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no settlement; if every murmurer at government | be not much mistaken, somebody at some time may diffuse discontent, there can be no peace ; designed him for a soldier. and if every sceptic in theology may teach his About the time that the army was new-mofollies, there can be no religion. The remedy delled, (1645,) he removed to a smaller house in against these evils is to punish the authors.; for Holborn, which opened backward into Linit is yet allowed that every society may punish, coln's Inn Fields. He is not known to have though not prevent, the publication of opinions published any thing afterwards till the King's which that society shall think pernicious; but death, when, finding his murderers condemned this punishment, though it may crush the au- | by the presbyterians, he wrote a treatise to justhor, promotes the book; and it seems not more tify it, and to compose the minds of the people. reasonable to leave the right of printing unre- He made some “ Remarks on the Articles of strained because writers may be afterwards cen- Peace between Ormond and the Irish Rebels.” sured, than it would be to sleep with doors un
While he contented himself to write, he perbolted because by our laws we can hang a thief. haps did only what his conscience dictated ;
But, whatever were his engagements, civil or and if he did not very vigilantly watch the indomestic, poetry was never long out of his Auence of his own passions, and the gradual thoughts.
prevalence of opinions, first willingly admitted, About this time (1645) a collection of his La- and then habitually indulged; if objections, by tin and English poems appeared, in which the being overlooked, were forgotten, and desire su“Allegro" and "Penseroso," with some others, perinduced conviction; he yet shared only the were first published.
common weakness of mankind, and might be He had taken a larger house in Barbican for no less sincere than his opponents. But as facthe reception of scholars ; but the numerous re- tion seldom leaves a man honest, however it lations of his wife, to whom he generously grant- might find him, Milton is suspected of having ed refuge for a while, occupied his rooms. In interpolated the book called “ Icon Basilike," time however, they went away : " and the which the council of state, to whom he was house again,” says Philips, “ now looked like now made Latin secretary, employed him to a house of the muses only, though the aecession censure, by inserting a prayer taken from Sidof scholars was not great. Possibly his having ney's “ Arcadia,” and imputing it to the King ; proceeded so far in the education of youth may whom he charges, in his “ Iconoclastes," with have been the occasion of his adversaries calling the use of this prayer, as with a heavy crime, him pedagogue and schoolmaster; whereas it is in the indecent language with which prosperity well known he never set up for a public school, had emboldened the advocates for rebellion to to teach all the young fry of a parish; but only insult all that is venerable or great: “Who was willing to impart his learning and know- would have imagined so little fear in him of the ledge to his relations, and the sons of gentlemen true all-seeing Deity--as, immediately before who were his intimate friends, and that neither his death, to pop into the hands of the grave his writings nor his way of teaching ever sa- bishop that attended him, as a special relic of voured in the least of pedantry.”
his saintly exercises, a prayer stolen word for Thus laboriously does his nephew extenuate word from the mouth of a heathen woman what cannot be denied, and what might be con- praying to a heathen god ?” fessed without disgrace. Milton was not a man The papers which the King gave to Dr. who uld become mean by a mean employ- | Juxon on the scaffold the regicides took away, ment. This, however, his warmest friends so that they were at least the publishers of this seem not to have found; they therefore shift prayer; and Dr. Birch, who had examined the and palliate. He did not sell literature to all question with great care, was inclined to think comers at an open shop; he was a chamber- them the forgers. The use of it by adaptation milliner, and measured his commodities only to was innocent; and they who could so noisily his friends.
censure it, with a little extension of their maPhilips, evidently impatient of viewing him lice, could contrive what they wanted to in this state of degradation, tells us that it was not long continued : and, to raise his character King Charles the Second, being now sheltered again, has a mind to invest him with military in Holland, employed Salmasius, professor of splendour: “He is much mistaken,” he says, polite learning at Leyden, to write a defence of “ if there was not about this time a design of his father and of monarchy; and, to excite his making him an adjutant-general in Sir William industry, gave him, as was reported, a hundred Waller's army. But the new-modelling of the Jacobuses. Salmasius was a man of skill in army proved an obstruction to the design.” An languages, knowledge of antiquity, and sagacity event cannot be set at a much greater distance of emendatory criticism, almost exceeding all than by having been only designed about some hope of human attainment; and having, by extime, if a man be not much mistaken. Milton cessive praises, been confirmed in great conbe all be a pedagogue no longer : for, if Philips fidence of himself, though he probably had not
inuch considered the principles of society, or is said, commended the Defence of the People, her the rights of government, undertook the em- purpose must be to torment Salmasius, who was ployment without distrust of his own quali- then at court; for neither her civil station, nor fications; and, as his expedition in writing her natural character, could dispose her to fawas wonderful, in 1649 published “Defensio vour the doctrine, who was by birth a queen, Regis."
