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Secondly, it is historically instructive, as containing the virtual retractation of the censure in 1 Cor. v. 1.-6. It is an instance of the Apostle's loosing, as the former passage is of the Apostle's binding. It is an instance of the ready forgiveness of the Apostle, as soon as the need for anger was gone; thus exemplifying, in a practical case, as he himself observes in ii. 10., the great peculiarity of the Gospel. It is an instance, also, of the wish to allow the Christian society as much independent action as possible; the very opposite of a despotic or hierarchical ambition. “Not lording it over their faith.” “By faith,” their own faith, “they stood.” The penalty is inflicted “by the majority.” “ To whomsoever they forgave, he forgave.” (i. 24., ii. 6. 10.) The Apostle treats his converts as his equals. It is indeed probable, that his influence was so great as virtually to give him authority over them, which they would be unwilling to dispute. Still, the 9th Chapter of the First Epistle, and the 10th Chapter of this Epistle, sufficiently prove the fact, that by a large party it was disputed; and this fact, agreeing as it does with the Apostle's renunciation of any infallible claims, shows what large concessions were made in the apostolical age to the principle of freedom, in spite of the manifold disorders which it introduced.

(3.) The Arrival of Titus.

II. 12-16.

12 'Ελθών δε εις την Τρωάδα εις το ευαγγέλιον του χριστού, , και θύρας μοι ανεωγμένης εν κυρίω, 13 ουκ έσχηκα άνεσιν



12. After the digression chus, Alexandria Troas *; and thus occasioned by the protest at this time a Roman against the false insinuations “colonia Juris Italici," and regrounded on his delay, he re- garded with great favour by sumes the main subject of this the Roman Emperors, as the portion of the Epistle (viz. the representative, though at a conarrival of Titus with the good siderable distance, of the annews from Corinth) which had cient Troy, of which, throughfilled his mind at its opening out the middle ages, and still

. It is as though he said, “Let by the inhabitants, it has been me then put aside all these supposed to occupy the site. questions about my delay, and According to ,

Acts xvi. 8. let me place before you the St. Paul had been prevented scene at Troas. There, als from staying there on his first though with every facility for visit by the vision which called pursuing the mission which I him immediately into Macehad long hoped to accomplish donia, and on the return from

, in those parts, I was so dis- his present journey, in Acts tracted by not receiving the xx. 3.–6. was received there, expected tidings from Corinth, evidently with much enthusithat I tore myself away from asm, and remained for more the disciples of Troas, and than a week. These indiembarked for Macedonia." cations of the field of labour

την Τρωάδα. The article per- thus opened for him, agree with haps indicates the region of the expressions here used, els the Troad," rather than the το ευαγγέλιον, “with the view the city. Still it must have of preaching the Gospel,” and been in the city that the Júpas aveoyuévns, "a great op

ανεωγμένης, “a Apostle stayed. It had been portunity offered for preachbuilt by Antigonus, under the ing." See on 1 Cor. xvi. 9. name of Antigonia Troas; was ¿V kupio, “in the sphere of afterwards called by Lysima- the Lord.”

* Cony beare and Howson, vol. i. pp. 301. 302.

το πνεύματι μου, τα μη ευρείν με Τίτον τον αδελφός μου, αλλά αποταξάμενος αυτοϊς εξήλθον εις Μακεδονίαν. 14 το δε

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13. oủk čoxnka ävesi Tộ him, was so overpowering that,

ουκ έσχηκα άνεσιν τω πνεύματί μου, Trveúpatí uov, i. e. “ My spirit without even mentioning it, he drove me forwards,” as, to a breaks out in a strain of thankscertain extent, in the first visit giving similar to that in i. to Troas, described in Acts xvi. 3.-10., but more impassioned; 8. when “the Spirit suffered and in the course of this, the them not

to stay in Asia. whole importance of his office το μη εύρεϊν, by reason of the seems to burst upon him, in non-arrival of Titus; Troas such vivid colours, that he is having been appointed on this unable to withdraw, as it were, occasion, as in Acts xx. 3., for his gaze from the vision which the place of rendezvous. thus opens before him, with

It is remarkable that the one distant vista after another, Fathers have entirely missed so that the main thread of his the reason of Paul's trouble subject is not resumed till vi. about the absence of Titus. 11-13., vii. 2-16., in lanJerome asserts that it was be- guage so exactly harmonizing cause Titus was his interpreter,

with that in these verses (12. and therefore without him thé 13.) as to leave no doubt that Apostle was unable to preach. we have there the thoughts á rotágauevos, "taking leave," which have been “

here Acts. xviii

. 18. 20.; Luke ix. abruptly intercepted. 61.; Mark xvi. 46. aŭtois, TTÁVTOTE, “always," i.e."even i. e. “the disciples at Troas.' from the deepest distress.” Šv Compare his farewell parting Tavrì TÓTTO, " in every place,”

παντί τόπω,

“ with them in Acts xx. 7. i. e. “at Corinth, as well as ŽEndov, “ I went forth.

