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Programing and budgeting.

Sec. 504. AUTHORIZATION.—(a) There is hereby authorized to be appropriated to the President for use beginning in the fiscal years 1962 and 1963 to carry out the purposes of this part, not to exceed $1,700,000,000 for each such fiscal year, which sums shall remain available until expended.

(b) In order to make sure that a dollar spent on military assistance to foreign countries is as necessary as a dollar spent for the United States military establishment, the President shall establish procedures for programing and budgeting so that programs of military assistance come into direct competition for financial support with other activities and programs of the Department of Defense.

Sec. 505. UTILIZATION OF ASSISTANCE.—(a) Military assistance to any country shall be furnished solely for internal security, for legitimate self-defense, to permit the recipient country to participate in regional or collective arrangements or measures consistent with the Charter of the United Nations, or otherwise to permit the recipient country to participate in collective measures requested by the United Nations for the purpose of maintaining or restoring international peace and security.

(b) To the extent feasible and consistent with the other purposes of this part, the use of military forces in less developed friendly countries in the construction of public works and other activities helpful to economic development shall be encouraged.

SEC. 506. CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY.-(a) In addition to such other provisions as the President may require, no defense articles shall be furnished to any country on a grant basis unless it shall have agreed that

(1) it will not, without the consent of the President

(A) permit any use of such articles by anyone not an officer, employee, or agent of that country,

(B) transfer, or permit any officer, employee, or agent of that country to transfer such articles by gift, sale, or otherwise, or

(C) use or permit the use of such articles for purposes other than those for which furnished; (2) it will maintain the security of such articles, and will provide substantially the same degree of security protection afforded to such articles by the United States Government;

(3) it will, as the President may require, permit continuous observation and review by, and furnish necessary information to, representatives of the United States Government with regard to the use of such articles; and

(4) unless the President consents to other disposition, it will return to the United States Government for such use or disposition as the President considers in the best interests of the United States, such articles which are no longer needed for the purposes

for which furnished. (b) No defense articles shall be furnished on a grant basis to any country at a cost in excess of $3,000,000 in any fiscal year unless the President determines

(1) that such country conforms to the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations;

(2) that such defense articles ill be utilized by such country for the maintenance of its own defensive strength, and the defensive strength of the free world;

(3) that such country is taking all reasonable measures, consistent with its political and economic stability, which may be needed to develop its defense capacities; and

(4) that the increased ability of such country to defend itself is important to the security of the United States.

Limitation.

Contracts.

Sec. 507. SALES.—(a) The President may furnish defense articles from the stocks of the Department of Defense and defense services to any friendly country or international organization, without reimbursement from funds made available for use under this part, if such country or international organization agrees to pay the value thereof in United States dollars. Payment shall be made in advance or, as determined by the President to be in the best interests of the United States, within a reasonable period not to exceed three years after the delivery of the defense articles, or the provision of the defense services. For the purposes of this subsection, the value of excess defense articles shall be not less than (1) the value specified in section 644 (m) (1) plus the scrap value, or (2) the market value, if ascertainable, whichever is the greater.

(b) The President may, without requirement for charge to any appropriation or contract authorization otherwise provided, enter into contracts for the procurement of defense articles or defense services for sale to any friendly country or international organization if such country or international organization provides the United States Government with a dependable undertaking (1) to pay the full amount of such contract which will assure the United States Government against any loss on the contract, and (2) to make funds available in such amounts and at such times as may be required to meet the payments required by the contract, and any damages and costs that may accrue from the cancellation of such contract, in advance of the time such payments, damages, or costs are due.

Sec. 508. REIMBURSEMENTS.—Whenever funds made available for use under this part are used to furnish military assistance on cash or credit terms, United States dollar repayments, including dollar proceeds derived from the sale of foreign currency repayments to any agency or program of the United States Government, shall be credited to the current applicable appropriation, and shall be available until expended solely for the purpose of furnishing further military assistance on cash or credit terms, and, notwithstanding any provision of law relating to receipts and credits accruing to the United States Government, repayments in foreign currency may be used to carry out this part.

SEC. 509. EXCHANGES.-Defense articles or defense services transferred to the United States Government by a country or international organization as payment for assistance furnished under this part may be used to carry out this part, or may be disposed of or transferred to any agency of the United States Government for stockpiling or other purposes. If such disposal or transfer is made subject to reimbursement, the funds so received shall be credited to the appropriation, fund, or account funding the cost of the assistance furnished or to any appropriation, fund, or account currently available for the same general purpose.

