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be found in the contemplation of Jesus Christ. Whether he chiefly pointed to the example, the death, or the life beyond death, he does not here explain. But it is impossible not to see, first, that he regarded Him as in the fullest sense the representative of God to man; and also, that by means of that representation, he considered the free, unrestrained spiritual character of the Gospel to be effectually and for ever guaranteed. It is striking (or rather it would be striking, were it not for our long familiarity with the fact) to find that, on turning from the almost impalpable allusions and impliof this Chapter, to the definite and strongly marked outlines of the character of Christ's life and teaching as laid down in the four Gospels, a picture is there exhibited which at once justifies and accounts for the Apostle's assertions. Not only does it present to us an image of holiness and wisdom, which corresponds to St. Paul's transference (so to speak) of the language of the Old Testament to this new object of religious veneration, but it exhibits also, in numerous and unmistakable instances, that sacrifice of form to spirit, that encouragement of freedom and openness and sincerity, which St. Paul here identifies with the name and presence of Christ, in a manner which can only be fully justified by the actual history of our Lord's life.
III. It may be worth while to go through the various images which the Apostle has called up in the preceding section. First, there is the commendatory Epistle of the Corinthian Church, written on his heart. Next, the same Epistle written on their hearts and lives, read and re-read by the wayfarers to and fro, through the thoroughfare of Greece. Thirdly, the contrast between this Epistle, written on the tender human feelings, on the vibrations of the wind, by the breath of the Spirit, carrying its tidings backwards and forwards whithersoever it will, with no limits of time or space, like the sweep of the wind on the Æolian harp, like an electric spark of light, and the Ten Commandments, graven in the granite blocks, hard, speechless, lifeless. Fourthly, there rises into view the figure of Moses, as he is known to us in the statue of Michael Angelo, the light streaming from his face, yet growing dim and dark as a greater glory of another revelation rises behind it. Fifthly, the same figure veiled, as the light beneath the veil dies away and shade rests upon the scene;
and there rises around him a multiplication of that figure, the Jews in their synagogues veiled, as the Book of the Law is read before them. Sixthly, the same figure of Moses once more, but now unveiled as he turns again to Mount Sinai and uncovers his face to rekindle its glory in the Divine presence; and now again, the same figure multiplied in the Apostle and the Corinthian congregation following him, all with faces unveiled, and upturned towards the light of Christ's presence, the glory streaming into their faces with greater and greater brightness, as if borne in upon them by the Spirit or breath of light from that Divine countenance, till they are transfigured into a blaze of splendour like unto it.
(2.) The Difficulties and Supports of his Apostolical Duties.
IV. 7-V. 10.
7"Έχομεν δε τον θησαυρών τούτον εν οστρακίνοις σκεύεσιν,
7" ίνα η υπερβολή της δυνάμεως ή του θεού και μη εξ ημών,
In enlarging on the great- ment, and more of the natural ness of his task, the point outpouring of his own feelings from which he had started in in this section, than in most
, ii. 16., he naturally and in- other parts of the Epistle. sensibly passes to the support The mention of his sufferings which he thence derived in is suggested apparently by the the difficulties which he ex- words “ we faint not” in verse perienced in carrying it on. 1., and is, besides, a fuller ex
We faint not," is the key pression of the dependence on of this passage, on which he God, which was already exhad already touched in iv. l., pressed in iii. 4. and to which he returns again, 7. dè expresses the contrast as the conclusion of the whole, to the foregoing strain of exulin verse 16., first dwelling at tation. length on the greatness of the τον θησαυρόν τούτον έν όσtrials which would, but for this tpakívous okEvegit. This figure
τρακίνοις σκεύεσιν. hope, have caused him to be is taken apparently from the faint-hearted. It is possible that custom of placing gold and here, as in the similar and more silver in earthenware jars. See
, elaborate passage, xi. 23-xii. Herodot. iii. 103., TOÚTOV TÒN
. 10., he is induced to enlarge φόρον θησαυρίζει ο βασιλεύς ,
Ó upon them, partly with a view (the king of Persia) TPOTO of contrasting his own labours τoιώδε· 'Ες πίθους κεραμέους
• with the inaction of his adver- τήξας καταχεί, πλήσας δε το
, saries, partly with the view of άγγος περιαιρέει, επεάν δε ,
, showing that, in the troubles δεηθή χρημάτων, κατακόπτει
, and infirmities which his la- τοσούτον όσον αν εκάστοτε δέηbours brought upon him, and tal. And the image of earthenwhich his adversaries regarded ware vessels, as emblems of as derogatory to the Apostolical fragility and poverty, is also authority which he claimed, familiar to the Rabbis, as is God had a great purpose to implied in the story given by answer by manifesting forth Wetstein, of the reply of Rabbi His power in the Apostle's Joshua to a daughter of the greatness. But, on the whole, emperor, who, on taunting him there is less of polemical argue with his mean appearance, was
8 εν παντί θλιβόμενοι αλλ' ου στενοχωρούμενοι, άπορούμενοι
referred by him to the earthen- xii. 9. The order of the words ware vessels in which her father invites us to take n útrepBonn kept his wines, and when, at with tñs duvápews, “ The ex
της δυνάμεως, her request, the wines had been traordinary power.” The sense shifted to silver vessels and would be better if (with the there turned sour, was taunted Vulgate) we could take it, by the Rabbi with the observa- " That the excess, whatever tion that the humblest vessels it be, may be of the power best contained the highest of God, and not from man." wisdom. The same figure also Comp. vi. 7.: " By the power occurs in later classical authors. of God.” Rom. i. 16.: “ The Artemidorus, vi. 25., indicates power of God unto salvation.” death by the phrase το είναι εν 1 Cor. ii. 5. : “ Not in the όστρακίνα σκεύει.
wisdom of man, but in the The word ootpákivov (it is power of God.” The general only used in the neuter) is the meaning is the same, and “ the Hellenistic, or later Greek, power
in either case must phrase for what in Attic Greek refer to his preaching and would be κεραμέουν (see the miracles. grammarians Thomas and Mæ- η υπερβολή της δυνάμεως = ris, quoted by Wetstein). η υπερβάλλουσα δύναμις, xii.
