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of the funds advanced for deposit in, and credit to, the right-of-way revolving fund.41 Sec. 109. Standards

(a) The Secretary shall not approve plans and specifications for proposed projects on any Federal-aid system if they fail to provide for a facility (1) that will adequately meet the existing and probable future traffic needs and conditions in a manner conducive to safety, durability, and economy of maintenance; (2) that will be designed and constructed in accordance with standards best suited to accomplish the foregoing objectives and to conform to the particular needs of each locality.

(b) The geometric and construction standards to be adopted for the Interstate System shall be those approved by the Secretary in cooperation with the State highway departments. Such standards, as applied to each actual construction project, shall be adequate to enable such project to accommodate the types and volumes of traffic anticipated for such project for the twentyyear period commencing on the date of approval by the Secretary, under section 106 of this title, of the plans, specifications, and estimates for actual construction of such project. Such standards shall in all cases provide for at least four lanes of traffic. The right-of-way width of the Interstate System shall be adequate to permit construction of projects on the Interstate System to such standards. The Secretary shall apply such standards uniformly throughout all the States.“

(c) Projects on the Federal-aid secondary system in which Federal funds participate shall be constructed according to specifications that will provide all-weather service and permit maintenance at a reasonable cost.

(d) On any highway project in which Federal funds hereafter participate, or on any such project constructed since December 20, 1944, the location, form and character of informational, regulatory and warning signs, curb and pavement or other markings, and traffic signals installed or placed by any public authority or other agency, shall be subject to the approval of the State highway department with the concurrence of the Secretary, who is directed to concur only in such installations as will promote the safe and efficient utilization of the highways.

(e) No funds shall be approved for expenditure on any Federal-aid highway, or highway affected under chapter 2 of this title, unless proper safety protective devices complying with safety standards determined by the Secretary at that time as being adequate shall be installed or be in operation at any highway and railroad grade crossing or drawbridge on that portion of the highway with respect to which such expenditures are to be made.

(f) The Secretary shall not, as a condition precedent to his approval under section 106 of this title, require any State to acquire title to, or control of, any marginal land along the proposed highway in addition to that reasonably necessary for road surfaces, median strips, gutters, ditches, and side slopes, and of sufficient width to provide service roads for adjacent property to permit safe access at controlled locations in order to expedite traffic, promote safety, and minimize roadside parking.

(g) The Secretary shall consult with the Secretary of Agriculture with respect to guidelines for minimizing possible soil erosion from highway construction, and report to Congress such guidelines not later than July 1, 1967.43 Sec. 110. Project agreements

(a) As soon as practicable after the plans, specifications, and estimates for a specific project have been approved, the Secretary shall enter into a formal project agreement with the State highway department concerning the construction and maintenance of such project. Such project agreement shall make

41 New subsec. (c) added by sec. 7(b) of Public Law 90-495, Aug. 23, 1968 (82 Stat. 815).

42 Amended by sec. 4 of Public Law 88–157, Oct. 24, 1963 (77 Stat. 276); and by sec. 5(a) of Public Law 89-574, Sept. 13, 1966 (80 Stat. 766).

43 New subsec. (g) added by sec. 14 of Public Law 89-574, Sept. 13, 1966 (80 Stat. 766).

provision for State funds required for the State's pro rata share of the cost of construction of such project and for the maintenance thereof after completion of construction.

(b) The Secretary may rely upon representations made by the State highway department with respect to the arrangements or agreements made by the State highway department and appropriate local officials where a part of the project is to be constructed at the expense of, or in cooperation with, local subdivisions of the State. Sec. 111. Agreements relating to use of and access to rights-of-way-Interstate

System All agreements between the Secretary and the State highway department for the construction of projects on the Interstate System shall contain a clause providing that the State will not add any points of access to, or exit from, the project in addition to those approved by the Secretary in the plans for such project, without the prior approval of the Secretary. Such agreements shall also contain a clause providing that the State will not permit automotive service stations or other commercial establishments for serving motor vehicle users to be constructed or located on the rights-of-way of the Interstate System. Such agreements may, however, authorize a State or political subdivision thereof to use or permit the use of the airspace above and below the established grade line of the highway pavement for such purposes as will not impair the full use and safety of the highway, as will not require or permit vehicular access to such space directly from such established grade line of the highway, or otherwise interfere in any way with the free flow of traffic on the Interstate System.o4 Sec. 112. Letting of contracts

(a) In all cases where the construction is to be performed by the State highway department or under its supervision, a request for submission of bids shall be made by advertisement unless some other method is approved by the Secretary. The Secretary shall require such plans and specifications and such methods of bidding as shall be effective in securing competition.

(b) Construction of each project, subject to the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, shall be performed by contract awarded by competitive bidding, unless the Secretary shall affirmatively find that, under the circumstances relating to such project, some other method is in the public interest. All such findings shall be reported promptly in writing to the Committees on Public Works of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Contracts for the construction of each project shall be awarded only on the basis of the lowest responsive bid submitted by a bidder meeting established criteria of responsibility. No requirement or obligation shall be imposed as a condition precedent to the award of a contract to such bidder for a project, or to the Secretary's concurrence in the award of a contract to such bidder, unless such requirement or obligation is otherwise lawful and is specifically set forth in the advertised specifications."