and by temper despotic. To this Milton was required to write a suffi- That Salmasius was, from the appearance of cient answer; which he performed (1651) in Milton's book, treated with neglect, there is not such a manner, that Hobbes declared himself much proof; but to a man so long accustomed unable to decide whose language was best, or to admiration, a little praise of his antagonist whose arguments were worst. In my opinion, would be sufficiently offensive, and might inMilton's periods are smoother, neater, and chine him to leave Sweden, from which however more pointed; but he delights himself with he was dismissed, not with any mark of conteasing his adversary as much as with confuting tempt, but with a train of attendance scarcely him. He makes a foolish allusion of Salmasius, less than regal. whose doctrine he considers as servile and un- He prepared a reply, which, left as it was ing manly, to the stream of Salmasius, which, who- perfect, was published by his son in the year of ever entered, left half his virility behind him. the Restoration. In the beginning, being proSalmasius was a Frenchman, and was unhappi- bably most in pain for his Latinity, he endealy married to a scold. Tu es Gallus, says Milvours to defend his use of the word persona; hut, ton, et, ut aiunt, nimium gallinaceus. But his if I remember right, he misses a better authority supreme pleasure is to tax his adversary, so re-than any that he has found, that of Juvenal in nowned for criticisms, with vicious Latin. He his fourth satire : opens his book with telling that he has used per
Quid agas, cum dira et fodior omui sona, which according to Milton, signfies only
Crimine persona est ? a mask, in a sense not known to the Romans, by applying it as we apply person. But as Ne- As Salmasius reproached Milton with losing mesis is always on the watch, it is memorable bis eyes in the quarrel, Milton delighted himthat he has enforced the charge of a solecism self with the belief that he had shortened Salby an expression in itself grossly solecistical, masius's life, and both perhaps with more mawhen for one of those supposed blunders, he bignity than reason. Salmasius died at the Spa, says, as Ker, and I think some one before him, Sept. 3, 1653; and as controvertists are comhas remarked, propino te grammatistis tuis va- monly said to be killed by their last dispute, Milpuladum. * From vaprulo, which has a passive ton was flattered with the credit of destroying sense, vapulandus can never be derived. No him. man forgets his original trade; the rights of na- Cromwell had now dismissed the parliament tions, and of kings, sink into questions of gram- by the authority of which he had destroyed momar, if grammarians discuss them.
narchy, and commenced monarch himself, under Milton, when he undertook this answer, was the title of Protector, but with kingly and more weak of body and dim of sight; but his with than kingly power. That his authority was was forward, and what was wanting of health lawful, never was pretended; he himself foundwas supplied by zeal. He was rewarded with ed his right only in necessity; but Milton, hava thousand pounds, and his book was much read; ing now tasted the honey of public employment, for paradox, recommended by spirit and elegance, would not return to hunger and philosophy; easily gains attention ; and he, who told every but, continuing to exercise his office under a maman that he was equal to his King, could hard- nifest usurpation, betrayed to his power that lily want an audience.
berty which he had defended. Nothing can be That the performance of Salmasius was not more just than that rebellion should end in sladispersed with equal rapidity, or read with equal very; that he who had justified the murder of eagerness, is very credible. He taught only the bis king, for some acts which seemed to him unstale doctrine of authority, and the unpleasing lawful, should now sell his services and his flatduty of submission, and he had been so long not teries, to a tyrant, of whom it was evident that only the monareh but the tyrant of literature, he could do nothing lawfuk. that almost all mankind were delighted to find He had now been blind for some years; but him defied and insulted by a new name, not yet kis vigour of intellect was such, that he was not considered as any one's rival. If Christiana, as disabled to discharge his office of Latin secre
tary, or continue his controversies. His mind
was too eager to be diverted, and too strong to The work here referred to, is “ Selectarum de
be subdued. lingua Latinæ observationem libri duo. Ductu et cura
About this time his first wife died in child.