Sec. 510. SPECIAL AUTHORITY.-(a) During the fiscal year 1962, the President may, if he determines it to be vital to the security of the United States, order defense articles from the stocks of the Department of Defense and defense services for the purposes of part II, subject to subsequent reimbursement therefor from subsequent appropriations available for military assistance. The value of such orders under this subsection in the fiscal year 1962 shall not exceed $300,000,000. Prompt notice of action taken under this subsection shall be given to the Committees on Foreign Relations, Appropriations, and Armed Services of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives.

(b) The Department of Defense is authorized to incur, in applicable appropriations, obligations in anticipation of reimbursements in

Limitation.

Notice to Congress.

amounts equivalent to the value of such orders under subsection (a) of Appropriations this section. Appropriations to the President of such sums as may be aut horization.

necessary to reimburse the applicable appropriation, fund, or account for such orders are hereby authorized.

SEC. 511. RESTRICTIONS ON MILITARY AID TO LATIN AMERICA.(a) The value of grant programs of defense articles for American Republics, pursuant to any authority contained in this part other than section 507, in any fiscal year beginning with the fiscal year 1962, shall not exceed $57,500,000: Provided, That an amount equal to the amount by which the foregoing ceiling reduces the program as presented to the Congress for the fiscal year 1962 shall be transferred to and consolidated with the appropriation made pursuant to section 212 and shall be used for development grants in American Republics.

(b) Internal security requirements shall not, unless the President determines otherwise and promptly reports such determination to the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, be the basis for military assistance programs for American Republics.

PART III

CHAPTER 14GENERAL PROVISIONS

SEC. 601. ENCOURAGEMENT OF FREE ENTERPRISE AND PRIVATE PARTICIPATION.-(a) The Congress of the United States recognizes the vital role of free enterprise in achieving rising levels of production and standards of living essential to economic progress and development. Accordingly, it is declared to be the policy of the United States to encourage the efforts of other countries to increase the flow of international trade, to foster private initiative and competition, to encourage the development and use of cooperatives, credit unions, and savings and loan associations, to discourage monopolistic practices, to improve the technical efficiency of their industry, agriculture, and commerce, and to strengthen free labor unions; and to encourage the contribution of United States enterprise toward economic strength of less developed friendly countries, through private trade and investment abroad, private participation in programs carried out under this Act (including the use of private trade channels to the maximum extent practicable in carrying out such programs), and exchange of ideas and technical information on the matters covered by this subsection.

(b) In order to encourage and facilitate participation by private enterprise to the maximum extent practicable in achieving any of the purposes of this Act, the President shall

(1) make arrangements to find, and draw the attention of private enterprise to, opportunities for investment and development in less-developed friendly countries and areas;

(2) accelerate a program of negotiating treaties for commerce and trade, including tax treaties, which shall include provisions to encourage and facilitate the flow of private investment to, and its equitable treatment in, friendly countries and areas participating in programs under this Act;

(3) seek, consistent with the national interest, compliance by other countries or areas with all treaties for commerce and trade and taxes, and take all reasonable measures under this Act or other authority to secure compliance therewith and to assist United States citizens in obtaining just compensation for losses sustained by them or payments exacted from them as a result of measures taken or imposed by any country or area thereof in violation of any such treaty; and

Business.

(4) wherever appropriate carry out programs of assistance through private channels and to the extent practicable in conjunction with local private or governmental participation, including loans under the authority of section 201 to any individual,

corporation, or other body of persons. Sec. 602. SMALL BUSINESS.-(a) Insofar as practicable and to the maximum extent consistent with the accomplishment of the purposes of this Act, the President shall assist American small business to participate equitably in the furnishing of commodities, defense articles, and services (including defense services) financed with funds made available under this Act

(1) by causing to be made available to suppliers in the United States, and particularly to small independent enterprises, information, as far in advance as possible, with respect to purchases proposed to be financed with such funds;

(2) by causing to be made available to prospective purchasers in the countries and areas receiving assistance under this Act information as to such commodities, articles, and services produced by small independent enterprises in the United States; and

(3) by providing for additional services to give small business better opportunities to participate in the furnishing of such commodities, articles, and services financed with such funds. (b) There shall be an Office of Small Business, headed by a Special Office of Small Assistant for Small Business, in such agency of the United States Government as the President may direct, to assist in carrying out the provisions of subsection (a) of this section.

