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meet in J-G-'s hall, to carry on that conspi- Syph. Our first design, my friend, has proved racy? There would be no necessity for their

abortive; meeting there, at least till they came to the exe

Still there remains an after-game to play: cution of their plot, because there would be other My troops are mounted, their Numidian steeds

Snuff places to meet in. There would be no proba- Let but Sempronius lead us in our flight,

up the winds, and long to scour the desert. bility that they should meet there, because there we'll force the gate, where Marcus keeps his guard, would be places more private and more com- And hew down all that would oppose our passage : modious. Now there ought to be nothing in a A day will bring us into Cæsar's camp. tragical action but what is necessary or probable.

Semp. Confusion ! I have failed of half my pur“ But treason is not the only thing that is car- Marcia, the charming Marcia's left behind.

pose; ried on in this hall; that, and love, and philosophy, take their turns in it, without any manner Well ! but though he tells us the half purpose he of necessity or probability occasioned by the ac- has failed of, he does not tell us the half that he tion, as duly and as regularly, without interrupt- has carried. But what does he mean by ing one another, as if there were a triple league between them, and a mutual agreement that each Marcia, the charming Marcia's left bebind ? should give place to, and make way for, the other, in a due and orderly succession.

He is now in her own house! and we have nei“We now come to the third Act. Sempron- ther seen her, nor heard of her, any where else ius, in this Act, comes into the governor's hall, since the play began. But now let us hear Sywith the leaders of the mutiny: but, as soon as phax: Cato is gone, Sempronius, who but just before had acted like an unparallelled knave, discovers

What hinders then, but that you find her out, himself, like an egregious fool, to be an accom

And hurry her away by manly force ? plice in the conspiracy.

But what does old Syphax mean by finding her Semp. Know, villains, when such paltry slaves pre-out? They talk as if she were as hard to be

found as a hare in a frosty morning.
To mix in treason, if the plot succeeds,
They're thrown neglected by ; but, if it fails,

Semp. But how to gain admission!
They're sure to die like dogs, as you shall do.
Here, take these factious monsters, drag them forth Oh! she is found out then, it seems.
To sudden death.

But how to gain admission ! for access " It is true, indeed, the second leader says,

Is given to none but Juba and her brothers, there are none there but friends; but is that possible at such a juncture? Can a parcel of But, raillery apart, why access to Juba! For rogues attempt to assassinate the governor of a he was owned and received as a lover neither by town of war, in his own house, in mid-day? the father nor by the daughter. Well ! but let and, after they are discovered, and defeated, can that pass. Syphax puts Sempronius out of pain there be none near them but friends ? Is it not immediately; and, being a Numidian aboundplain from these words of Sempronius,

ing in wiles, supplies him with a stratagem

for admission, that, I believe, is a non-parHere, take these factiou; monsters, drag them forth

eille. To sudden death and from the entrance of the guards upon the

Syph. Thou shalt have Juba's dress, and Juba's words of command, that those guards were with- The doors will open when Numidia's prince

guards. in ear-shot? Behold Sempronius then palpa- Seems to appear before them. bly discovered. How comes it to pass, then, that instead of being hanged up with the rest, “ Sempronius is, it seems, to pass for Juba he remains secure in the governor's hall, and in full day at Cato's house, where they were there carries on his conspiracy against the go- both so very well known, by having Juba's dress vernment, the third time in the same day, with and his guards ; as if one of the marshals of his old comrade Syphax, who enters at the same France could pass for the Duke of Bavaria at time that the guards are carrying away the noon-day, at Versailles, by having his dress and leaders, big with the news of the defeat of Sem- liveries. But how does Syphax pretend to help pronius ; though where he had his intelligence Sempronius to young Juba's dress? Does he so soon is difficult to imagine? And now the serve him in a double capacity, as a general and reader may expect a very extraordinary scene; master of his wardrobe? But why Juba's there is not abundance of spirit indeed, nor a guards ? For the devil of any guards has Juba great deal of passion, but there is wisdom more appeared with yet. Well! though this is a than enough to supply all defects.