The expression o Kevos (“ ves- 7. Josephus, Antiq. i. 13., ii. sel ") is frequently used as if 2. 1.
l. it had almost ceased to have 8. ¿v mavri, “ in every direc
εν παντί, a metaphorical meaning, for tion.” Compare xi. 6.; 1 Cor. “the human body.” Compare i. 5. “ vessels of wrath and mercy θλιβόμενοι αλλ' ουκ στενο(Rom. ix. 22.23.), “ the weaker xwpoúuevo,“ pressed for room
χωρούμενοι, “ vessel ” (1 Pet. iii. 7.), “ his but still having room.” For own vessel” (1 Thess. iv. 4.), this sense of Fißw compare
( “a vessel unto honour” (2 Tim. ii. 4.; of otevoxwpiolai, vi. 4.
4στενοχωρείσθαι, 4. ii. 21.). Hence it was natural 12. Compare Joshua, xvii. to bring out this latent me- 15. (LXX.) taphor by adding to it the άπορούμενοι αλλ' ουκ εξαποepithet “ earthenware” (ootpa- poúpevol, “ doubting, but not
ρούμενοι κίνοις). kivois). Compare 2 Tim. ii. despairing” (such is the sense 20., where “ wooden and earth- of the word elsewhere; John, enware (ootpákıva) vessels ” xiii. 22.; Gal. iv. 20.; Acts, are contrasted with gold and xxv. 20.; and Eat. 2 Cor. i. silver.
9.); but here, as in the case ίνα ή υπερβολή της δυνάμεως οf σκεύος and θλιβόμενοι, the
of , ή του θεού. The reason here metaphor is more fully drawn given is the same as that in out, “ losing our way yet not VOL. II.
αλλ' ουκ εξαπορούμενοι, 9 διωκόμενοι αλλ' ουκ εγκαταλειπόμενοι, καταβαλλόμενοι αλλ' ουκ απολλύμενοι, 10 πάντοτε την νέκρωσιν του Ιησού εν τω σώματι περιφέροντες, ίνα και
και του κυρίου Ιησού. entirely,” “ bewildered, but
“ bewildered, but the fact that his sufferings not benighted.”
might be called “a perpetual 9. dukóuevoåxx' our éry- death,” compare xi. 23., “in
διωκόμενοι αλλ' ουκ kata EiTóuevot. Here, again, deaths oft;" and 1 Cor. xv. 31., the meaning of διώκεσθαι and “I die daily.” TÌV vékpwow
. την εγκαταλείπεσθαι, which in later is not « dying” (το θνήσκειν), ,
“(), Greek had come to
nor “death" (Jávatos); but
(θάνατος); merely " persecuted” and “ for- “deadness," the “mortificasaken,” is brought out accord- tion,” “paralysation" of death, ing to their original significa- as in the phrase “the deadtion. “Pursued in our flight ness (vékpwoiv) of Sarah’s or race, but not left behind as womb." Rom. iv. 19. (Heb. a prey to our pursuers.” Com- xi. 12.); and “mortify” (vepare Herod. viii. 59.: oí Sé yɛ kpárate) your members” (Col. érykataNeLTÓJEVOL OÚ OteDaveûv- iii. 5.). The word occurs else
where only once, in a poem of καταβαλλόμενοι, " struck the 4th century, published down, yet not perishing.” The under the assumed name of phrase is used chiefly for be- Astrampsychus: vekpoùs opôv ing thrown in wrestling, as in νέκρωσιν έξεις πραγμάτων. It Plutarch, Pericl. p. 156. c. (in
156. c. (in is 28 if he had said “ We the famous speech of the orator are living corpses.” It is a Thucydides about Pericles); continual “ Descent from the but also for being struck by a
Cross." “ We bear with us dart, Xen. Cyr. i. 3. 14. wherever we go the burden of 10. For this enumeration the dead body.” èv to ouati,
εν τω σώματι, of contrasts, the mind and implying that it is in himself that spirit always rising above the the deadly pallor and torpor is outward pressure of distress, to be seen; Epi$épovtes pointcompare the character of the ing rather to the weight of Athenian people in Thucyd. ii. the dead corpse, which, like 70. It is wound up with the Joseph and Nicodemus, he contrast between death and life. carries with him. “ We are dead, and yet we ίνα και η ζωή, κ.τ.λ. « In live, because even in life we order that the life as well as
(xal) the death may appear." For the idea of the Apo- By the “ life,” he means not stle's sufferings being literally merely,
merely “the outward phy
“ a continuation of the suffer- sical life," nor yet merely ings of Christ, see i. 8. For “the life on earth," but the