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exposed to the severe punishment of the Jewish flagellation, thrice to that of the Roman magistrates ; once I was stoned, thrice I was shipwrecked, a whole night and day I was in the sea. My travels have been numerous; and in them too I have encountered all the perils of travel, the perils of swollen torrents, of robbers and pirates, of Jewish enemies, of heathen mobs, in the crowded city, in the lonely desert, on the stormy sea, from false Christians. My trials and troubles and sleepless nights have been numerous ; with hunger and thirst and days without food again and again ; with cold and with scanty clothing. And (not to go through all the points which I might name), there is besides all this, the daily concourse of those who flock to hear me, and the anciety for all the congregations which I have converted ; amongst whom, if there is any one weak, I too am weak with him, and for his sake ; if any caught in a snare, I am scorched in the flame of his temptation.

I have spoken of my weakness. Of my weakness then let me boast, if I must still continue to boast. I drop all irony. I speak the very truth itself, as God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, through all ages Blessed, well knows. Let me begin at the beginning. It was at Damascus, under the government of the Arabian chief Aretas, that his viceroy guarded the city to take me ; and in a rope-basket I was let down over the side of the wall. Here I find myself again on the verge of continuing my boast; it is not becoming for me to do so, but I must.— I shall speak of the visions and revelations of Divine secrets which Christ has vouchsafed to me.

I know a man who lived in Christ fourteen years ago, whether he was literally carried up, or whether heaven was disclosed to him, I know not, God only knowsbut he was carried away beyond the region of the clouds of earth, beyond the visible sky, into the invisible heaven above ; and there, again, whether

literally or not, I know not, God only knows he was carried away into the garden of the Lord, into the presence of God, and heard words which were no human words, which man cannot speak, though God may. Of this man, thus far removed from my own individual consciousness, I will boast ; but of myself only in my weaknesses. I might boast, if so I wished it, and yet not be a fool, though before in irony I said that I should be but I forbear lest you should regard me with superstitious reverence beyond what you hear and see. And it was for this very purpose, lest I should be raised too high by the excess of the revelations of which I have spoken, that there was planted in my weak mortal frame a stake, as of impalement, on which I writhe like one crucified: an angel of the adversary was sent to smite me, like Job, whilst thus exposed before him ; for this very purpose,

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lest I should be raised up too high. When this pressed hard upon me, I thrice entreated the Lord, that my enemy may depart from me, and thrice He has answered to me My loving favour suffices for thee; my strength is perfected in weakness.Most gladly, therefore, will I boast in these

my

weaknesses, in order that the strength of Christ may over. shadow me. Therefore I take pleasure in weaknesses, in insults, in necessities, in persecutions from my enemies, in difficulties of all kinds, for Christ's sake; for when I am most weak, I know that I am most strong.

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(3.) Concluding Explanations, Warnings, and Salutations.

XII. 11-XIII. 13. 1Γέγονα άφρων, υμείς με ηναγκάσατε. εγω γαρ αφειλον υφ' υμών συνίστασθαι· ουδέν γαρ υστέρησα τις υπερ

• add καυχώμενος 11. The long burst of γέγονα άφρων,

66 I have passionate self-vindication has been a fool." This is the exnow at last expended itself, pression of the Apostle's first and he returns to the point feeling on looking back at what from whence he diverged at he has said. 6. It is over now x. 7., where he was asserting (yéyova): and that one word his intention to repress the appwv (“ fool') [already used disobedience of those who still

so often, see on xi. 1.] sums it resisted his authority at Co- all up; how far used in irony, rinth. Before, however, he how far in sober truth, it is enters again upon this, he needless to determine.” looks back, as it were, over υμείς με ηναγκάσατε. the long digression; and re- was you who compelled me ; sumes here and there a thought i. e., “ It was not my doing, which needed explanation or but yours” [for you ought to expansion. Hence, although have saved me the task of this concluding section stands commending myself]. apart from the interruption of This clause implied, but not x. 10—xii. 10., and is truly the expressed, furnishes the ground winding up of the main argu- for the next sentence. εγω ment begun in x. 1—7., it is yap, K. 7. 2. : “You ought to filled with traces of the torrent have commended me; “for I which has passed through his ought to have been commended mind in the interval. His by you ;úpôv being as em

folly” (xi. 1- 10.), the phatic as ¿ycó. “commendatory” epistles (iii. business not mine.” But the 1., v. 12.), the “Apostolical” position of xyó, and the co- :pretensions of his opponents nexion of the next clause, make (xi. 12. 13.) are resumed, in it probable that there is implied verse 11.; his miracles and

the further sense, I, and not sufferings (xi. 23-28.) in verse my opponents, ought to have 12.; the question of self-sup- been the object of your comport (xi. 12.) in verses 13– mendations." For the feel18.; the strength and weakness ing of looking for the attesunited in Christ (xii. 9.) in xiii. tation of his Apostleship to 3. 4. 9.

the Corinthians themselves,

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λίαν αποστόλων, εί και ουδέν είμι. 12 τα μεν σημεία του αποστόλου κατειργάσθη εν υμίν εν πάση υπομονή, “σημείοις και τέρασαν και δυνάμεσιν. 13 τί γάρ έστιν και ήσσώθητε υπέρ

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compare iii. 1. 2.; and i Cor. of the Apostle's journeys from

iïi ix. 1. 2.

