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8519. Noncompliance with orders; penalties; removal of bridge.

Any bridge owner who shall willfully fail or refuse to comply with any lawful order of the Secretary, made in accordance with the provisions of sections 511-523 of this title, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and on conviction thereof shall be punished in any court of competent jurisdiction by a fine not exceeding $5,000, and every month such bridge owner shall remain in default shall be deemed a new offense and subject such bridge owner to additional penalties therefor. In addition to the penalties above prescribed the Secretary may, upon the failure or refusal of any bridge owner to comply with any lawful order issued by the Secretary in regard thereto, cause the removal of any such bridge and accessory works at the expense of the bridge owner; and suit for such expense may be brought in the name of the United States against such bridge owner and recovery had for such expense in any court of competent jurisdiction. The removal of any bridge erected or maintained in violation of the provisions of said sections or the order or direction of the Secretary made in pursuance thereof, and compliance with any order of the Secretary made with respect to any bridge in accordance with the provisions of such sections, may be enforced by injunction, mandamus, or other summary process upon application to the district court of any district which such bridge may, in whole or in part, exist, and proper proceedings to this end may be instituted under the direction of the Attorney General of the United States at the request of the Secretary. (June 21, 1940, ch. 409, § 9, 54 Stat. 500.) 8520. Review of findings and orders.

Any order made or issued under section 516 of this title may be reviewed by the court of appeals for any judicial circuit in which the bridge in question is wholly or partly located, if a petition for such review is filed within three months after the date such order is issued. The judgment of any such court shall be final except that it shall be subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States upon certification or certiorari, in the manner provided in sections 346 and 347 of Title 28. The review by such Court shall be limited to questions of law, and the findings of fact by the Secretary, if supported by substantial evidence, shall be conclusive. Upon such review, such Court shall have power to affirm or, if the order is not in accordance with law, to modify or to reverse the order, with or without remanding the case for a rehearing as justice may require. Proceedings under this section shall not operate as a stay of any order of the Secretary issued under provisions of sections 511-523 of this title other than section 516 of this title, or relieve any bridge owner of any liability or penalty under such provisions. (June 21, 1940, ch. 409, $ 10,54 Stat. 501; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, § 32(a), 62 Stat. 991; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, § 127, 63 Stat. 107.) $ 521. Regulations and orders.

The Secretary is authorized to prescribe such rules and regulations, and to make and issue such orders, as may be necessary or appropriate for carrying out the provisions of sections 511-523 of this title. (June 21, 1940, ch. 409, § 11, 54 Stat. 501.) $ 522. Existing provisions of law.

(a) The first sentence of section 494 of this title, and section 502 of this title, shall be inapplicable with respect to any bridge to which the provisions of sections 511-523 of this title are applicable, except to the extent provided in this section.

(b) Any bridge, the construction, reconstruction, or alteration of which was required by an order of the Secretary issued prior to July 1, 1939, and was not completed on such date, and in the case of which no penalties have accrued at the time of the enactment of such sections, shall be constructed, reconstructed, or altered as required by such order, and not in accordance with the provisions of such sections. In the case of any such bridge, however, the Secretary shall apportion the cost of the project between the bridge owner and the United States, and payment of the share of the United States shall be made, in the same manner as if the provisions of sections 511-523 of this title applied to such construction, reconstruction, or alteration, subject to the following limitations:

(1) In case such construction, reconstruction, or alteration has not begun on or before April 1, 1940, such apportionment of cost shall be made only if

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(A) the construction, reconstruction, or alteration is carried out in accordance with plans and specifications, and pursuant to bids, approved by the Secretary, and (B) the bridge owner has submitted to the Secretary a written guaranty of cost as provided for in section 515 of this title.

(2) The Secretary's determination as to such apportionment, and as to such plans and specifications and bids, shall be final.

(3) Such apportionment shall not be made if such construction, reconstruction, or alteration is not completed within the time fixed in such order of the Secretary or within such additional time as the Secretary, for good cause shown, may allow.

