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terval of reason ensuing, in which he knew his his clauses, any inconsequence in his connecphysician and his family, gave hopes of his re- tions, or abruptness in his transitions. covery; but in a few days he sunk into a lethar- His style was well suited to his thoughts, gic stupidity, motionless, heedless, and speech- which are never subtilised by nice disquisitions, less. But it is said, that, after a year of total decorated by sparkling conceits, elevated by amsilence, when his housekeeper on the 30th of bitious sentences, or variegated by far-sought November, told him that the usual bonfires and learning. He pays no court to the passions; he illuminations were preparing to celebrate his excites neither surprise nor admiration; he albirth-day, he answered, “ It is all folly; they ways understands himself, and his reader alhad better let it alone.

ways understands him; the peruser of Swift It is remembered, that he afterwards spoke wants little previous knowledge; it will be sufnow and then, or gave some intimation of a ficient that he is acquainted with common meaning ; but at last sunk into perfect silence, words and common things; he is neither rewhich continued till about the end of October, quired to mount elevations, nor to explore pro1744, when, in his seventy-eighth year, he ex- fundities; his passage is always on a level, pired without a struggle.

along solid ground, without asperities, withcut When Swift is considered as an author, it is obstruction. just to estimate his powers by their effects. In This easy and safe conveyance of meaning it the reign of Queen Anne he turned the stream was Swift's desire to attain, and for having atof popularity against the whigs, and must be tained he deserves praise. For purposes merely confessed to have dictated for a time the politi- didactic, when something is to be told that was cal opinions of the English nation. In the not known before, it is the best mode ; but succeeding reign he delivered Ireland from against that inattention by which known truths plunder and oppression; and showed that wit, are suffered to lie neglected it makes no proviconfederated with truth, had such force as au- sion; it instructs, but does not persuade. thority was unable to resist. He said truly of By his political education he was associated himself, that Ireland " was his debtor.” It with the whigs; but he deserted them when was from the time when he first began to pa- they deserted their principles, yet without runtronize the Irish that they may date their ning into the contrary extreme : he continued riches and prosperity. He taught them first to throughout his life to retain the disposition know their own interest, their weight, and which he assigns to the “ Church-of-England their strength, and gave them spirit to assert Man," of thinking commonly with the whigs that equality with their fellow-subjects, to of the state and with the tories of the church. which they have ever since been making vigor- He was a churchman rationally zealous; he ous advances, and to claim those rights which desired the prosperity, and maintained the honthey have at last established. Nor can they he our, of the clergy; of the dişsenters he did not charged with ingratitude to their benefactor; wish to infringe the toleration, but he opposed for they reverenced him as a guardian, and their encroachments. obeyed him as a dictator.

To his duty as dean he was very attentive. In his works he has given very different spe- He managed the revenues of his church with cimens both of sentiments and expression. His exact economy; and it is said by Delany, that “ Tale of a Tub” has little resemblance to his more money was, under his direction, laid out other pieces. It exhibits a vehemence and ra- in repairs, than had ever been in the same time pidity of mind, a copiousness of images, and vi- since its first erection. Of his choir he was vacity of diction, such as he afterwards never eminently careful; and, though he neither loved possessed or never exerted. It is of a mode so nor understood music, took care that all the distinct and peculiar that it must be considered singers were well qualified, admitting none by itself; what is true of that, is not true of without the testimony of skilful judges. any thing else which he has written.

In his church he restored the practice of In his other works is found an equable tenour weekly communion, and distributed the sacraof easy language, which rather trickles than mental elements in the most solemn and devout flows. His delight was in simplicity. That manner with his own hand. He came to he has in his works no metaphor, as has been chureh every morning, preached commonly in said, is not true; but his few metaphors seem his turn, and attended the evening anthem, that to be received rather by necessity than choice. it might not be negligently performed. He studied purity; and though perhaps all his He read the service “ rather with a strong, strictures are not exact, yet it is not often that nervous voice, than in a graceful manner; his Bolecisms can be found ; and whoever depends | voice was sharp and high-toned, rather than on his authority may generally conclude him- harmonious." self safe. His sentences are never too much He entered upon the clerical state with hope dilated or contracted ; and it will not be easy to to excel in preaching ; but complained, that find any embarrassment in the complication of from the time of his political controversies," he


