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PARAPHRASE II. 12—16. — “I came to Troas, and had a

great field open before me. But I was so anxious for news from you, that not finding Titus there, I passed over the Ægean, and came to Europe. There, thanks be to God, I heard the tidings that out of my feeble efforts God had brought the spectacle of a glorious triumph, and that the incense of the triumphal sacrifice in my life and teaching had penetrated far and wide. Alas! that there should be a darker side ; for to some it is not the scent of life and health, but of poison and death."

In these few abrupt words we have a glimpse of the outward scene which witnessed events and feelings on which the whole of this Epistle is founded. It is but a glimpse, closed almost as soon as revealed. We cannot dwell, as else we should wish, on the striking thought of the Apostle standing day by day on the wooded shores of that classic region, under the heights of Ida, vainly expecting the white sail of the ship which was to bring back his friend from Corinth. We cannot allow ourselves to thread with him the maze of the lofty islands of Lemnos, and Tenedos, and Samothrace, as he sought once more the great continent to which, from that same city of Troas, he had five years before been invited by the vision of the Macedonian stranger. The more striking are these associations to us, the more conclusive is the proof which the absence of any such allusions in this Epistle furnishes, of their slight effect on the mind of the Apostle. Even the description of the actual meeting with Titus, so full of dramatic interest, is dissolved in the burst of thankfulness which expresses itself in imagery not borrowed from the neighbouring localities, but from the gorgeous spectacles in the Imperial City as yet unseen and remote. 2

But perlaps the most remarkable feature of the passage is the sudden transition from the bright to the dark side of the picture, from the thought of the benefits to the thought of the evil effects of his teaching. Probably here, as elsewhere in this Epistle, his consciousness of the sympathy between himself and the Corinthian Church is checked by the recollection of his opponents. which immediately afterwards comes openly to view. and interrupts by a long digression the joyous strain on which he had just entered. But this feeling of the double aspect of Christianity, of its failures side by side with its successes, of its judgments and responsibilities side by side with its blessings and privileges, is characteristic, not only of this juncture of the Apostle's life, nor of his writings only, but of all parts of the New Testament. " The falling and rising again of many in Israel,” “ a sword” and “ a fire upon earth,” “ the

" Son of man finding no faith when he comes,” are amongst the

many instances in which, as here, a shade of pensive and melancholy foreboding goes along with the most triumphant exultation ; most unlike the unqualified confidence and security of the partial and one-sided views of Religion, which, within or without the pale of Christianity, have from time to time appeared, -most like the mingled fortunes of good and evil which have been the actual condition of Christendom, as recorded in history


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II. 16-VI. 10.

(1.) The Plainness and Clearness of the Apostolical Service.

II. 16-IV. 6.

16 και προς ταύτα τις ικανός; 17 ου γάρ εσμεν ως οι πολλοί

A double train of thought in himself, yet he was worthy here comes across him, and, as by the help of God, who it were, chokes his further ut had, raised him to a level terance. First, there is the with the office to which he consciousness roused within had been called. The confluhim, by his own impassioned ence of these three contrasts expressions, of the greatness is protracted from ii. 17. to iv. and responsibility of his mis- 6., and thus the direct ansion. This vents itself in the swer which might have been question “ And who is suffi- expected to the question in cient for these things ?” (xal ii. 16.,-("In his own strength προς ταύτα τις ικανός ;) The no one is sufficient,") is in fact abruptness of the connexion exchanged for the suppressed is shown by the abruptness of answer “[I am sufficient], the construction. (Fora similar for I stand on a ground use of kal, compare ii. 2., kalquite different from that of τίς ο ευφραίνων ;)

66 These

my. opponents, or from that things" (rauta) relate to the which they ascribe to me.' responsibilities just described. But still the direct answer is But, secondly, this sense of given by implication, in iii. 5.

, the greatness of his mission, 6., where he explains in what and of his own inadequacy sense he was, and was not, to fulfil it, is blended with the “ sufficient; " and the whole thought (latent in the pre- course of the argument, showvious verses) of the calumnious ing how, in spite of all weakinsinuations and evil designs nesses and difficulties, he was of his opponents, so as to call enabled to accomplish the vast out the feeling that, though he work set before him, is rewas not worthy, much less sumed in iv. 1. for a moment, were they; that though he and then at still greater length was not worthy, he still was in iv. 7.–16. That the argu

free from the charges of dis- ment is continuous from ïi. honesty and meanness which 16., through c. iii., is evident they brought against him ; from the recurrence of ικανός that though he was not worthy in jii. 5. 6.

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καπηλεύοντες τον λόγον του θεού, αλλ' ως εξ ειλικρινείας, αλλ' ως εκ θεού κατέναντι 9εού° έν χριστώ λαλούμεν.

