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It exhibits, lastly, a striking exemplification of a universal truth, the effect of sympathy. The Apostle did not think it beneath him to show that he rested his claims on his capacity of thoroughly understanding those with whom he dealt. Let them see that he cared for them, that he loved them, and he felt that all else was as nothing in the balance. Sympathy is the secret of power. No artificial self-adaptation merely official or pastoral interest - has an influence equal to that which is produced by the consciousness of a human and personal affection in the mind of the teacher towards his scholars, of the general towards his soldiers, of the Apostle towards his converts.


(2.) His Confidence in the Intentions of the Corinthian Church.

I. 12-II. 11.

12 ή γαρ καύχησις ημών αύτη εστίν, το μαρτύριον της συνειδήσεως ημών, ότι εν αγιότητα και ειλικρινεία του θεού,

και απλότητι for αγιότητι. Οm. του before θεού.

The connexion with the pre- Divine vengeance upon the ceding is this: “ Your interces- offending sinner had not been sions and your sympathy will, fulfilled. Accordingly, when I trust, continue; for my in- Titus returned to St. Paul, it tercourse with you has been was with the tidings, on the always frank and open.” With one hand indeed, that the Corinthis declaration of conscious thian Church had to a great uprightness, he enters on the extent complied with his inreply to one of the charges junctions; but that in consewhich his enemies brought quence of these delays there against him, and which, though had arisen, on the other hand, not fully and directly discussed complaints and insinuations till in the latter part of the that he had broken his word, Epistle, evidently weighed so that he had used "lightness"

“ heavily on his mind, as to be that “his Epistles were one of the chief, if not the weighty and powerful, but chief, reason for his writing that his bodily power was at all. It might have been weak and his speech contempexpected at Corinth from the tible;” that he practised worldexpression of his intentions in ly wisdom, and wrote 1 Cor. xvi. 5—8, that he was thing to the eye and another on the point of coming to in reality. (i. 12. 17., X. 10.) them, and it might also be It is against these insinuations supposed from 1 Cor. iv, 21., that the Apostle remonstrates v. 3., that when he did come, with the indignation natural to it would be with unusual an honourable mind unjustly severity. This coming, how- suspected. At the same time, it ever, was delayed; even Ti- must be observed that, till the motheus who had been sent 10th chapter, this indignation before, never seems to have is kept within bounds: it is arrived. (1 Cor. xvi. 10.) only by covert allusions that Titus only had appeared as the we discover, in the earlier part Apostle's deputy; the threat of of the Epistle, the real occa.


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ουκ εν σοφία σαρκική αλλ' εν χάριτι θεού, ανεστράφημεν εν τω κόσμω, περισσοτέρως δε προς υμάς. 13 ου γαρ άλλα

sion of his remarks: and as if TOŮ J£oll (A. B. C. D. E.) exrestrained partly by affection, presses that his sincerity is partly by prudence, his chief “imparted by God,"as in Rom. object here seems to be so to iii. 21.- εν σοφία σαρκική, κ.τ.λ., conciliate his readers, as to pre- “ not in relying on maxims of yent, if possible, an entire and worldly prudence, but on the open rupture.

the sustaining favour of God,” 12. Á. B. C. K. Lachmann, referring not exclusively, but åyiótnti. D. E. F. J. Received still prominently, to the superText απλότητι. (93. - 211.


(. natural support which he reapaótnti.) Whether áyiótnti ceived. Compare 1 Cor. ii. 4.: or átlótyti be the right rea- “not with enticing words of ding, the context fixes the man's wisdom, but in demongeneral sense. ειλικρινεία is stration of the Spirit and of “transparent sincerity,”as in ii. power." 17.; 1 Cor. v. 8. átlótyti there- εν τω κόσμω, περισσοτέρως δε fore would be "singleness of Tipòs 'pas.

« This sincerity view,” according to its etymolo- was manifested before the heagical meaning as in xi. 3.; Eph. then, but still more before vi.5.; Col.iii. 22.; 1 Chron. xxix. you,".* alluding either to his 17.(LXX.); and árycótnti would especial display of preternabe "purity of motive.” Compare tural gifts in their province, 1 Thess. ii. 3. oudè && åkalap- in which case he refers to the σίας, ούτε εν δόλω. The words “ in the grace of God;' authority for ayiótnti is the or (as is more probable), to best; and it may be urged that his refusal of maintenance the sense of átlóts in this from them, in which case he Epistle is not "simplicity,” but refers to the words“ in single

liberality" (see on viii. 2.). ness and sincerity,” an interOn the other hand, åyiótnti pretation which would give may be a correction of απλό- weight to the reading of απλόTnti, from a mistaken view of tnti, as the phrase especially the construction with Jeoll: employed in viii

. 2., for“ liberThe word åyiótns elsewhere rality in pecuniary matters.” occurs only twice : 2 Macc. 13. This is a reason for the xv. 2. (of the consecration of the whole of the previous sentence Sabbath); Heb. xii. 10. (of the especially for the expression of holiness of God). Whichever his sincerity: “I have be adopted (perhaps áziótnti is hidden meaning in what I the better), Jeoll (F.G. J. K.) write. I am not one person

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γράφομεν υμίν αλλ' [6] & αναγινώσκετε ή και επιγινώσκετε. ελπίζω δε ότι έως τέλους επιγνώσεσθε· 14καθώς και επέ.

