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γία αυτού, φθαρή" τα νοήματα υμών από της απλότητος και της αγνότητος της εις τον χριστόν. 4 ει μεν γαρ ο ερχόμενος

• ούτω φθαρή.



om, kal.

om. της αγνότητος.

substituted for the word in forth when the subject is disGen. iii. 1., Opovipotatos, so tinctly resumed in verse 19. as thus by a curious, though ο ερχόμενος. He that probably accidental, contrast cometh : not necessarily alto give for the same quality luding to a single individual, the two names which Aristotle though, combined with the (Eth. vi. 13.) gives for the number of similar expressions, two opposite habits of mind, x. 7.-10.; xi. 20., it would πανουργία and φρόνησις. seem to indicate one leading

The Serpent (as the well mover. Compare for the same known instrument of Satan (see ambiguity, Gal. v. 10.: ó taWisd. ii. 23. the first mention pao Su Duas... 6oTvs ày . of the devil in this connexion), ei(as compared with verse 20., Rev. xii. 9., xx. 2. (ooolsó where it is used in the same αρχαίος, ο καλούμενος διάβολος construction with ανέχεσθε) is Kai ó oatavâs) is introduced equivalent (not to “ supposing as the likeness of those false that,” but) to “although; teachers whom Satan now em- and thus the whole sentence ployed for his instruments, as will be, “ Although, on the one then the Serpent: see verse 14. hand, the false teachers teach

από της απλότητος, της εις τον a wholly different Christianity χριστόν. “ From your single- from my own (which, thereminded loyalty towards Christfore, you ought wholly to re(as your master and spouse).” ject), yet instead of rejecting Such is the meaning required it, you endure it.” The whole by the phrase eis tòv xp., and

τον XP passage must be compared with justified by the use of the Gal. i. 6. 7. 8.: “I marvel that word in 1 Macc. ii. 37—60., you are so soon removed from where it is used of " loyalty to him that called you into the God."

Grace of Christ, unto another kal tils áyvótytos is more or Gospel, which is not another,

της αγνότητος less supported by B. D'. E. F. but there be some that trouG. B. reads áviotutos ble you and would preach the

4. si pều yùp ... kalôs švé- Gospel of Christ. But though χεσθε.

This is the reason for we or an angel from heaven his fear, viz., that they were preach any other Gospel unto willing to endure the false you than that which we have preaching of his opponents, preached, let him be accursed.”

, . whilst they were not willing to In both passages there is the listen to him. This is implied saine implied assertion of the by uév, and is more fully set utter contradiction between the


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b ráp.


άλλον Ιησούν κηρύσσει όν ουκ εκηρύξαμεν, ή πνεύμα έτερον λαμβάνετε και ουκ ελάβετε, ή ευαγγέλιον έτερον ο ουκ εδέξασθε, καλώς ανέχεσθε.» λογίζομαι δε μηδέν ύστερηκέναι των υπερλίαν αποστόλων. ει δε και ιδιώτης τω λόγω, αλλ' ου

. 6 • ήνείχεσθε.

υπέρ λίαν. system of the Judaizers, and καλώς ανέχεσθε.

" You that which he taught himself, are fine endurers of them." confirmed by other passages Kalôs is ironical, like “præin the Epistle to the Gala- clarè” in Latin and “finely” tians (as v. 2—7.). In both it in English (compare kalws would appear that, in spite of ảOételte, in Mark, vii. 9.). The this contradiction, the phrases sense is the same as ηδέως ανέused by the false teachers Xeole, in verse 19. The imperf. were the same as his own. ηνείχεσθε or ανείχεσθε is introTheir preaching, as well as his, duced, in D.E.F.G.J.K. instead was a “ Gospel” (εúayyéniov); of ανέχεσθε (in Β.), apparently which agrees with the fact in order to lighten the reproof. that the name ευαγγέλιον, 18 5. The connexion is, “ You applied to the narratives of endure them gladly. Why our Lord's life, is equally used do you not endure me?It as the designation of the apocry

is difficult to decide between phal and of the canonical Gos- B. and yàp D. E. F. G. J. pels. (Compare 1 Cor. xv. 1.) K. The sense is the same in And to this resemblance, the both.

The reading dè propassage before us adds that bably arose from a wish to “ Jesus” was the subject of find an antithesis to uév, in their teaching as well as his; verse 4. Compare a similar which also agrees with the confusion of readings between indications in v. 16., x. 7. of ydp and dé (if yap is right, a their peculiar reliance on their similar ellipse) in xii. 1. It outward connexion with Christ, may be observed that the words It also seems that they as well as form (undesignedly no doubt) he professed that “the Spirit” an Iambic. λογίζομαι δε μηδέν

è in some form, visibly followed totepnkéval.

