. 815).

80 New sec. added by sec. 8(c) (1) of Public Law 89,574, Sept. 13, 1966 (80 Stat. 766).

81 New sec. added by sec. 15(a) of Public Law 89–574, Sept. 13, 1966 (80 Stat. 766); and amended by sec. 18(a) of Public Law 90–495, Aug. 23, 1968 (82 Stat. 815).

System, he may, upon the affirmative recommendation of the State or States involved, designate such highway as a part of the Interstate System. The mileage of any highway designated as part of the Interstate System under this section shall not be charged against the limitation established by the first sentence of section 103(d) of this title. The designation of a highway as part of the Interstate System under this section shall create no Federal financial responsibility with respect to such highway.82 Sec. 140. Equal employment opportunity

Prior to approving any programs for projects as provided for in subsection (a) of section 105 of this title, the Secretary shall require assurances from any State desiring to avail itself of the benefits of this chapter that employment in connection with proposed projects will be provided without regard to race, color, creed or national origin. He shall require that each State shall include in the advertised specifications, notification of the specific equal employment opportunity responsibilities of the successful bidder. In approving programs for projects on any of the Federal-aid systems, the Secretary shall, where he considers it necessary to assure equal employment opportunity, require certification by any State desiring to avail itself of the benefits of this chapter that there are in existence and available on a regional, statewide, or local basis, apprenticeship, skill improvement or other upgrading programs, registered with the Department of Labor or the appropriate State agency, if any, which provide equal opportunity for training and employment without regard to race, color, creed or national origin. The Secretary shall periodically obtain from the Secretary of Labor and the respective State highway departments information which will enable him to judge compliance with the requirements of this section and the Secretary of Labor shall render to the Secretary such assistance and information as he shall deem necessary to carry out the equal employment opportunity program required hereunder.83 Sec. 141. Real property acquisition policies

Before approving projects under this chapter, the Secretary shall obtain from the State highway department the following assurances:

(1) that every reasonable effort shall be made to acquire the real property by negotiation;

(2) that the construction of projects shall be so scheduled that to the greatest extent practicable no person lawfully occupying the real property shall be required to move from his home, farm, or business location without at least 90 days' written notice from the State or political subdivision having responsibility for such acquisition; and

(3) that it will be the policy of the State, before initiating negotiations for real property, to establish an amount which is believed to be just compensation, under the law of the State, and to make a prompt offer to acquire the property for the full amount so established.84

Chapter 2.-OTHER HIGHWAYS Sec. 201. Authorizations

The provisions of this title shall apply to all unappropriated authorizations contained in prior Acts, and also to all unexpended appropriations heretofore made, providing for the expenditure of Federal funds on the following classes of highways: Forest highways, forest development roads and trails, park roads and trails, parkways, Indian reservation roads, public lands highways, and defense access roads. All such authorizations and appropriations shall continue in full force and effect, but hereafter obligations entered into and expenditures made pursuant thereto shall be subject to the provisions of this title.

82 Added by sec. 16 of Public Law 90-495, Aug. 23, 1968 (82 Stat. 815).
83 Added by sec. 22(a) of Public Law 90-495, Aug. 23, 1968 (82 Stat. 815).
84 Added by sec. 35 of Public Law 90–495, Aug. 23, 1968 (82 Stat. 815).

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Sec. 202. Apportionment or allocation

(a) On or before January 1 next preceding the commencement of each fiscal year, the Secretary shall apportion the sums authorized to be appropriated for such fiscal year for forest highways in the several States, according to the area and value of the land owned by the United States within the national forests therein, which the Secretary of Agriculture is directed to determine and certify to the Secretary from such information, sources, and departments as the Secretary of Agriculture may deem most accurate.

(b) Sums authorized to be appropriated for forest development roads and trails shall be allocated by the Secretary of Agriculture according to the relative needs of the various national forests, taking into consideration the existing transportation facilities, value of timber or other resources served, relative fire danger, and comparative difficulties of road and trail construction.

(c) Sums authorized to be appropriated for public lands highways shall be allocated by the Secretary among those States having unappropriated or unreserved public lands, nontaxable Indian lands, or other Federal reservations, on the basis of need in such States, respectively, as determined by the Secretary upon application of the State highway departments of the respective States. Preference shall be given to those projects which are located on a Federal-aid system. Sec. 203. Availability of funds

Funds authorized for forest highways, forest development roads and trails, public lands development roads and trails, park roads and trails, parkways, Indian reservation roads, and public lands highways shall be available for contract upon apportionment, or a date not earlier than one year preceding the beginning of the fiscal year for which authorized if no apportionment is required. Any amount remaining unexpended for a period of two years after the close of the fiscal year for which authorized shall lapse. The Secretary of the Department charged with the administration of such funds is granted authority to incur obligations, approve projects, and enter into contracts under such authorizations and his action in doing so shall be deemed a contractual obligation of the United States for the payment of the cost thereof and such funds shall be deemed to have been expended when so obligated. Any funds heretofore or hereafter authorized for any fiscal year for forest highways, forest development roads and trails, public lands development roads and trails, park roads and trails, parkways, Indian roads, and public lands highways shall be deemed to have been expended if a sum equal to the total of the sums authorized for such fiscal year and previous fiscal years since and including the fiscal year ending June 30, 1955, shall have been obligated. Any of such funds released by payment of final voucher or modification of project authorizations shall be credited to the balance of unobligated authorizations and be immediately available for expenditure.85 Sec. 204. Forest highways

(a) Funds available for forest highways shall be used by the Secretary to pay for the cost of construction and maintenance thereof. In connection therewith, the Secretary may enter into construction contracts and such other contracts with a State, or civil subdivision thereof as he deems advisable.

(b) Cooperation of States, counties, or other local subdivisions, may be accepted but shall not be required by the Secretary.

(c) Construction estimated to cost $5,000 or more per mile, exclusive of bridges, shall be advertised and let to contract. If such estimated cost is less than $5,000 per mile or if, after proper advertising, no acceptable bid is received or the bids are deemed excessive, the work may be done by the Secretary on his own account. For such purpose, the Secretary may purchase, lease, hire, rent, or otherwise obtain all necessary supplies, materials, tools, equipment, and facilities required to perform the work, and may pay

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85 Amended by sec. 8(b) of Public Law 86–657, July 14, 1960 (74 Stat. 522); and amended by sec. 7 of Public Law 87–866, Oct. 23, 1962 (76 Stat. 1145).

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