“ I went forth.Macedonia and Troas ;" his The same phrase is used for thoughts travelling from one the departure to Macedonia in part of his Apostolical sphere Acts xvi. 10., xx. 1., appa

to another, the electric spark rently to mark the transit from of his influence being communiAsia into Europe.

cated no less by his letter to 14. This would have been Corinth than by his preaching the natural point at which to to Macedonia and Troas. enlarge on the details of Titus's

θριαμβεύειν is properly, “to message, which he received lead captive in triumph," as in in Macedonia. But it would Col. i. 5., as in all classical seem as if the recollection of authors *, and probably retains the relief which it afforded this signification here, expres


* See Wetstein ad h. I.

θεώ χάρις τα πάντοτε θριαμβεύοντι ημάς εν τω χριστώ και την οσμήν της γνώσεως αυτού φανερούντι δι' ημών εν παντί τόπω, 15 ότι χριστου ευωδία εσμέν τω θεώ εν τοις σωζομένους


sive of the complete depend- never witnessed it, seems to ence of the Apostle on God, suggest the thought of the fraand of the over-ruling of all grant odours, whether from the the Apostle's anxiety to good; altars smoking with incense in he being himself the sacrifice. the open temples *, or from the (Comp. Phil. ii. 17., ’AXX' £i sacrifices offered up on the και σπένδομαι.) But the sense arrival of the procession at the of conquest and degradation is temple of the Capitoline Julost in the more general sense piter.f of “ Making us to share His 15. As applied to the knowtriumph.” And this more ge- ledge of God revealed through neral sense is to a certain ex- his preaching, this thought extent borne out by the force of presses the invigorating and verbs in etw (like the He- quickening effect of the new brew Hiphil), which has been element of life, Christianity observed in waðnteveLv, pro- permeating the world as perly, as in Matt. xxvii. 57., cloud of frankincense. This “ to be a disciple;” but in figure he then proceeds to deMatt. xxviii. 19., xiii. 52.; tail more at length in the folActs xiv. 21., “ to make dis- lowing verses. His own life, as ciples :" and Baoiletelv, pro- representing and diffusing the perly “ to be a king;” but knowledge of God, is now the

" in i Sam. viii. 22., xv. 11.; fragrant odour rising up before 1 Chron. xxiii. 1.; 2 Chron. i. God, as in the primitive sacri8. ; Judg. ix. 15. 61. 18. ; fices. (Compare Gen. viii. 21., 2 Sam. ii. 4., iii. 17.; Isa. vii. “ The Lord smelled a sweet 6. (LXX.),“ to make a king” savour ; Lev. i. 9., “A sweet Xopetelv, properly, “ to dance; " savour unto the Lord” (ooun but in Eur. Herc. F. 688. 873. eủwdías, LXX.)), and this " to make to dance."

odour is given forth, because The idea of the Roman tri- of his union with Christ: it is umphal procession, in the eyes not his act, but Christ's; hence of the then existing world the the emphatical position of most glorious spectacle which XPLOToll in the sentence. The the imagination could conceive, two ideas of his own self-sacriand in its general features fa- fice (as in Eph. v. 2.), and of miliar even to those who had his offering up his work to

* Plutarch, Æm. Paul. c. 32.

† Jos. B. J. vii. 5, 6.

και εν τοις απολλυμένοις, 16 οίς μέν οσμή εκ θανάτου εις θάνατον, οίς δε οσμή εκ ζωής" εις ζωήν.

οσμή θανάτου ... οσμή ζωής.

God (as in Phil. iv. 18.; Rom. verted into a fact, of “the xv. 16.), are blended together. odour of sanctity,” applied in Compare Col. ii. 15.

large portions both of the East16. The metaphor of the ern and the Western Church, odour suggests the double ef- to the beneficent influence of fect which his preaching might a holy life, followed by a holy have, according to the Rab- death. binical image, so frequent as For the present tense of to be almost proverbial, by απολλυμένοις and σωζομένοις, which human life and action, see 1 Cor. i. 18.

see 1 Cor. i. 18. The repetiand especially the Law, is tion of the phrases, εκ θανάτου spoken of under the figure of a εις θάνατον-έκ ζωής εις ζωήν, scent, either deadly or salu- is in the Apostle's manner. brious. (See Wetstein and Comp. Rom. i. 17., ÆK TIOTEWS Schöttgen, ad h. l.)

eis motiv: 2 Cor. iv. 17., It may be observed that καθ' υπερβολήν εις υπερβολήν. this passage is the origin of They are, in fact, Hebrew suthe metaphor, once so frequent perlatives, which are expressed in the religious language of by repeating the emphatic word Christendom, as in popular be- twice. lief to have been even re-con

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