probably did not much love her, he did not long
sontinue the appearance of lamenting her ; but| mer government, “ We were left," says Milton, after a short time married Catharine, the daugh- “ to ourselves : the whole national interest fell ter of one Captain Woodcock, of Hackney; a into your hands, and subsists only in your abil. woman doubtless educated in opinions like his ities. To your virtue, overpowering and resist
She died, within a year, of child-birth, less, every man gives way, except some who, or some distemper that followed it; and her without equal qualifications, aspire to equal honhusband honoured her memory with a poor ours, who envy the distinctions of merit greater sonnet.
than their own, or who have yet to learn, that The first reply to Milton's " Defensio Populi” in the coalition of human society nothing is was published in 1651, called “ Apologia pro more pleasing to God, or more agreeable to Rege et Populo Anglicano, contra Johannis Poly- reason, than that the highest mind should have pragmatici (alias Miltoni) defensionem destruc-the sovereign power. Such, Sir, are you by tivam Regis et Populi.' Of this the author general confession; such are the things achieved was not known; but Milton, and his nephew by you, the greatest and most glorious of our Philips, under whose name he published an an- countrymen, the director of our public councils, swer so much corrected by him that it might be the leader of unconquered armies, the father of called his own, imputed it to Bramhal; and, your country; for by that title does every good knowing him no friend to regicides, thought man hail you with sincere and voluntary themselves at liberty to treat him as if they had praise." known what they only suspected.
Next year, having defended all that want. Next year appeared “ Regii Sanguinis clamor ed defence, he found leisure to defend him. ad Cælum.” Of this the author was Peter du self. He undertook his own vindication Moulin, who was afterwards prebendary of Can-against More, whom he declares in his title to terbury; but Morus, or More, a French minis- be justly called the author of the “ Regii Santer, having the care of its publication, was guinis Clamor.” In this there is no want of treated as the writer by Milton in his “ Defen- vehemence or eloquence, nor does he forget his sio Secunda,” and overwhelmed by such violence wonted wit. « Morus es? an Momus? an uterof invective, that he began to shrink under the que idem est ?” He then remembers that Morus tempest, and gave his persecutors the means of is Latin for a mulberry-tree, and hints at knowing the true author. Du Moulin was now the known transformation: in great danger; but Milton's pride operated against his malignity; and both he and his
Poma alba ferebat friends were more willing that Du Moulin Quæ post nigra tulit Morus. should escape than that he should be convicted of mistake.
With this piece ended his controversies; and In this second defence he shows that his elo 'he from this time gave himself up to his private
studies and his civil employment. quence is not merely satirical; the rudeness of his invective is equalled by the grossness of his
As secretary to the Protector, he is supposed flattery. “ Deserimer, Cromuelle, tu solus su
to have written the declaration of the reasons peres, ad te summa nostrarum rerum rediit, in for a war with Spain. His agency was conte solo consistit, insuperabili tuæ virtuti cedimus sidered as of great importance; for, when a cuncti, nemine vel obloquente, nisi qui a quales treaty with Sweden was artfully suspended, the inæqualis ipse honores sibi quærit, aut digniori delay was publicly imputed to Mr. Mihon's in concessos invidet, aut non intelligit nihil esse in disposition ; and the Swedish agent was presocietate hominum magis vel Deo gratum, vel voked to express his wonder, that only one man rationi consentaneum, esse in civitate nihil aequi- in England could write Latin, and that man
blind. us, vibil utilius, quam potiri rerum dignissimum. Eum te agnoscunt omnes, Cromuelle, ea
Being now forty-seven years old, and seeing tu civis maximus et gloriosissimus, * dux publici himself disencumbered from external interrupconsilii, exercituum fortissimorum imperator, tions, he seems to have recollected his former pater patriæ gessisti. Sic tu spontanea bono- purposes, and to have resumed three great works rum omnium et animitus missa voce salutaris."
which he had planned for his future employCæsar when he assumed the perpetual dicta- ment; an epic poem, the history of his country, torship, had not more servile or more elegant
and a dictionary of the Latin tongue flattery. A translation may show its servility;
To collect a dictionary, seems a work of all but its elegance is less attainable. Having ex
others least practicable in a state of blindness, be posed the unskilfulness or selfishness of the for- cause it depends upon perpetual and minute in
spection and collation. Nor would Milton pro
bably have begun it after he had lost his eyes; * It may be doubted whether gloriosissimus be but, having had it always before hiin, he conhere used with Milton's boasted purity. Res glorio. tinued it, says Philips, “ ulmost to his dying: su is au illustrious thing ; ut vir gloriosus is com day; but the papers were so discomposed and monly a braggart, as in miles gloriosus.-Dr. J. deficieut, that they could aot be fitted for the
The compilers of the Latin dictionary | Lucifer.