(c) Any bridge (except a bridge to which subsection (b) of this section applies) the construction, reconstruction, or alteration of which was required by an order of the Secretary issued prior to July 1, 1939, and was not begun before such date, shall be subject to the provisions of sections 511-523 of this title as though such order had not been issued, and compliance with the provisions of such sections and with such orders as may be issued thereunder shall be considered to constitute compliance with such order issued prior to July 1, 1939, and with the provisions of law under which it was issued. (June 21, 1940, ch. 409, § 12, 54 Stat. 501.) 8523. Relocation of bridges

If the owner of any bridge and the Secretary shall agree that in order to remove an obstruction to navigation, or for any other purpose, a relocation of such bridge or the construction of a new bridge upon a new location would be preferable to an alteration of the existing bridge, such relocation or new construction may be carried out at such new site and upon such terms as may be acceptable to the bridge owner and the Secretary, and the cost of such relocation or new construction, including also any expenses of changes in and additions to rights-of-way, stations, tracks, spurs, sidings, switches, signals, and other railroad facilities and property, and relocation of shippers required for railroad connection with the bridge at the new site, shall be apportioned as between the bridge owner and the United States in the manner which is provided for in section 516 of this title in the case of an alteration and the share of the United States paid from the appropriation authorized in section 518 of this title: Provided, That nothing in this section shall be construed as requiring the United States to pay any part of the expense of building any bridge across a navigable stream which the Secretary of the Army shall not find to be, in fact, a relocation of an existing bridge. (June 21, 1940, ch. 409, § 13, 54 Stat. 502; July 16, 1952, ch. 889, § 4, 66 Stat. 733.) 8 524. Applicability of Administrative Procedure Act.

In the administration of this Act, hearings and other procedures shall be exempted from the provisions of the Administrative Procedure Act, except as to the requirements of section 1002 of Title 5. (July 16, 1952, ch. 889, § 3, 66 Stat. 733.) *

GENERAL BRIDGE AUTHORITY GENERAL BRIDGE ACT OF 1946, 33 US.C., secs. 525–533* * 8525. Construction and operation of bridges; consent of Congress; approval of

plans; private highway toll bridges. (a) The consent of Congress is granted for the construction, maintenance, and operation of bridges and approaches thereto over the navigable waters of the United States, in accordance with the provisions of sections 525–533 of this title.

(b) The location and plans for such bridges shall be approved by the Chief of Engineers and the Secretary of the Army before construction is commenced, and, in approving the location and plans of any bridge, they may impose any specific conditions relating to the maintenance and operation of the structure which they may deem necessary in the interest of public navigation, and the conditions so imposed shall have the force of law.

(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (a) and (b) of this section, it shall be unlawful to construct or commence the construction of any

* Section 1002 of title 5 has been revised and codified as section 552 of title 5, U.S.C. **49 U.S.C., 1655(8) (6) (C) transferred functions of these sections to the Secretary of Transportation.

privately owned highway toll bridge until the location and plans thereof shall also have been submitted to and approved by the highway department or departments of the State or States in which the bridge and its approaches are situated; and where such bridge shall be between two or more States and the highway departments thereof shall be unable to agree upon the location and plans therefor, or if they, or either of them, shall fail or refuse to act upon the location and plans submitted, such location and plans then shall be submitted to the Bureau of Public Roads and, if approved by the Bureau of Public Roads, approval by the highway departments shall not be required. (Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, title V, § 502, 60 Stat. 847; June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title I, § 103(a), 63 Stat. 380; 1949 Reorg. Plan No. 7, § 1, eff. Aug. 19, 1949, 14 F.R. 5288, 63 Stat. 1070.) ** 8 526. Amount of tolls.

If tolls shall be charged for the transit over any interstate bridge of engines, cars, street cars, wagons, carriages, vehicles, animals, foot passengers, or other passengers, such tolls shall be reasonable and just, and the Secretary of the Army may, at any time, and from time to time, prescribe the reasonable rates of toll for such transit over such bridge, and the rates so prescribed shall be the legal rates and shall be the rates demanded and received for such transit. (Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, title V, $ 503, 60 Stat. 847.) * $ 527. Acquisition of interstate bridges by public agencies; amount of damages.

After the completion of any interstate toll bridge constructed by an individual, firm, or corporation, as determined by the Secretary of the Army, either of the States in which the bridge is located, or any public agency or political subdivision of either of such States, within or adjoining which any part of such bridge is located, or any two or more of them jointly, may at any time acquire and take over all right, title, and interest in such bridge and its approaches, and any interest in real property for public purposes by condemnation or expropriation. If at any time after the expiration of five years after the completion of such bridge the same is acquired by condemnation or expropriation, the amount of damages or compensation to be allowed shall not include good will, going value, or prospective revenues or profits, but shall be limited to the sum of (1) the actual cost of constructing such bridge and its approaches, less a reasonable deduction for actual depreciation in value; (2) the actual costs of acquiring such interests in real property; (3) actual financing and promotion costs, not to exceed 10 per centum of the sum of the cost of constructing the bridge and its approaches and acquiring such interests in real property; and (4) actual expenditures for necessary improvements. (Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, title V, § 504, 60 Stat. 848.) 8 528. Statement of construction costs of privately owned interstate bridges;