(c) The Secretary of Defense shall assure that there is made available to suppliers in the United States, and particularly to small independent enterprises, information with respect to purchases made by the Department of Defense pursuant to part II, such information to be furnished as far in advance as possible.

SEC. 603. SHIPPING ON UNITED STATES VESSELS.—The ocean transportation between foreign countries of commodities and defense articles purchased with foreign currencies made available or derived from funds made available under this Act or the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, as amended (7 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.), and transfers of fresh fruit and products thereof under this Act, shall not be governed by the provisions of section 901(b) of the Merchant Marine Act of 1936, as amended (46 U.S.C. 1241), or any other law relating to the ocean transportation of commodities on United States flag vessels.

Sec. 604. PROCUREMENT.—(a) Funds made available under this Act may be used for procurement outside the United States only if the President determines that such procurement will not result in adverse effects upon the economy of the United States or the industrial mobilization base, with special reference to any areas of labor surplus or to the net position of the United States in its balance of payments with the rest of the world, which outweigh the economic or other advantages to the United States of less costly procurement outside the United States, and only if the price of any commodity procured in bulk is lower than the market price prevailing in the United States at the time of procurement, adjusted for differences in the cost of transportation to destination, quality, and terms of payment.

(b) No funds made available under this Act shall be used for the purchase in bulk of any commodities at prices higher than the market price prevailing in the United States at the time of purchase, adjusted for differences in the cost of transportation to destination, quality, and terms of payment.

68 Stat. 454.

68 Stat. 832.

ance.

Surplus agricul- (c) In providing for the procurement of any surplus agricultural tual commodity.

commodity for transfer by grant under this Act to any recipient country in accordance with its requirements, the President shall, insofar as practicable and when in furtherance of the purposes of this Act, authorize the procurement of such surplus agricultural commodity only within the United States except to the extent that such surplus agricultural commodity is not available in the United States in sufficient quantities to supply emergency requirements of recipients under

this Act. Marine in sus. (d) In providing assistance in the procurement of commodities in

the Únited States, United States dollars shall be made available for marine insurance on such commcdities where such insurance is placed on a competitive basis in accordance with normal trade practice prevailing prior to the outbreak of World War II: Provided, That in the event a participating country, by statute, decree, rule, or regulation, discriminates against any marine insurance company authorized to do business in any State of the United States, then commodities purchased with funds provided hereunder and destined for such country shall be insured in the United States against marine risk with a company or companies authorized to do a marine insurance business in any State of the United States.

Sec. 605. RETENTION AND USE OF ITEMS.—(a) Any commodities and defense articles procured to carry out this Act shall be retained by, or upon reimbursement, transferred to, and for the use of, such agency of the United States Government as the President may determine in lieu of being disposed of to a foreign country or international organization, whenever in the judgment of the President the best interests

of the United States will be served thereby, or whenever such retention Disposition of is called for by concurrent resolution. Any commodities or defense retained .

articles so retained may be disposed of without regard to provisions of law relating to the disposal of property owned by the United States Government, when necessary to prevent spoilage or wastage of such commodities or defense articles or to conserve the usefulness thereof. Funds realized from any disposal or transfer shall revert to the respective appropriation, fund, or account used to procure such commodíties or defense articles or to the appropriation, fund, or account currently available for the same general purpose.

(b) Whenever commodities are transferred to the United States Government as repayment of assistance under this Act, such commodities may be used in furtherance of the purposes and within the limitations of this Act.

Sec. 606. PATENTS AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION.-(a) Whenever, in connection with the furnishing of assistance under this Act,

(1) an invention or discovery covered by a patent issued by the United States Government is practiced within the United States without the authorization of the owner, or

(2) information, which is (A) protected by law, and (B) held by the United States Government subject to restrictions imposed by the owner, is disclosed by the United States Government or any

of its officers, employees, or agents in violation of such restrictions, the exclusive remedy of the owner, except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, is to sue the United States Government for reasonable and entire compensation for such practice or disclosure in the district court of the United States for the district in which such owner is a resident, or in the Court of Claims, within six years after the cause of action arises. Any period during which the United States Government is in possession of a written claim under subsection (b) of this section before mailing a notice of denial of that claim does not count in computing the six years. In any such suit, the United States

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