• ότι και. when absent, and another when tainly by comparison with present*, I write nothing else 1 Cor. xiii. 12. where nearly than what you see on the sur- the same words are used aptı face of my letter, and recog- γινώκω εκ μέρους, τοτε δε nise in my conduct now, and επιγνώσομαι καθώς και επεwill still further recognise at yoo Onv. In both cases, the the final judgment, when your aorist, ŠTEYVÁo Onv, étéYvote is present misconstructions of me used for the present, possibly will be changed into the per- from some idiom unknown to fect recognition that I am your

The word επιγινώσκω glory, as truly as you are combines the sense of “ recog

This is the general nition” with that of “comsense. The play on the words plete knowledge,” in which αναγινώσκω and επιγινώσκω last sense it is used especially is obvious. Compare Julian's in vi. 9., xiii. 5. ; Matt.xi. 27.; celebrated speech, šywv, åvé- Rom. i. 32. ; Acts. xxv. 10. γνων, κατέγνων: and in these

For the general sense compare Epistles: yivórkw and avayı 1 Cor. iv. 3—5. “With me it is

: γινώσκω αναγινώσκω, in iii. 2. και συγκρίνω and a very small thing that I should diaxpivo. In 1 Cor. ii. 13, 14.; be judged of you, or of man's kpívw, diaxpivo, and katakpiva, judgment: yea, I judge not

διακρίνω, κατακρίνω, in 1 Cor. xi. 29. 30.31. The jux- mine own self. For I know taposition is so evidently for the nothing by myself; yet am I sake of this resemblance of not hereby justified: but he sound, that it is not necessary that judgeth me is the Lord. to seek any close connexion Therefore judge nothing before of sense.

The distinction, the time, until the Lord come, however, intended between who both will bring to light them is probably that, whilst the hidden things of darkness, αναγινώσκω, refers especially to and will make manifest the the Epistle, ŠVYLVÁo kw refers counsels of the hearts : and to his conduct (áveotpá nuev). then shall every man have

(). kaì=in fact. That the contrast praise of God.” of επιγνώσεσθε έως τελούς and 14. Öte may be either: (1.) επέγνωτε από μέρους refers to 6 because we are your joy, the contrast between their pre- giving the reason for his consent imperfect and their future viction that his true character perfect knowledge of his true would be recognised at last. character, appears almost cer

Or, (2.)

" that we are your

Compare x. 1. : “in presence base, but in absence bold."

γνωτε ημάς από μέρους, ότι καύχημα υμών εσμέν καθάπερ και υμείς ημών εν τη ημέρα του κυρίου [ημών] Ιησού.

15 Και ταύτη τη πεποιθήσει έβουλόμην πρότερον προς υμας ελθείν, ίνα δευτέραν χάριν έχητε, 16 και δι' υμών απελθείν εις


ελθείν πρότερον.

και διελθείν.

joy,” dependent upon émiyvó- xvi. 5. útrendkův (Lachmann, σεσθε.

A. D'. F. G.), “ to depart.” εν τη ημέρα του κυρίου ημών The authorities being so nearly may be made indifferently to divided, the better sense of refer either to the words im- διελθεϊν, and the probability mediately preceding, or to the that åendɛlv is a correction, whole sentence, as in Rom. ii. are in favour of the former. 16.

The plan which he here 15. Taúty TETTOLOńcal. mentions as originally intended

ταύτη τη πεποιθήσει. 66 In this conviction that you to have been pursued by him, would recognise my sin- was evidently: (1.) to have cerity.”

crossed the Ægean from Ephπρότερον.

Trpótepov. i.e. “Before going esus to Corinth (as in Acts, into Macedonia."

xviii. 19. he had crossed from iva Seutépay xápivěxnte. Corinth to Ephesus); (2.) then δευτέραν χάριν έχητε.

) “ That by paying you a visit to have passed by land through before going to Macedonia, the the north of Greece to Macevisit which I intended to pay donia (as he had in Acts, xvii. you after my return from Ma- 14. 15., xviii. 1., passed from cedonia might thus be (not the Macedonia to Corinth, as he in first, but) the second.” zápiv, fact did pass in Acts, xx. 3., 6 favour of the Apostle's pre

from Corinth to Macedonia); sence.” προπεμφθήναι, « to

, and (3.) finally to return, either be assisted on my journey to by land or sea from Macedonia Jerusalem." Compare the to Corinth, and thence sail for same word in this sense, usually Jerusalem. Instead of this he in the sense of “ accompanying had already, at the time when with an escort,” but sometimes he wrote 1 Cor. xvi. 5. 6. abanmerely of “furnishing with doned the direct voyage to means of travelling,” Acts, xv. Corinth, and determined to go 3., xx. 38., xxi. 5.; Rom. xv. at once to Macedonia, thence to 24. ; 1 Cor. xvi. 6. 11.; Tit. Corinth, and thence with the iii. 13.; 3 John, 6.

intention of taking with him 16. LEXO siv (Rec. Text, the Macedonian and CorinB. C. D3. J. K.), “ to pass thian contributions) to Jeruthrough Achaia," as in 1 Cor. salem. To this plan he finally

* 1 Cor. xvi. 3, 4.; Rom. xv. 25. 26.

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