υστερηκέναι. their teaching

undèv is not strictly accuάλλον Ιησούν implies that rate, according to the rules of they taught, not another Mes- classical Greek, but is used siah (which would have been rather than oủsév, to express expressed by άλλον χριστόν), “in no conceivable respect;" but another representation of whereas, oỦdèy would be simply the historical Jesus.

“in no respect." TTVEūpa étepov. For this va- των υπερλίαν αποστόλων. Fiation from άλλον, compare

“ The very greatest Apoέτερον ευαγγέλιον ο ουκ έστιν stles, " « those who are ever so ärlo, Gal. i. 6.

much of Apostles.” This is a VOL. II. L




7 η αμαρτίαν εποίησα, έμαυτόν ταπεινών ίνα υμείς υψωθήτε,



mixed expression suggested, not no matter to me; God acceptby the false rulers alone, nor eth no man's person, for they by the Jewish Apostles alone, who seemed to be somewhat in but by both together. He

conference added nothing to would hardly have used so

For the exaggerated bitter an expression as úmrep- estimate which the Jewish Xíay of the real Apostles, nor

section of the early Church would the expression idiótns formed of Peter and James in TỘ Nóryą “rude in speech”) particular, see the extracts from be used of himself in verse 6., the Clementines given in the in contradiction to the Jewish Introduction to this Epistle. Apostles, who were at least as The compound υπερλίαν 00“rude in speech” (see Acts, curs in Eustathius, Od. A' pp. iv. 13.) as himself; and he also 27. 35. έστι γάρ ποτε και το distinctly calls the false teachers λίαν κατά την τραγωδίαν χράψευδαπόστολοι, « false Apo- σθαι καλώς καθ' ο σημαινό

, stles," in verse 13. Yet, on the μενον λέγομέν τινα υπερλίαν other hand, he would hardly oopov. So, únepáryav, 2 Macc. have used so strong an x. 34. Compounds of ÚTrèp are pression, unless the Corinthians common in St. Paul.

ÚTTEPhad instituted disparaging com- ávw, Eph. iv. 10. ; ÚTréparpios

, . . και parisons between him and the (found only there), i Cor. other Apostles.

That such vii. 36.; útrepavěáva, 2 Thess. was the case at Corinth, is im- 1. 3. ; υπερεκπερισσού, Εph. plied by the fact that there iii. 20.; 1 Thess. iii. 10., v. 13. ;

a party of “ Cephas" υπερεκτείνω, 2 Cor. X. 14. ; (1 Cor. i. 10.), and by the 'Tepviráw, Romans, viii. 37.; alleged contrast between Paul ÚTTEPTEPloosów, Rom. v. 20., on the one hand, and Cephas 2 Cor. vii. 4. ; ÚTeptieováśw, with the brethren of the Lord 1 Timothy, i. 14.; repufów, on the other hand (1 Cor. Phil. ii. 9. ix. 4.). That the Apostle 6. He proceeds to justify his truly felt his independence, if boast of equality to these “ ulnot his superiority to them,'tra-Apostles.” “Granting that appears from 1 Cor. xv. 10.; I am inferior in the arts of Gal. ii. 6-9., where the same rhetoric, yet I have revelasentiment is expressed, only tions of a higher than human with much greater mildness, wisdom, and my whole conduct “ I laboured more abundantly is perfectly open and straightthan they all.” “ Of those forward for you to see,” idióTNS who seemed to be somewhat TÔ Tórą is not what we should (i. e., James, Cephas, and John call “ deficient in eloquence,” who appeared to be pillars), both because his Epistles show whatsoever they were, it maketh that he possessed it in a very



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τη γνώσει, αλλ' εν παντί φανερώσαντες εν πάσιν εις υμάς.