(c) The Secretary shall require as a condition precedent to his approval of each contract awarded by competitive bidding pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, and subject to the provisions of this section, a sworn statement, executed by, or on behalf of, the person, firm, association, or corporation to whom such contract is to be awarded, certifying that such person, firm, association, or corporation has not, either directly or indirectly, entered into any agreement, participated in any collusion, or otherwise taken any action in restraint of free competitive bidding in connection with such contract.

(d) No contract awarded by competitive bidding pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, and subject to the provisions of this section, shall be entered into by any State highway department or local subdivision of the State without compliance with the provisions of this section, and without the prior concurrence of the Secretary in the award thereof.

44 Amended by sec. 104 (a) of Public Law 87-61 June 29, 1961 (75 Stat. 122). 45 Amended by sec. 22 (c) of Public Law 90-495, Aug. 23, 1968 (82 Stat. 815).

(e) The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to contracts for projects on the Federal-aid secondary system in those States where the Secretary has discharged his responsibility pursuant to section 117 of this title. Sec. 113. Prevailing rate of wage

(a) The Secretary shall take such action as may be necessary to insure that all laborers and mechanics employed by contractors or subcontractors on the initial construction work performed on highway projects on the Federal-aid systems, the primary and secondary, as well as their extensions in urban areas, and the Interstate System, authorized under the highway laws providing for the expenditure of Federal funds upon the Federal-aid systems, shall be paid wages at rates not less than those prevailing on the same type of work on similar construction in the immediate locality as determined by the Secretary of Labor in accordance with the Act of August 30, 1935, known as the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 267a).*

(b) In carrying out the duties of subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary of Labor shall consult with the highway department of the State in which a project on any of the Federal-aid systems is to be performed. After giving due regard to the information thus obtained, he shall make a predetermination of the minimum wages to be paid laborers and mechanics in accordance with the provisions of subsection (a) of this section which shall be set out in each project advertisement for bids and in each bid proposal form and shall be made a part of the contract covering the project.

(c) The provisions of the section shall not be applicable to employment pursuant to apprenticeship and skill training programs which have been certified by the Secretary of Transportation as promoting equal employment opportunity in connection with Federal-aid highway construction programs.' Sec. 114. Construction

(a) The construction of any highways or portions of highways located on a Federal-aid system shall be undertaken by the respective State highway departments or under their direct supervision. Except as provided in section 117 of this title, such construction shall be subject to the inspection and approval of the Secretary. The construction work and labor in each State shall be performed under the direct supervision of the State highway department and in accordance with the laws of that State and applicable Federal laws. Construction may be begun as soon as funds are available for expenditure pursuant to subsection (a) of section 118 of this title. On any project where actual construction is in progress and visible to highway users, the State highway department shall erect such informational sign or signs as prescribed by the Secretary, identifying the project and the respective amounts contributed therefor by the State and Federal Governments.47

(b) Convict labor shall not be used in such construction unless it is labor performed by convicts who are on parole or probation. Sec. 115. Construction by States in advance of apportionment

(a) When a State has obligated all funds for any of the Federal-aid systems, including the Interstate System, apportioned to it under section 104 of this title, and proceeds to construct any project without the aid of Federal funds, including one or more parts of any project, on any of the Federal-aid systems in such State, including the Interstate System, as any of those systems may be designated at that time, in accordance with all procedures and all requirements applicable to projects on any such system, except insofar as such procedures and requirements limit a State to the construction of projects with the aid of Federal funds previously apportioned to it, the Secretary, upon application by such State and his approval of such application, is author

* So in original-should be 276a.

46 Subsec. (a) and (b) amended and new subsec. (c) added by sec. 12 of Public Law 90–495, Aug. 23, 1968 (82 Stat. 815).

47 Amended by Sec. 8(f) of Public Law 86–657, July 14, 1960 (74 Stat. 522).

ized to pay to such State the Federal share of the costs of construction of such project when additional funds are apportioned to such State under section 104 of this title if

(1) prior to the construction of the project the Secretary approves the plans and specifications therefor in the same manner as other projects on the Federal-aid system involved, and

(2) the project conforms to the applicable standards adopted under section 109 of this title; The Secretary may not approve an application under this section unless an authorization is in effect for the fiscal year for which the application is sought beyond the currently authorized funds for such State and that no application may be approved which will exceed the State's expected apportionment of such authorizations. 48

(b) In determining the apportionment for any fiscal year under the provisions of section 104 of this title, any such project constructed by a State without the aid of Federal funds shall not be considered completed until an application under the provisions of this section with respect to such project has been approved by the Secretary.49 Sec. 116. Maintenance

(a) It shall be the duty of the State highway department to maintain, or cause to be maintained, any project constructed under the provisions of this chapter or constructed under the provisions of prior Acts. The State's obligation to the United States to maintain any such project shall cease when it no longer constitutes a part of a Federal-aid system.50

(b) In any State wherein the State highway department is without legal authority to maintain a project constructed on the Federal-aid secondary system, or within a municipality, such highway department shall enter into a formal agreement for its maintenance with the appropriate officials of the county or municipality in which such project is located.