Jerusalem to Illyricum. ουδέν γάρ υστέρησα. «I, του αποστόλου. « Of him and not they, should have been who is invested with the commended; for I showed my- Apostolical mission :" as, in

l self equal to them :" see on xi. English, “of the Apostle ;.” 5. oùŠév eiuto Compare 1 Cor. meaning, not any special indixv. 8-10.

vidual, but the ideal of the 12. This is the proof of his office. κατειργάσθη « were Apostleship, brought forward wrought,” i.e. speaking of himfor a moment, but not carried self only as an instrument. out. pềv must refer to some 13. τί γάρ έστιν ο ήσσώantithesis which is omitted. θητε υπέρ τας λοιπές εκκλησίας; The first onusia is used gene- This continues the same train rally for “proofs" or "signs,

, train of thought. “The proofs the second onueious more espe- of my Apostleship were sufcially for "miraculous signs," as ficient for you ; for there in Rom. xv. 19., Heb. ii. 24., was nothing wanted to comand in the Acts and Gospels. plete them.” υπέρ τας λοιτέρασιν, “wonders,” is usedhere, πάς εκκλησίας. “ Beyond and often in the Acts, of the the other Churches to which I Apostolic miracles; but never have preached." At this (except in John, iv. 8.; Acts, point he is reminded of the ii. 22.) of the miracles of Christ. objection which he has alduváneoiv, "mighty miracles, ready noticed in xi. 7.; viz. as in 1 Cor. ii. 4., xii. 10. 28. that his not receiving mainThe three words occur toge- tenance from them was a proof, ther in Rom. xv. 19., Heb. ii. either of his want of power to 4. útropovî refers to his hard- exact it, or of his want of ships. The passage is remark

is remark- affection for them. " When able as containing (what is I speak

I speak of your having rare in the history of miracles) every proof of my power and a direct claim to miraculous my affection for you, I repowers by the person to whom member that there is one point they were ascribed. To this in which you may consider passage must be added 1 Cor. yourselves aggrieved." This ii. 4.,

where, as here, Corinth topic occupies him for the next is the scene of their performance, five verses (xii. 14-18). and Rom. xv. 19., where the aŭtos &.

aŭtòs écó. “I myself," reclaim extends to the whole range fers to the fact that though

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τας λοιπές εκκλησίας, ει μη ότι αυτός εγω ου κατενάρκησα υμών; χαρίσασθέ μοι την αδικίαν ταύτην. 14 ιδού τρίτον τούτο" ετοίμως έχω ελθείν προς υμάς, και ου καταναρκήσω. ου γαρ ζητώ τα υμών, αλλά υμάς. ου γαρ οφείλει τα τέκνα τους γονεύσιν θησαυρίζειν, αλλ' οι γονείς τους τέκνοις. 15 εγώ

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he did not receive support, I shall still follow the same his companions did. See on practice of not being burdenxii. 16. “ The only point of

The two tenses of which you can complain, is κατενάρκησα and καταναρκήσω that I, in my own person,

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are opposed to each other. refused support; your com- ου γάρ ζητώ τα υμών, plaint does not apply even to αλλά υμάς. « If I love you,

I my companions ; they have it must be yourselves, and not received support.”

your money that I seek.» κατενάρκησα. See on xi. 9. Compare Aristotle's definition

χαρίσασθέ μοι την αδικίαν of Friendship or Affection ταύτην. Ironical, like xi. 7. (φιλία) in Ethics, viii. 3.

. , . . ( “ Did I commit an offence ου γαρ οφείλει, κ. τ. λ. (αμαρτίαν εποίησα) in abasing “ And this is my duty, for I myself that ye might be ex- am in the place of a parent to alted ?"

you; and parents are bound to 14. ιδού τρίτον τούτο, κ. τ. λ. provide for the wants of the “ Look at the proof of my children, not children for their love. This is the third time parents.” Compare 1 Cor. iv. that I am ready to travel to 14. 15. : “ As my beloved you. Once I have been ac- sons I warn you... Ye have tually” (i. e. on his first visit not many fathers, for... I have in Acts, xviii. 1.); "a second , ); a second begotten you.” 2 Cor. xi. 2.:

.2 . . 2 time I intended to come” (i. e. “ I have espoused you to one according to the plan men- husband.” tioned in i. 15. 16.); “the 15. εγώ δε ήδιστα, κ. τ. λ. third time, on the present oc

“ But I will do even more casion, I am now ready." He than parents. I will both spend speaks of his readiness to make and be myself squandered in the journey as a proof of his your behalf.” έκδαπανηθήσομαι affection, just as his not having is a climax, both as being in made the journey proposed in the passive, and also as exi. 15. 16. was regarded by pressing more strongly by εκ them as a proof of negligence the entire consumption of his or disregard.

powers for their sakes. Comκαι ου καταναρκήσω. “ I am pare: “Animæque magnæ procoming; and, when I come, digum Paullum,” Hor. Od. VOL. II.

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