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could only preach pamphlets.” This censure was not much more than seven hundred a of himself, if judgment be made from those year. sermons which have been printed, was unrea- His beneficence was not graced with tendersonably severe.

ness or civility; he relieved without pity, and The suspicions of his irreligion proceeded in assisted without kindness; so that those who a great measure from his dread of hypocrisy ; were fed by him could hardly love him. instead of wishing to seem better, he delighted He made a rule to himself to give but one in seeming worse than he was. He went in piece at a time, and therefore always stored his London to early prayers, lest he should be seen pocket with coins of different value. at church : he read prayers to his servants every Whatever he did, he seemed willing to do in morning with such dexterous secrecy, that Dr. a manner peculiar to himself, without suffiDelany was six months in his house before he ciently considering that singularity, as it imknew it. He was not only careful to hide the plies a contempt of the general practice, is a good which he did, but willingly incurred the kind of defiance which justly provokes the hossuspicion of evil which he did not. He forgot tility of ridicule; he, therefore, who indulges what himself had formerly asserted, that hy- peculiar habits is worse than others, if he be pocrisy is less mischievous than open impiety. not better. Dr. Delany, with all his zeal for his honour, Of his humour, a story told by Pope* may has justly condemned this part of his character. afford a specimen.

The person of Swift had not many recom- “ Dr. Swift has an odd blunt way, that is mendations. He had a kind of muddy com- mistaken by strangers for ill-nature.—'Tis so plexion, which, though he washed himself with odd, that there is no describing it but by facts. oriental scrupulosity, did not look clear. He I'll tell you one that first comes into my head. had a countenance sour and severe, which he One evening, Gay and I went to see him : you seldom softened by any appearance of gayety. know how intimately we were all acquainted. He stubbornly resisted any tendency to laugh On our coming in, · Heydey, gentlemen, (says

the Doctor) what's the meaning of this visit? To his domestics he was naturally rough ; | How came you to leave the great lords that and a man of rigorous temper, with that vigil- you are so fond of, to come hither to see a poor ance of minute attention which his works dis-Dean? — Because we would rather see you cover, must have been a master that few could than any of them.'- Ay, any one that did not bear. That he was disposed to do his servants know so well as I do might believe you. But good on important occasions, is no great mitiga- since you are come, I must get some supper for tion; benefaction can be but rare, and tyrannic you, I suppose.'- No, Doctor, we have supped peevishness is perpetual. He did not spare the already.'- '- Supped already! that's impossible! servants of others. Once when he dined alone why 'tis not eight o'clock yet.—That's very with the Earl of Orrery, he said of one that strange; but if you had not supped, I must waited in the room, “ That man has, since we have got something for you. Let me see, sat at table, committed fifteen faults." What what should I have had ? A couple of lobsters; the faults were, Lord Orrery, from whom I ay, that would have done very well; two shilheard the story, had not been attentive enough ling-tarts, a shilling; but you will drink a to discover. My number may perhaps not be glass of wine with me, though you supped so exact.

much before your usual time only to spare my In his economy he practised a peculiar and pocket?'- No, we had rather talk with you offensive parsimony, without disguise or apology. than drink with you.' But if you had supped The practice of saving being once necessary, be with me, as in all reason you ought to have came habitual, and grew first ridiculous, and done, you must then have drank with me.-A at last detestable. But his avarice, though it bottle of wine, two shillings-two and two is might exclude pleasure, was never suffered to four, and one is five; just two and sixpence encroach upon his virtue. He was frugal by a piece. There, Pope, there's half-a-crown for inclivation, but liberal by principle; and if the you, and there's another for you, Sir; for ] purpose to which he destined his little accumu- won't save any thing by you I am determined.' lations be remembered, with his distribution of This was all said and done with his usual occasional charity, it will perhaps appear, that seriousness on such occasions; and in spite of he only liked one mode of expense better than every thing we could say to the contrary, he another, and saved merely that he might have actually obliged us to take the money." something to give. He did not grow rich by In the intercourse of familiar life, he indulged injuring his successors, but left both Laracor his disposition to petulance' and sarcasm, and and the deanery more valuable than he found thought himself injured if the licentiousness of them.--With all this talk of his covetousness ind generosity, it should be remembered that was never rich. The revenue of his deanery