* κατενώπιον του θεού. 17. oi trolloi. (A. B. C. K. it,” probably both.

it,” probably both. For the or as it is still more strongly, first of these two uses comp. and therefore, perhaps, more

iv. 2. of this Epistle: un Trepicorrectly given in D. E. F. G. πατούντες εν πανουργία, μηδε Ι. οι λοιποί.) “The mass” (not δoλoύντες τον λόγον του θεού; of mankind in general, or of and for the second, Ignat. ad the Church, but) of teachers, Magn. : XplotéuTropol, Tòv of those who claim to discharge γον καπηλεύοντες και τον Ιηthe functions of which he has COÛV twoûvtes. For the gejust been speaking. It is a re

neral sense comp:

1 Thess. ii. markable expression, as show- 3—5.: “ Our exhortation was ing the isolation of the Apostle. not of deceit, nor of uncleanness, “Athanasius contra Mundum." nor in guile . . . neither at any

καπηλεύοντες. This, like time used we flattering words, Iplaußeúw in ii. 14., is a neu

nor a cloke of covet. ter verb in ców, having an ac- ousness(εν προφάσει πλεονεtive sense. katnieuw is “to šías). The particular allusion be a retail dealer ;” but when is probably to the charge joined with an accusative,“ to brought against him of endeamake a trade of;” and as the vouring to extort money from original word signifies a low them through Titus or otherand petty merchandise, so wise (see xii. 15. 17.), and he when used actively, it usually retorts the charge upon those has a bad sense, either of who were themselves justly “making an interested use,” liable to it from their own selor (from the practice of adul- fish actions (see xi. 12., 13.– terating wine by petty trades- 20.). men of “corrupting. For its ως εξ ειλικρινείας, te. « We use in both these senses in classi- speak as one who was perfectly cal authors, as well as for the sincere would speak,"like" oía frequent allusions to the adul- äv" in classical Greek. For teration of wine by the kámn- the word see on i. 12. hot, see the quotations in Wet- ŠK Jeoû, “as one who was stein. In the New Testament, sent by God,” which he enlarges it is never used, except in into the expression which folthis place. As applied to “ the lows, “ As actually in the preword of God” (i. e. the teach- sence of God” έν χριστώ το ing of a knowledge of God, as be taken with naloûuev, “in in verse 14.), it may either be communion with Christ." Both to corrupt,” or “ falsify,” and these expressions occur again “to make a dishonest gain of in a very similar context, xii. 19.

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ΙΙΙ. 1'Aρχόμεθα πάλιν εαυτούς συνιστάν ; ή μή" χρήζομεν ώς [πέρ] τινες συστατικών επιστολών προς υμάς ή εξ υμών ; συνιστάνειν;... ει μή.

5 ώς ... εξ υμών, add συστατικών. III. 1. The protestation of as one of the objections to his sincerity in connexion with the Apostleship of St. Paul the greatness of his mission, was the fact that he prosuggests to him a charge which duced nothing of the kind, but his opponents brought against came on his own authority him, and to which he refers “not of man, neither by also in iv. 2., v. 12., x. 12., man; not conferring with viz., that he had no commen- flesh and blood ; neither redatory letters (επιστολές συ- ceiving the Gospel of man, στατικάς) from the Apostles or neither being taught it; from other Churches, as they but by the immediate "rehad; and that he, therefore, was velation of Jesus Christ" to wont to commend himself by himself personally (Gal. i. 12. self-exaltation. We have in

We have in- 16.). În like manner, the stances of such letters expressly Clementine Homilies (xi. 35.) recorded in Acts, xv. 25. &c., represent St. Peter as warning and in xviii. 27., where Apollos his audience against “any is described as having come to Apostle, prophet, or teacher, this very Church of Corinth, who does not first

who does not first compare his with letters from Aquila and preaching with James, and Priscilla, requesting the bre- come with witnesses, lest the thren to receive him; another wickedness which tempted instance is the commendation Christ, afterwards having falof Titus and his companion len like lightning from heaven in this very Epistle (vii. 17. should send a herald against -19.); and it is well known, them, and suborn one who is to that in later times letters sow error (Trávnv) as it subhaving the same designation orned Simon Magus preaching (Epistolæ commendatoriæ), in the name of the Lord were granted by bishops to under pretence of the truth.” clergy travelling through other It would also seem from the dioceses. If the opponents in expressions here used, that he question were Judaizers, it is was accused of making up for probable that the letters on this defect of external authority which they founded their by eulogies upon himself and claim to reception, were from by dishonest shifts. Hence, the Church or Apostles of the frequent emphasis on Jerusalem, like those who “commending ourselves(tavcome from James (τινες τους συνιστάν), iii. 1.,

). ., iv. από Ιακώβου), in Gal. ii. 12. 2–5., X. 12., and hence the And it would appear that connexion of this apparently

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