φανερωθέντες. high degrec, and the story in namely, (2.) IIis conscientious Acts, xiv. 12., where he is and sincere dealings with the compared by the Lystræans to Corinthians. Compare ii. 17., Mercury, as being the chief iii. 3., v. 11., where the same speaker, implies that he was not word, pavepowobat, is used. backward in utterance. But Žv Travti, “in every point;” įv he means to express by it that Taoiv, “ in all circumstances," he was unskilled in the arts of or “ before all," see Phil. iv. 12. rhetorical display, on which the The use of this Jast word Greeks laid so much stress, and pavepoo avtes, expressing, as it in which the extreme rudeness docs, his openness and frankness, of his written style shows that at once suggests to him one of he was deficient; the opposite the charges brought against in this respect, to Apollos, who him ly his opponents. This

by ready man” (avnp

(avùp as it bore directly on the subLóylos), Acts, xviii. 24. For ject of his affection for the the fact with regard to Paul Corinthians, at the moment compare 1 Cor. ii. 1–4., “not uppermost in his thoughts, he with excellency of speech,". now proceeds to answer, with“ not with enticing words of out pursuing his “ boast.” man's wisdom." For the word ”

This charge was that he see Acts, iv. 13.; 1 Cor. xiv. 16. took no money from the CoOn this subject a curious diver- rinthian Church, but supported sity is pointed out by Estius, himself by his own labours (see between Jerome and Augus. Acts, xviii. 3.; and the notes tine; the former taking the on 1 Cor. ix. 1-5.). From words in their literal sense, as this three conclusions were expressing the deficiency of St. drawn: One was against his Paul; the latter maintaining authority, that it was imposthat it is a mere concession for sible to conceive how a real the moment, to the argument of Apostle could thus abstain from his adversaries.

claiming his undoubted right; The two points on which he the other two were against lays stress in proof of his Apo- his character, that it indistleship are: (1.) His“ know- cated his want of confidence ledge," i. e. (as in 1 Cor. i. 5., in the Corinthian Church, and xii. 8.) of Divine revelations, that whilst he thus made a and of spiritual truths. Comp. pretension to disinterestedness, 1 Cor. ii. 5. Of this he would he was really making a gain probably have spoken at length under cover of the contribuimmediately, but that he was in- tion professed to be collected terrupted by a digression which through Titus for the poor in arises out of his second proof'; Judae. It is the two first of

care for

ότι δωρεάν το του θεού ευαγγέλιον ευηγγελισάμην υμίν ; 8 άλthese conclusions that he chiefly may be exalted.” The word is attacks in this passage (as in used for the sake of the anti1 Cor. ix. 1.); but the third thesis to TamElv@v, as in the (which he expressly notices almost proverbial expressions further on xii. 15—18.) must in Matt. xxiii. 12.; Luke xiv. be borne in mind also, as ac- 11., xviii. 14. : πας ο υψών counting for the rapid transi- εαυτόν, ταπεινωθήσεται» και ο tion in the passage, and for ταπεινών εαυτόν, υψωθήσεται, the earnestness with which he and still more appropriately in repels the charge generally. James, iv. 10. See 1 Peter, v. 6.: The connexion therefore is : ταπεινώθητε ούν υπό την κρα«I was shown clearly to be ταιάν χείρα του θεού ίνα υμάς

I an Apostle amongst you ; or υψώση εν καιρώ. For the do you doubt my authority contrast between his earthly and my love for you, because abasement and their spiritual I preached the Gospel without exaltation, compare 1 Cor. ix. reinuneration ? Surely not: it 11.: “ If we have sown unto was out of my especial love and you spiritual things, is it a


that I made an great thing if we shall reap exception in your favour; and your carnal things?” the words that whilst I received support sow and reap being there (and in from others, I never exacted reference to a similar subject) any from you."

used in different senses, 7. έμαυτόν ταπεινών. « Abag- “ abased” and “ exalted,” are ing myself” by working at the here. It is unnecessary to detrade of a tentmaker. Compare fine more especially the exaltaPhil. iv. 10–12., where the tion which his abasement would same word occurs in a similar confer

confer on the Corinthians; connexion. “ I rejoiced in the probably it lay in the keener Lord ... that your care for sense of their Christian privime revived . . . not as though leges, of which they would be I lacked anything (kad' votépn- made conscious by feeling themolv, as here in verse 8.), for I selves the object of his especial have learned, in whatever state attention. Compare for the I am, therein to be independent general sentiment of their ele(αυτάρκης). I know how to () I

vation above himself, 1 Cor. iv. be abased (ταπεινούσθαι),Ι I 8. : “ Now are ye full,” &c. know also how to abound το ευαγγέλιον ευηγγελισάμην. (Teplo osvelv) in every thing and Here, as in 1 Cor. ix. 12–18., in all persons (év Travti kaì èv and more exactly 1 Thess. ii. nãou as here in verse 6.). I 9., he uses these expressions have been instructed both to in special connexion with the be full and to be hungry." question of his preaching Chris

ίνα υμείς υψωθήτε. “That you tianity without remuneration.


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