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his raillery, the freedom of his censures, or the the age involved in darkness, and shade the picpetulance of his frolics, was resented or re- ture with sullen emulation. pressed. He predominated over his companions When the Queen's death drove him into Irewith very high ascendancy, and probably would land, he might be allowed to regret for a time bear none over whom he could not predominate. the interception of his views, the extinction of To give him advice, was, in the style of his his hopes, and his ejection from gay scenes, imfriend Delany, “ to venture to speak to him.” portant employment, and splendid friendships ; This customary superiority soon grew too deli- but when time had enabled reason to prevail cate for truth; and Swift, with all his pene-over vexation, the complaints which at first tration, allowed himself to be delighted with were natural became ridiculous because they low flattery.

were useless. But querulousness was now grown On all common occasions, he habitually affects habitual, and he cried out when he probably a style of arrogance, and dictates rather than had ceased to feel. His reiterated wailings perpersuades. This authoritative and magisterial suaded Bolingbroke that he was really willing language he expected to be received as his pe to quit his deanery for an English parish ; and culiar mode of jocularity; but he apparently Bolingbroke procured an exchange, which was flattered his own arrogance by an assumed im- rejected ; and Swift still retained the pleasure periousness, in which he was ironical only to of complaining. the resentful, and to the submissive sufficiently The greatest difficulty that occurs, in analysserious.

ing his character, is to discover by what deHe told stories with great felicity, and de- pravity of intellect he took delight in revolving lighted in doing what he knew himself to do ideas from which almost every other mind well; he was therefore captivated by the respec-shrinks with disgust. The ideas of pleasure, ful silence of a steady listener, and told the same even when criminal, may solicit the imaginatales too often.

tion; but what has disease, deformity, and filth, He did not, however, claim the right of talk- upon which the thoughts can be allured to ing alone; for it was his rule, when he had dwell? Delany is willing to think that Swift's. spoken a minute, to give room by a pause for mind was not much tainted with this gross corany other speaker. Of time, on all occasions, ruption before his long visit to Pope. He does he was an exact computer, and knew the mi- not consider how he degrades his hero, by maknutes required to every common operation. ing him at fifty-nine the pupil of turpitude,

It may be justly supposed that there was in and liable to the malignant influence of an ashis conversation what appears so frequently in cendant mind. But the truth is, that Gulliver his letters, an affectation of familiarity with the had described his Yahoos before the visit ; and great, and ambition of momentary equality he that had formed those images had nothing sought and enjoyed by the neglect of those cere- filthy to learn. monies which custom has established as the bar- I have here given the character of Swift as he riers between one order of society and another. exhibits himself to my perception; but now let This transgression of regularity was by himself another be heard who knew him better. Dr. and his admirers termed greatness of soul. But Delany, after long acquaintance, describes him a great mind disdains to hold any thing by cour- to Lord Orrery in these terms: tesy, and therefore never usurps what a lawful “ My Lord, when you consider Swift's sin- 1 claimant may take away. He that encroaches gular, peculiar, and most variegated vein of wit, on another's dignity puts himself in his power; always intended rightly, although not always he is either repelled with helpless indignity or so rightly directed; delightful in many inendured by clemency and condescension. stances, and salutary even where it is most of

Of Swift's general habits of thinking, if his fensive; when you consider his strict truth, his letters can be supposed to afford any evidence, fortitude in resisting oppression and arbitrary he was not a man to be either loved or envied. power; his fidelity in friendship; his sincere He seems to have wasted life in discontent, by love and zeal for religion; his uprightness in the rage of neglected pride and the languish- making right resolutions, and his steadiness in ment of unsatisfied desire. He is querulous adhering to them: his care of his church, its and fastidious, arrogant and malignant; he choir, its economy, and its income; his attenscarcely speaks of himself but with indignant tion to all those that preached in his cathedral, lamentations, or of others but with insolent su- in order to their amendment in pronunciation periority when he is gay, and with angry con- and style ; as also his remarkable attention to tempt when he is gloomy. From the letters the interest of his successors, preferably to his that passed between him and Pope it might be own present emoluments; his invincible patriotinferred, that they, with Arbuthnot and Gay, ism, even to a country which he did not love; had engrossed all the understanding and virtue his very various, well-devised, well-judged, and of mankind; that their merits filled the world, extensive charities, throughout his life; and his or that there was no hope of more. They show whole fortune (to say nothing of his wife's)