mighty politic invention, yet, methinks, they

might have done without it; for, since the ad- “ If he had seen her in the open field, what vice that Syphax gave to Seinprovious was occasion had he to track her, when he had so

many Numidian dogs at his heels, which, with To hurry her away by manly force;

one halloo, he might have set upon her baunchin my opinion, the shortest and likeliest way of es? If he did not see her in the open field, how coming at the lady was by demolishing, instead could be possibly track her? If he had seen her of putting on an impertinent disguise to circum- in the street, why did he not set upon her in the vent two or three slaves. But Sempronius, it street, since through the street she must be carseems, is of another opinion. He extols to the ried at last? Now here, instead of having his skies the invention of old Syphax :

thoughts upon his business and upon the present

danger; instead of meditating and contriving Semp. Heavens! what a thought was thi re!

how he shall pass with his mistress through the “ Now I appeal to the reader if I have not southern gate, (where her brother Marcus is been as good as my word. Did I not tell him, upon the guard, and where he would certainly that I would lay before him a very wise scene? prove an impediment to him,) which is the Ro

“ But now let us lay before the reader that man word for the baggage; instead of doing part of the scenery of the fourth Act which may this, Sempronius is entertaining himself with show the absurdities which the Author has run whimsies : into through the indiscreet observance of the

Semp. How will the young Numidian rave o sce unity of place. I do not remember that Aris

His mistress lost ! If aught could glad iny soul, totle has said any thing expressly concerning the Beyond th' enjoyment of so bright a prize, unity of place. It is true, implicitly, he has 'Twould be to torture that young, gay barbarian. said enough in the rules which he has laid down But, hark! what noise ! Death to my hopes ! 'tis he,

'Tis Juba's self! There is but one way left ! for the chorus. For, by making the chorus an essential part of tragedy, and by bringing it on Through those his guards.

He must be murder'd, and a passage cut the stage immediately after the opening of the scene, and retaining it till the very catastrophe, 66 Pray, what are those his guards ?' I he has so determined and fixed the place of ac- thought, at present, that Juba's guards had been tion, that it was impossible for an author on the Sempronius's tools, and had been dangling after Grecian stage to break through that unity. I his heels. am of opinion, that if a modern tragic poet can “ But now let us sum up all these absurdities preserve the unity of place without destroying together. Sempronius goes at noon-day, in Juthe probability of the incidents, it is always best ba's clothes and with Juba's guards, to Cato's for him to do it; because, by the preserving of palace, in order to pass for Juba, in a place that unity, as we have taken notice above, he where they were both so very well known; he adds grace, and clearness, and comeliness, to the ineets Juba there, and resolves to murder him representation. But since there are no express with his own guards. Upon the guards appearrules about it, and we are under no compulsion ing a little bashful, be threatens them : to keep it, since we have no chorus as the Gre

Hah! Dastards do cian poet had, if it cannot be preserved without


tremble ! rendering the greater part of the incidents un

Or act like men; or, by you azure heavenreasonable and absurd, and perhaps sometimes

" But the guards, still remaining restive, monstrous, it is certainly better to break it. “ Now comes bully Sempronius, comically the guards is representing Mr. Spectator's sign

Sempronius himself attacks Juba, while each of accoutred and equipped with his Numidian dress of the Gaper, awed, it seems, and terrified by and his Numidian guards. Let the reader attend to him with all his ears; for the words of and takes his own azmy prisoners, and carries

Sempronius's threats. Juba kills Sempronius. the wise are precious :

them in triumph away to Cato. Now I would Semp. The deer is lodged, I've track'd her to her fain know if any part of Mr. Bayes's tragedy covert.

is so full of absurdity as this?

“ Upon hearing the clash of swords, Lucia “ Now I would fain know why this deer is and Marcia come in. The question is, why no said to be lodged, since we have heard not one men come in upon hearing the noise of swords word, since the play began, of her being at all in the governor's hall? Where was the goverout of harbour; and if we consider the discourse nor himself? Where were his guards? Where with which she and Lucia begin the Act, we were his servants ? Such an attempt as this, so have reason to believe that they had hardly been near the person of a governor of a place of war, talking of such matters in the street. However, was enough to alarm the whole garrison; and to pleasure Sempronirs, let us suppose, for once, yet, for almost half an hour after Sempronius that the deer is lodged.