The Evening Star, Hes printed at Cambridge, had the use of those col- Adam,
with the Serpent. Chorus of Angels. lections in three folios; but what was their fate Eve, afterwards is not known. *
Lucifer, To compile a history from various authors,
Adam. when they can only be consulted by other eyes, Labour,
Eve. is not easy, nor possible, but with more skilful
Conscience. and attentive help than can be commonly obtain- Discontent.
Mutes, Labour, ed; and it was probably the difficulty of consult- Ignorance,
Sickness, ing and comparing that stopped Milton's narra- with others;
Mutey. tive at the Conquest ; a period at which affairs Faith.
Ignorance, were not very intricate, nor authors very nu
Faith, Hope, Charity. deliberation, long choosing, and beginning late,
PARADISE LOST. he fixed upon “ Paradise Lost;" a design so comprehensive, that it could be justified only by
The Persons. He had once designed to celebrate King Arthur, as he hints in his verses to Man- his true body; that it corrupts not, because it is
Moses zgorojištı, recounting how he assumed sus; but “ Arthur was reserved,” says Fenton, with God in the mount; declares the like with to another destiny.”+
Enoch and Elijah : besides the purity of the It appears, by some sketches of poetical projects left in manuscript, and to be seen in a lib place, that certain puro winds, dews, and clouds raryf at Cambridge, that he had digested his preserve it from corruption ; whence exhorts to thoughts on this subject into one of those wild in the state of innocence, by reason of their sin.
the sight of God; tells they cannot see Adam dramas which were anciently called Mysteries : S and Philips had seen what he terms part of a
debating what should become of man, if
Mercy, tragedy, beginning with the first ten lines of
Wisdom, Satan's address to the sun. These mysteries Chorus of Angels singing a hymn of the Creation. consist of allegorical persons; such as Justice, Mercy, Faith. Of the tragedy or mystery of
ACT II. “ Paradise Lost" there are two plans :
Chorus sings the marriage-song, and describes ParaMichael. Moses.
dise. Chorus of Angels,
Divine Justice, Wisdom.
Lucifer contriving Adam's ruin.
Chorus fears for Adam, and relates Lucifer's rebel * The “ Cambridge Dictionary,” published in 4to. lion and fall. 1693, is no other than a copy, with some small additions, of that of Dr. Adam Littleton in 1685, by sun
ACT IV. dry persons, of whom, though their names are conrealed, there is great reason to conjecture that Mil
. ton's nepbew, Edward Philips, is one; for it is ex
Eve, pressly said by Wood, Fasti, vol. I. p. 266, that
Conscience cites them to God's examination. “ Milton's Thesaurus" came to his hands; and it is
Chorus bewails, and tells the good Adam has lost. asserted, in the preface thereto, that the editors
ACT. V. thereof had the use of three large folios in manuscript, collected and digested into alphabetical order Adam and Eve driven out of Paradise. by Mr. John Milton.
presented by an angel with It has been remarked, that the additions, together Labour, Grief, Hatred, Envy, War, Fa. with the preface abovementioned, and a large part
mine, Pestilence, Sickness, Discon
MI utes. of the title of the “Cambridge Dictionary," have been
tent, Ignorance, Fear, Death, incorporated and printed with the subsequent editions
To whom he gives their names. Likewise Winter, of “ Littleton's Dictionary," till that of 1735. Vid. Biog. Brit. 2985, in not. So that, for aught that
Heat, Tempest, &c.
Faith, appears to the contrary, Philips was the last pos
Hope, comfort him and instruct him. sessor of Milton's MS.-H.
Charity, + Id est, to be the subject of an heroic poem, writ
Chorus briefly concludes. ten by Sir Richard Blackmore.-H.
Such was his first design, which could have * Trinity College.- R.
ŠThe dramas in which Justice, Mercy, Faith, &c. produced only an allegory, or mystery. The were introduced, were Moralities, not Mysteries.- following sketch seems to have attained mor MALONE.
Adam unparadised :
ly previous to poetical excellence; he had made
himself acquainted with seemly arts and affairs : The angel Gabriel, either descending or enter- his comprehension was extended by various ing; showing, since this globe was created, his fre- knowledge, and his memory stored with intelquency as much on earth as in heaven : describes lectual treasures. He was skilful in many Paradise. Next the Chorus, showing the reason languages, and had by reading and composition of his coming to keep his watch in Paradise, attained the full mastery of his own.