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conveyed to the saine Christian purposes at his and his name will ever live an honour, to Ire. death ; charities, from which he could enjoy no land.' honour, advantage, or satisfaction, of any kind in this world: when you consider his ironical In the poetical works of Dr. Swift there is and humorous as well as his serious schemes not much upon which the critic can exercise his for the promotion of true religion and virtue ; | powers. They are often humorous, almost his success in soliciting for the first-fruits and always light, and have the qualities which retwentieths, to the unspeakable benefit of the es- commend such compositions, easiness and gaytablished church of Ireland; and his felicity (to ety. They are, for the most part, what their rate it no higher) in giving occasion to the author intended. The diction is correct, the building of fifty new churches in London, numbers are smooth, and the rhymes exact.

“ All this considered, the character of his life. There seldom occurs a hard-laboured expression will appear like that of his writings: they will or a redundant epithet; all his verses exemplify both bear to be re-considered and re-examined his own definition of a good style, they consist with the utmost attention, and always discover of "proper words in proper places." new beauties and excellences upon every ex

To divide this collection into classes, and amination.

show how some pieces are gross and some are They will bear to be considered as the sun, trifling, would be to tell the reader what he in which the brightness will hide the blemishes; knows already, and to find faults of which the and whenever petulant ignorance, pride, malice, author could not be ignorant, who certainly malignity, or envy, interposes to cloud or sully wrote often not to his judgment, but his his fame, I take upon me to pronounce, that the humour. eclipse will not last long.

It was said, in a preface to one of the Irish “ To conclude-No man ever deserved better editions, that Swift had never been known to of any country than Swift did of his ; a steady, take a single thought from any writer, ancient persevering, inflexible friend; a wise, a watch- or modern. This is not literally true; but perful, and a faithful counsellor ; under many se- haps no writer can easily be found that has borvere trials and bitter persecutions, to the mani- rowed so little, or that in all his excellences and fest hazard both of his liberty and fortune. all his defects has so well maintained his claim

He lived a blessing, he died a benefactor, to be considered as original.


William BROOME was born in Cheshire, as is | mankind, he cleared himself, as Ford likewise said, of very mean parents. Of the place of owned, from the great part of his scholastic his birth or the first part of his life, I have not rust. been able to gain any intelligence. He was He appeared early in the world as a translaeducated upon the foundation at Eton, and was tor of the “ Iliads” into prose, in conjunction captain of the school a whole year, without any with Ozell and Oldisworth. How the several vacancy by which he might bave obtained a parts were distributed is not known. This is scholarship at King's College : being by this de- the translation of which Ozell boasted as supelay, such as is said to have happened very rare- rior, in Toland's opinion, to that of Pope: it ly, superannuated, he was sent to St. John's has long since vanished, and is now in no danCollege by the contributions of his friends, ger from the critics. where he obtained a small exhibition.

He was introduced to Mr. Pope, who was At this college he lived for some time in the then visiting Sir John Cotton at Madingley same chamber with the well-known Ford, by near Cambridge, and gained so much of his eswhom I have formerly heard him described as teem, that he was employed, I believe, to make a contracted scholar and a mere versifier, unac- extracts from Eustathius for the notes to the quainted with life and unskilful in conversa- translation of the “ Iliad ;” and in the volumes tion. His addiction to metre was then such, of poetry published by Lintot, commonly called that his companions familiarly called him Poet. “ Pope's Miscellanies," many of his early pieces When he had opportunities of mingling with were inserted.