was killed, we find none of those appear who

were the likeliest in the world to be alarmed ; The deer is lodg'd, I've track'd her to her covert. and the noise of swords is made to draw or.)

my sake

two poor women thither, who were most cer- | Act, Cato appears first upon the scene, sitting tain to run away from it. Upon Lucia and in a thoughtful posture: in his hand Plato's Marcia's coming in, Lucia appears in all the treatise on the Immortality of the Soul, a drawn symptoms of an hysterical gentlewoman: sword on the table by him. Now let us con

sider the place in which this sight is presented Luc. Sure 'twas the clash of swords ! my troubled

to us. The place, forsooth, is a long hall. Let heart Is so cast down, and sunk amidst its sorrows,

us suppose, that any one should place himself It throbs with fear, and aches at every sound'!

in this posture, in the midst of one of our halls

in London; that he should appear solus in a And immediately her old whimsy returns upon sullen posture, a drawn sword on the table by ker:

him; in his hand Plato's treatise on the Im.

mortality of the Soul, translated lately by BerO Marcia, should thy brothers, for

nard Lintot: I desire the reader to consider, I die away with horror at the thought.

whether such a person as this would pass, with She fancies that there can be no cutting of them who beheld him, for a great patriot, a throats, but it must be for her. If this is tra- great philosopher, or a general, or some whimgical, I would fain know what is comical. sical person, who fancied himself all these ? and Well! upon this they spy the body of Sempro- whether the people, who belonged to the family, nius; and Marcia, deluded by the habit, it would think that such a person had a design seems, takes him for Juba; for, says she,

upon their midriffs or his own?

“ In short, that Cato should sit long enough The face is muffled up within the garment. in the aforesaid posture, in the midst of this

large hall, to read over Plato's treatise on the « Now, how a man could fight, and fall with Immortality of the Soul, which is a lecture of his face muffiled up in his garment, is, I think, two long hours; that he should propose to hima little hard to conceive! Besides, Juba, before self to be private there upon that occasion ; that he killed him, knew him to be Sempronius. It he should be angry with his son for intruding was not by his garment that he knew this; it there; then, that he should leave this hall upon was by his face then: his face therefore was the pretence of sleep, give himself the mortal not muffled. Upon seeing this man with his wound in his bedchamber, and then be brought muffled face, Marcia falls a-raving; and, own- back into that hall to expire, purely to show his ing her passion for the supposed defunct, begins good-breeding, and save his friends the trouble to make his funeral oration. Upon which of coming up to his bedchamber; all this apJuba enters listening, I suppose on tip-toe; for pears to me to be improbable, incredible, imI cannot imagine how any one can enter listen- possible." ing in any other posture. I would fain know how it comes to pass, that during all this time Such is the censure of Dennis. There is, as he bad sent nobody, no, not so much as a can- Dryden expresses it, perhaps “ too much horsedle-snuffer, to take away the dead body of Sem- play in his raillery;" but if his jests are coarse, pronius. Well! but let us regard him listen- his arguments are strong. Yet, as we love beting. Having left his apprehension behind him, ter to be pleased than be taught, “ Cato” is read he, at first, applies what Marcia says to Sem- and the critic is neglected. pronius. But finding at last, with much ado, Flushed with consciousness of these detecthat he himself is the happy man, he quits his tions of absurdity in the conduct, he aftereve-dropping, and discovers himself just time wards attacked the sentiments, of Cato; but he enough to prevent his being cuckolded by a dead then amused himself with petty cavils and mi. man, of whom the moment before he had ap- nute objections. peared so jealous; and greedily intercepts the Of Addison's smaller poems, no particular bliss which was fondly designed for one who mention is necessary; they have little that can could not be the better for it. But here I must employ or require a critic. The parallel of the ask a question: how comes Juba to listen here, princes and gods, in his verses to Kneller, is ofwho had not listened before throughout the ten happy, but is too well known to be quoted. play? Or how comes he to be the only person His translations, so far as I have compared of this tragedy who listens, when love and trea-them, want the exactness of a scholar. That son were so often talked in so public a place as he understood his authors cannot be doubted; a ball? I am afraid the Author was driven but his versions will not teach others to underupon all these absurdities only to introduce stand them, being too licentiously paraphrastithis miserable mistake of Marcia, which, after cal. They are, however, for the most part, all, is much below the dignity of tragedy, as smooth and easy; and, what is the first excelany thing is which is the effect or result of lence of a translator, such as may be read with trick.

pleasure by those who do not know the ari. But let us come to the scenery of the fifth ginals.