investigation of costs; conclusiveness of findings; review. Within ninety days after the completion of a privately owned interstate toll bridge, the owner shall file with the Secretary of the Army and with the highway departments of the States in which the bridge is located, a sworn itemized statement showing the actual original cost of constructing the bridge and its approaches, the actual cost of acquiring any interest in real property necessary therefor, and the actual financing and promotion costs. The Secretary of the Army may, and upon request of a highway department shall, at any time within three years, after the completion of such bridge, investigate such costs and determine the accuracy and the reasonableness of the costs alleged in the statement of costs so filed, and shall make a finding of the actual and reasonable costs of constructing, financing, and promoting such bridge. For the purpose of such investigation the said individual, firm, or corporation, its successors and assigns, shall make available all of its records in connection with the construction, financing, and promotion thereof. The findings of the Secretary of the Army as to the reasonable costs of the construction, financing, and promotion of the bridge shall be conclusive for the purposes mentioned in section 527 of this title subject only to review in a court of equity for fraud or gross mistake. (Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, title V, $ 505, 60 Stat. 848.)

**49 U.S.C., 1655(a) (1) (K) transferred functions of this section to the Secretary of Transportation.

* 49 U.S.C., 1655(g) (4) (B) transferred functions of this section to the Secretary of Transportation.

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$ 529. Sinking funds; rate of tolls, cancellation of tolls.

If tolls are charged for the use of an interstate bridge constructed or taken over or acquired by a State or States or by any municipality or other political subdivision or public agency thereof, under the provisions of sections 525–533 of this title, the rates of toll shall be so adjusted as to provide a fund sufficient to pay for the reasonable cost of maintaining, repairing, and operating the bridge and its approaches under economical management, and to provide a sinking fund sufficient to amortize the amount paid therefor, including reasonable interest and financing cost, as soon as possible under reasonable charges, but within a period of not to exceed thirty years from the date of completing or acquiring the same. After a sinking fund suficient for such amortization shall have been so provided, such bridge shall thereafter be maintained and operated free of tolls. An accurate record of the amount paid for acquiring the bridge and its approaches, the actual expenditures for maintaining, repairing, and operating the same, and of the daily tolls collected, shall be kept and shall be available for the information of all persons interested. (Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, title V, $ 506, 60 Stat. 848; May 25, 1948, ch. 336, 62 Stat. 267.) 8 530. Bridges included and excluded.

The provisions of sections 525–533 of this title shall apply only to bridges over navigable waters of the United States, the construction of which is approved after August 2, 1946, under the provisions of said sections; and the provisions of the first proviso of section 401 of this title, and the provisions of sections 491–498 of this title, shall not apply to such bridges. (Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, title V, $ 507, 60 Stat. 849.) 8 531. International bridges.

Sections 525-533 of this title shall not be construed to authorize the construction of any bridge which will connect the United States, or any Territory or possession of the United States, with any foreign country. (Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, title V, $ 508, 60 Stat. 849.) 8 532. Eminent domain.

There are conferred upon any individual, his heirs, legal representatives, or assigns, any firm or corporation, its successors or assigns, or any State, political subdivision, or municipality authorized in accordance with the provisions of sections 525–533 of this title to build a bridge between two or more States, all such rights and powers to enter upon lands and acquire, condemn, occupy, possess, and use real estate and other property in the respective States needed for the location, construction, operation, and maintenance of such bridge and its approaches, as are possessed by railroad corporations for railroad purposes or by bridge corporations for bridge purpose in the State in which such real estate or other property is situated, upon making just compensation therefor to be ascertained and paid according to the laws of such State, and the proceedings therefor shall be the same as in the condemnation or expropriation of property for public purposes in such State. (Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, title V, § 509, 60 Stat. 849.) 8 533. Penalties.

Any person who fails or refuses to comply with any lawful order of the Secretary of the Army or the Chief of Engineers issued under the provisions of sections 525–533 of this title, or who fails to comply with any specific condition imposed by the Chief of Engineers and the Secretary of the Army relating to the maintenance and operation of bridges, or who refuses to produce books, papers, or documents in obedience to a subpena or other lawful requirement under said sections, or who otherwise violates any provisions of said sections, shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished by a fine of not to exceed $5,000 or by imprisonment for not more than one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment. (Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, title V, $ 510, 60 Stat. 849.)

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