(c) If at any time the Secretary shall find that any project constructed under the provisions of this chapter, or constructed under the provisions of prior Acts, is not being properly maintained, he shall call such fact to the attention of the State highway department. If, within ninety days after receipt of such notice, such project has not been put in proper condition of maintenance, the Secretary shall withhold approval of further projects of all types in the entire State until such project shall have been put in proper condition of maintenance, unless such project is subject to an agreement pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, in which case approval shall be withheld only for secondary or urban projects in the county or municipality where such project is located.

(d) The Secretary in consultation with the State highway departments and interested and knowledgeable private organizations and individuals shall as soon as possible establish national bridge inspection standards in order to provide for the proper safety inspection of bridges on any of the Federal-aid highway system.* Such standards shall specify in detail the method by which inspections shall be conducted by the State highway departments, the maximum time lapse between inspections and the qualifications for those charged with the responsibility for carrying out such inspections. Each State shall be required to maintain written reports to be available to the Secretary pursuant to such inspections together with a notation of the action taken pursuant to the findings of such inspections. Each State shall be required to maintain a current inventory of all bridges on the Federal-aid system.“

(e) The Secretary shall establish in cooperation with the State highway departments a program designed to train appropriate employees of the Fed

48, 49 Amended by sec. 25, of Public Law 90-495, Aug. 23, 1968 (82 Stat. 815). 50 Amended by sec. 21 (e) (3) of Public Law 86–70, June 25, 1959 (73 Stat, 141). *So in original-should be "systems."

61 Former subsection (d) repealed by sec. 21(d) (2) of Public Law 86–70, June 25, 1959 (73 Stat. 141).

eral Government and the State governments to carry out bridge inspections. Such a program shall be revised from time to time in light of new or improved techniques. For the purposes of this section the Secretary may use funds made available pursuant to the provisions of section 104(a) and section 307(a) of this title.5Sec. 117. Secondary road responsibility

(a) The Secretary may, upon the request of any State highway department, discharge his responsibility relative to the plans, specifications, estimates, surveys, contract awards, design, inspection, and construction of all projects on the Federal-aid secondary system by his receiving and approving a certified statement by the State highway department setting forth that the plans, design, and construction for each such project are in accord with those standards and procedures which (1) were adopted by such State highway department, (2) were applicable to projects in this category, and (3) were approved by him.

(b) The Secretary shall not approve such standards and procedures unless they are in accordance with the provisions of subsection (b) of section 105, subsection (b) of section 106, and subsection (c) of section 109, of this title.

(c) Subsections (a) and (b) of this section shall not be construed to relieve the Secretary of his obligation to make a final inspection of each project after construction and to require an adequate showing of the estimated cost of construction and the actual cost of construction. Sec. 118. Availability of sums apportioned

(a) On and after the date that the Secretary has certified to each State highway department the sums apportioned to each Federal-aid system or part thereof pursuant to an authorization under this title, or under prior Acts, such sums shall be available for expenditure under the provisions of this title.

(b) Such sums shall continue available for expenditure in that State for the appropriate Federal-aid system or part thereof for a period of two years after the close of the fiscal year for which such sums are authorized and any amounts so apportioned remaining unexpended at the end of such period shall lapse, except that any amount apportioned to the States for the Interstate System under subsection (b) (4) and (5) of section 104 of this title remaining unexpended at the end of the period during which it is available under this section shall lapse and shall immediately be reapportioned among the other States in accordance with the provisions of subsection (b) (5) of section 104 of this title. Such sums for any fiscal year shall be deemed to be expended if a sum equal to the total of the sums apportioned to the State for such fiscal year and previous fiscal years is covered by formal project agreements providing for the expenditure of funds authorized by each Act which contains provisions authorizing the appropriation of funds for Federalaid highways. Any Federal-aid highway funds released by the payment of the final voucher or by the modification of the formal project agreement shall be credited to the same class of funds, primary, secondary, urban, or interstate, previously apportioned to the State and be immediately available for expenditure.

(c) The total payments to any State shall not at any time during a current fiscal year exceed the total of all apportionments to such State in accordance with section 104 of this title for such fiscal year and all preceding fiscal years.

(d) Funds made available to the State of Alaska under this title may be expended for construction of access and development roads on a Federal-aid system that will serve resource development, recreational, residential, commercial, industrial, or other like purposes. 3

62 Subsection (d) and (e) added by section 26 of Public Law 90–495, Aug. 23, 1968 (82 Stat. 815).

63 New subsec. (d) added by sec. 7(a) of Public Law 89-574, Sept. 13, 1966 (80 Stat. 766).

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