His poetry is polished and pure; the product An instructor like Addison was now wanting, of a mind too judicious to commit faults, but whose remarks, being superficial, might be not sufficiently vigorous to attain excellence. easily understood, and being just, might pre. He has sometimes a striking line, or a shining pare the mind for more attainments. Had he paragraph ; but in the whole he is warm rather presented " Paradise Lost” to the public with than fervid, and shows more dexterity than all the pomp of system and severity of science, strength. He was however one of our earliest the criticism would perhaps have been admired examples of correctness.

and the poem still have been neglected ; but by The versification which he had learned from the blandishments of gentleness and facility he Dryden he debased rather than refined. His has made Milton a universal favourite, with rhymes are often dissonant; in his “ Georgic” whom readers of every class think it necessary

to be pleased.

and Alexandrines, but triplets more frequent-" He "descended now and then to lower disqui

ly in his translations than his other works. sitions; and by a serious display of the beauties The mere structure of verses seems never to of “ Chevy-Chase,” exposed himself to the rihave engaged much of his care. But his lines dicule of Wagstaffe, who bestowed a like pomare very smooth in “ Rosamond,” and too pous character on “ Tom Thumb;" and to the smooth in « Cato."

contempt of Dennis, who, considering the funAddison is now to be considered as a critic; damental position of his criticism, that “ Chevya name which the present generation is scarcely Chase” pleases, and ought to please, because it willing to allow him. His criticism is con- is natural, observes, that “there is a way of demned as tentative or experimental, rather than deviating from nature, by bombast or tumour, scientific; and he is considered as deciding by which soars above nature, and enlarges images taste* rather than by principles.

beyond their real bulk; by affectation, which It is not uncommon for those who have forsakes nature in quest of something unsuitagrown wise by the labour of others to add a ble; and by imbecility, which degrades nature little of their own, and overlook their masters. by faintness and diminution, by obscuring its Addison is now despised by some who perhaps appearances, and weakening its effects.” In would never have seen his defects, but by the “ Chevy-Chase” there is not much of either lights which he afforded them. That he always bombast or affectation; but there is chill and wrote as he would think it necessary to write lifeless imbecility. The story cannot possibly now, cannot be affirmed : his instructions were be told in a manner that shall make less im. such as the characters of his readers made pro- pression on the mind. per. That general knowledge which now cir- Before the profound observers of the present culates in common talk was in his time rarely race repose too securely on the consciousness of to be found. Men not professing learning were their superiority to Addison, let them consider not ashamed of ignorance; and, in the female his Remarks on Ovid, in which may be found world, any acquaintance with books was dis- specimens of criticism sufficiently subtle and tinguished only to be censured. His purpose refined : let them peruse likewise his “ Essays was to infuse literary curiosity, by gentle and on Wit” and on the “ Pleasures of Imaginaunsuspected conveyance, into the gay, the idle, tion,” in which he founds art on the base of and the wealthy; he therefore presented know- nature, and draws the principles of invention ledge in the most alluring form, not lofty and from dispositions inherent in the mind of man austere, but accessible and familiar. When he with skill and elegance,* such as his contemners showed them their defects, he showed them will not easily attain. likewise that they might be easily supplied. As a describer of life and manners, he must His attempt succeeded; inquiry was awakened, be allowed to stand perhaps the first of the first and comprehension expanded. An emulation rank. His humour, which, as Steele observes, of intellectual elegance was excited ; and, from is peculiar to himself, is so happily diffused as this time to our own, life has been gradually to give the grace of novelty to domestic scenes exalted, and conversation purified and enlarged. and daily occurrences. He never “outsteps the

Dryden had, not many years before, scattered modesty of nature,” nor raises merriment or criticism over his prefaces with very little par- wonder by the violation of truth. His figures simony; but though he sometimes condescended neither divert by distortion nor amaze by agto be somewhat familiar, his manner was in gravation. He copies life with so much fidelity general too scholastic for those who had yet their that he can be hardly said to invent; yet bis rudiments to learn, and found it not easy to exhibitions have an air so much original, that it understand their master. His . observations is difficult to suppose them not merely the prowere framed rather for those that were learning duct of imagination. to write, than for those that read only to talk. As a teacher of wisdom, he may be confidently

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• Taste must decide. Warton.-C.