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Pope and Broome were to be yet more closely conciled; but I am afraid their peace was withconnected. When the success of the “ Iliad” | out friendship. gave encouragement to a version of the “ Odys- He afterwards published a Miscellany of sey,” Pope, weary of the toil, called Fenton Poems, which is inserted, with corrections, in and Broome to his assistance; and, taking only the late compilation. half the work upon himself, divided the other He never rose to a very high dignity in the half between his partners, giving four books to church. He was some time rector of Sturston Fenton and eight to Broome. Fenton's books in Suffolk, where he married a wealthy widow; I have enumerated in his life: to the lot of and afterwards, when the king visited CamBroome fell the second, sixth, eighth, eleventh, bridge (1728) became doctor of laws. He was twelfth, sixteenth, eighteenth, and twenty-third, (in August 1728) presented by the crown to the together with the burden of writing all the notes. rectory of Pulham in Norfolk, which he held

As this translation is a very important event with Oakley Magna in Suffolk, given him by in poetical history, the reader has a right to the Lord Cornwallis, to whom he was chaplain, know upon what grounds I establish my narra- who added the vicarage of Eye in Suffolk; he then tion. That the version was not wholly Pope's resigned Pulham, and retained the other two. was always known; he had mentioned the as- Towards the close of his life he grew again sistance of two friends in his proposals, and at poetical, and amused himself with translating the end of the work some account is given by Odes of Anacreon, which he published in the Broome of their different parts, which however “ Gentleman's Magazine” under the name of mentions only five books as written by the Chester. coadjutors; the fourth and twentieth by Fen- He died at Bath, November 16, 1745, and was ton; the sixth, the eleventh, and the eighteenth, buried in the Abbey Church. by himself; though Pope, in an advertisement Of Broome, though it cannot be said that he prefixed afterwards to a new volume of his was a great poet, it would be unjust to deny works, claimed only twelve. A natural curios- that he was an excellent versifier; his lines are ity after the real conduct of so great an under-smooth and sonorous, and his diction is select taking incited me once to inquire of Dr. War- and elegant. His rhymes are sometimes upburton, who told me, in his warm language, suitable; in his “ Melancholy,” he makes breath that he thought the relation given in the note rhyme to birth in one place, and to earth in “ a lie;" but that he was not able to ascertain another. Those faults occur but seldom; and the several shares. The intelligence which Dr. he had such power of words and numbers as Warburton could not afford me I obtained from fitted him for translation; but in his original Mr. Langton, to whom Mr. Spence had im-works, recollection seems to have been his basiparted it.

ness more than invention. His imitations are The price at which Pope purchased this as- so apparent, that it is a part of his reader's emsistance was three hundred pounds paid to Fen- ployment to recall the verses of some former ton, and five hundred to Broome, with as many poet. Sometimes he copies the most popular copies as he wanted for his friends, which writers, for he seems scarcely to endeavour at amounted to one hundred more. The payment concealment; and sometimes he picks up fragmade to Fenton I know not but by hearsay; ments in obscure corners. His lines to Fenton, Broome's is very distinctly told by Pope, in the

Serene, the sting of pain thy thoughts beguile, notes to the “ Dunciad."

And make afflictions objects of a smile, It is evident, that, according to Pope's own estimate, Broome was unkindly treated. If brought to my mind some lines on the death four books could merit three hundred pounds, of Queen Mary, written by Barnes, of whom eight and all the notes, equivalent at least to I should not have expected to find an imitator : four, had certainly a right to more than six.

Broome probably considered himself as in- But thou, O Muse! whose sweet nepenthean tongue jured, and there was for some time more than

Can charm the pangs of death with deathless song, coldness between him and his employer. He Make pains and tortures objects of a smile.

Can'st stinging plagues with easy thoughts beguile, always spoke of Pope as too much a lover of money; and Pope pursued him with avowed

To detect his imitations were tedious and usehostility; for he not only named him disrespect-less. What he takes he seldom makes worse ; fully in the “ Dunciad," but quoted him more

and he cannot be justly thought a mean man than once in the “ Bathos," as a proficient in

whom Pope chose for an associate, and whose the “ Art of Sinking;" and in his enumeration co-operation was considered by Pope's enemies of the different kinds of poets distinguished for

as so important, that he was attacked by Henley the profound, he reckons Broome among with this ludicrous distich: parrots who repeat another's words in such a hoarse odd tone as makes them seem their own." Pope came off clean with Homer; but they say I have been told that they were afterwards re- Broome went before, and kindly swept the way.

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