He after Lucifer's rebellion, by command from God: would have wanted little help from books, had and withal expressing his desire to see and know he retained the power of perusing them. more concerning this excellent new creature, But while his greater designs were advancing,
The angel Gabriel, as by his name sig, having now, like many other authors, caught the nifying a prince of power, tracing Paradise with love of publication, he amused himself, as he a more free office, passes by the station of the could, with little productions. He sent to the press Chorus, and, desired by them, relates what he (1658) a manuscript of Raleigh, called “ The knew of man: as the creation of Eve, with their Cabinet Council ;" and next year gratified his love and marriage. After this, Lucifer appears ; malevolence to the clergy, by a “ Treatise of Ciafter his overthrow, bemoans himself, seeks re- vil power in Ecclesiastical Cases, and the Means venge on man. The Chorus prepare resistance of removing Hirelings out of the Church.” on his first approach. At last, after discourse Oliver was now dead, Richard was constrainof enmity on either side, he departs : whereat ed to resign : the system of extemporary governthe Chorus sings of the battle and victory in ment, which had been held together only by heaven, against him and his accomplices : as be- force, naturally fell into fragments when that fore, after the first act, was sung a hymn of the force was taken away; and Milton saw himself creation. Here again may appear Lucifer, re- and his cause in equal danger. But he had still lating and exulting in what he had done to the hope of doing something. He wrote letters, destruction of man. Man next, and Eve, hav- which Toland has published, to such men as he ing by this time been seduced by the Serpent, thought friends to the new commonwealth ; and appears confusedly covered with leaves. Con- even in the year of the Restoration he bated no science in a shape accuses him ; Justice cites jot of heart or hope, but was fantastical enough him to a place whither Jehovah called for him. to think that the nation, agitated as it was, In the meanwhile, the Chorus entertains the might be settled by a pamphlet, called, “ A stage, and is informed by some angel the man- ready and easy Way to establish a free Commonner of the fall. Here the Chorus bewails Adam's wealth;" which was, however, enough considerfall. Adam then and Eve return : accuse one
ed to be both seriously and ludicrously answered. another ; but especially Adam lays the blame to
The obstinate enthusiasm of the commonhis wife; is stubborn in his offence. Justice wealth-men was very remarkable. When the appears, reasons with him, convinces him. King was apparently returning, Harrington, The Chorus admonisheth Adam, and bids him with a few associates as fanatical as himself, beware Lucifer's example of impenitence. The used to meet, with all the gravity of political imangel is sent to banish them out of paradise : but portance, to settle an equal government by rotabefore causes to pass before his eyes, in shapes, tion; and Milton, kicking when he could strike a mask of all the evils of this life and world. He no longer, was foolish enough to publish, a few is humble, relents, despairs; at last appears weeks before the Restoration, “ upon a serMercy, comforts him, promises the Messiah; mon preached by one Griffiths, entitled “The then calls in Faith, Hope, and Charity; instructs Fear of God and the King.” To these notes an bim; he reperts, gives God the glory, submits answer was written by L'Estrange, in a pamphto his penalty. The Chorus briefly concludes. let petulantly called “ No Blind Guides." Compare this with the former draught.
But whatever Milton could write, or men of These are very imperfect rudiments of “ Par greater activity could do, the King was now radise Lost ;” but it is pleasant to see great about to be restored, with the irresistible approworks in their seminal state, pregnant with la- bation of the people. He was therefore no tent possibilities of excellence ; nor could there longer secretary, and was consequently obliged to be any more delightful entertainment than to quit the house, which he held by his office; and, trace their gradual growth and expansion, and proportioning his sense of danger to his opinion to observe how they are sometimes suddenly of the importance of his writings, thought it improved by accidental hints, and sometimes convenient to seek some shelter, and hid himself slowly improved by steady meditation.
for a time in Bartholomew-close, by West Invention is almost the only literary labour Smithfield. which blindness cannot obstruct, and therefore I cannot but remark a kind of respect, perhe naturally solaced his solitude by the indul-haps unconsciously, paid to this great man by his gence of his fancy, and the melody of his num- biographers : every house in which he resided is bers. He had done what he knew to be necessari- historically mentioned, as if it were an injury to