* Far, in Dr. Warton's opinion, beyond Dryden. -0

followed. His religion has nothing in it en- / pointed sentences. Addison never deviates from thusiastic or superstitious; he appears neither his track to snatch a grace: he seeks no ambiweakly credulous nor wantonly sceptical; his tious ornaments and tries no hazardous innovamorality is neither dangerously lax nor impractions. His page is always luminous, but never ticably rigid. All the enchantment of fancy blazes in unexpected splendour. and all the cogency of argument are employed It was apparently his principal endeavour to to recommend to the reader his real interest, the avoid all harshness and severity of diction; he is care of pleasing the Author of his being. Truth therefore sometimes verbose in his transitions is shown sometimes as the phantom of a vision; and connections, and sometimes descends too sometimes appears half-veiled in an allegory; much to the language of conversation; yet if his sometimes attracts regard in the robes of fancy ; language had been less idiomatical, it might have and sometimes steps forth in the confidence of lost somewhat of its genuine Anglicism. What reason. She wears a thousand dresses, and iu he attempted, he performed : he is never feeble, all is pleasing.

and he did not wish to be energetic;* he is never Mille habet ornatus, mille decenter habet.

rapid, and he never stagnates. His sentences

have neither studied amplitude nor affected breHis prose is the model of the middle style ; on vity: his periods, though not diligently roundgrave subjects not formal, on light occasions not ed, are voluble and easy. Whoever wishes to atgrovelling; pure without scrupulosity, and ex- tain an English style, familiar but not coarse, act without apparent elaboration; always equable and elegant but not ostentatious, must give his and always easy, without glowing words or days and nights to the volumes of Addison.



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JOHN HUGHES. the son of a citizen in London, In 1697 he published a poem on the “ Peace and of Anne Burgess, of an ancient family in of Kyswick :” and in 1699 another piece, called Wiltshire, was born at Marlborough, July 29, “ The Court of Neptune," on the return of 1677. He was educated at a private school; King William, which he addressed to Mr. and though his advances in literature are, in the Montague, the general patron of the followers “ Biographia,” very ostentatiously displayed, of the Muses. The same year he produced a the name of his master is somewhat ungratefully song on the Duke of Gloucester's birth-day. concealed. *

He did not confine himself to poetry, but culAt nineteen he drew the plan of a tragedy; tivated other kinds of writing with great sucand paraphrased, rather too profusely, the ode cess; and about this time showed his knowledge of Horace which begins Integer Vitæ. To poetry of human nature by an “ Essay on the Pleahe added the science of music, in which he seems sure of being Deceived." In 1702 he published, to have attained considerable skill, together on the death of King William, a Pindaric ode, with the practice of design, or rudiments of called “ The House of Nassau ;” and wrote anpainting

other paraphrase on the Otium Divos of Horace. His studies did not withdraw him wholly In 1703 his Ode on Music was performed at from business, nor did business hinder him from Stationers' Hall; and he wrote afterwards six study. He had a place in the office of ordnance; cantatas, which were set to music by the greatand was secretary to several commissions for est master of that time, and seemed intended to purchasing lands necessary to secure the royal oppose or exclude the Italian opera, an exotic docks at Chatham and Portsmouth; yet found and irrational entertainment, which has been time to acquaint himself with modern lan- | always combated, and always has prevailed. guages.

His reputation was now so far advanced, that the public began to pay reverence to his

name; and he was solicited to prefix a pre# He was educated in a dissenting academy, of face to the translation of Boccalini, a writer which the Rev. Thomas Rowe was tutor; and was a fellow student there with Dr. Isaac Watts, Mr. Samuel Say, and other persons of eminence. In the “ Horæ Lyricæ" of Dr. Watis, is a poem to

* But, says Dr. Warton, he sometimes is so ; and the memory of Mr. Rowe.-H.

in another MS. note he adds, often so.-C.

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