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εαυτούς τισιν των εαυτούς συνιστανόντων, αλλά αυτοί εν

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lows: “We cannot endure to (a.) That the context of the rank ourselves amongst those sentence would naturally exwho commend themselves; on pect us to find in aŭtoi not the the contrary, they measuring Apostle's adversaries, but the themselves by their Apostle himself. (6.) That in standard, and comparing or the 13th verse, the contrast ranking themselves with them- is not, properly speaking, be

, , selves, hereby show their folly; tween God's measure and man's whereas we refuse to boast be- measure, but between teachyond our lawful measure, but ing out of a lawful sphere, on the contrary keep to the and teaching within a lawful measure appointed for us by sphere. God.” Such would be the Both these difficulties may general sense, whether the indeed be explained by the reading of συνιούσι be taken extreme abruptness and rapid as the dative, or whether it be transition so frequent in this taken as the 3rd pers. plur. Epistle; but they would leave ind. presént, from the Hellen

the passage one of the most istic verb ouviéw, or whether entangled in the New Testa

, (which is the same thing) we ment. Any other mode of inread ouviâow (as in B.). The terpreting the present text, only difference is that, if it be though more agreeable to the the participle, we have then the context, is so contrary to the anomalous, but not unusual, words themselves as to be at construction of a participle in- once out of the question. Such stead of the principal verb. would be the attempt to take The indicative, however, is αυτοι of the Apostle, and συνιpreferable. The sense of the ovoi(the dative participle) of the passage will then be, that the adversaries: “We, on the other Apostle first contrasts himself hand, confine ourselves to ourwith those that commend them- selves, and do not rank ourselves, and then proceeding to selves with those who are not explain that the folly of this wise." Or again, to take aŭto self-commendation consists in of the Apostle, and GULOWOT judging of themselves by their (the dative participle) also of own standard, contrasts himself the Apostle : We do not rank ,

“ with them still further, by ourselves with ourselves, showing that he measures him

whom they call not wise." In self by the standard of God, either case the article tois or and confines himself to the TIOI would have been required; sphere pointed out to him by and the harshness of the exGod. The great objection to pression would in itself be an this mode of explanation is: almost fatal objection.

we

εαυτούς εαυτούς μετρούντες και συγκρίνοντες εαυτούς εαυτούς

(2.) If, on the other hand, writings, and is in this case instead of the Received Text, corrected, as it were, by the we adopt theother reading, sup. resumption of the sentence in ported by less authority, the ουκ εις τα άμετρα καυχώμενοι, whole passage will cohere al- in verse 15. The only internal most without difficulty. The objection to the reception of Vulgate omits the words oủ this reading is its comparative ouviâoiv, D. F. G. omit also freedom from difficulty, and the words ñuses é, and D. consequently the probability omits καυχησόμεθα, for which of its being a correction to F. G. substitute kavxóuevot. escape the confusion of the So, if we combine these varie- Received Text. If, however, we ties, all tending in the same could suppose that ouviâo iv direction, the text will run had crept in from the margin, thus : άλλ' αυτοι εν εαυτοίς as an explanation of tlow, then εαυτούς μετρούντες, και συγκρι- ημείς δε would naturally follow νοντες εαυτούς εαυτοίς ουκ εις τα as an antithesis, to meet the άμετρα, αλλά κατά το μέτρον και new sentence thus unexpectand the sense will be: “We can- edly formed, to which again

: not endure to rank ourselves subsequent correctors would with those that commend them- add καυχώμενοι or καυχησόselves; on the contrary, we are μεθα.* measuring ourselves by our- Such is the general sense selves, and ranking ourselves of this passage, which is not with ourselves, not going into materially affected, whichever spheres beyond our measure. is adopted. The contrast will then be It only remains to explain based simply on the distinc- the particular expressions. tion between intrusion beyond Toluõuev, like “sustinemus” a lawful sphere, and self-re- in Latin. - We cannot enstraint within it. In this way dure,” perhaps with a tinge of the word ustpoūvtes in the irony: “ We can venture on twelfth verse, has the same

the full exercise of our power, sense as μέτρον or άμετρα in but not on classing ourselves," the thirteenth; and whatever &c. Compare for this use of irregularity there may be in the word Rom. xv. 18.; 1 Cor. the omission of καυχησόμεθα, Or vi. 1. the substitution of καυχώμενοι έγκρίναι η συγκρίναι. The for it, it is no more than is fre-, two words are put side by side, quently found in the Apostle's on account of their similarity

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* This explanation and reading is defended at length by Fritzsche's “ Dissertationes ad 2 Cor.," pp. 35–48.; and attacked in Reiske's “ Commen. in Epp. ad Cor.," pp. 373–385.

ου συνιάσιν". 13 ημείς δε ουκ εις τα άμετρα καυχησόμεθα,

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of sound, in order, after the notas ouykpival in the previous Apostle's manner, to express clause, for“ ranking” or “ asthe completeness of his asser- similating,” but in the sense of tion. “ To rank one's self in “ comparing," of which signiany manner whatsoever with fication there are undoubted those,” &c. Compare yivó- instances in Greek writers of σκειν and αναγινώσκειν, iii. 2. ; this period (see Lobeck ad γινώσκειν and επιγινώσκειν, in Ρhryn, p. 278.), but not in the i. 13. και κατατομή and περιτομή, New Testament or the LΧΧ. in Phil. iii. 2. 3.

This change of meaning έγκρίναι, « to enroll as in a , from that which the words

poscatalogue.” It never

sess in the context, is not in in the New Testament again, itself an argument against any nor in the LXX.

interpretation which would ovykpivai, " to combine" συγκρίναι,

require it; inasmuch as simiand hence “ to interpret” (as lar variations are to be found in 1 Cor. ii. 13.), “ to liken,"

to liken,” elsewhere

elsewhere in the Apostle's or “make equal," and so in writings. (See 1 Cor. xi. 23.) LXX.

But it is of course in favour των εαυτούς συνιστανόντων. of the second interpretation See iii. 1. From the abrupt given above, that, with the transition in the next verse, it reading of the Vulgate, the is evident that those who words μετρείν and συγκρίνειν " commended themselves both retain their original meancharged by the Apostle with ing; and the peculiarity of the intruding, as if by the au- expressions εν εαυτοίς εαυτούς thority of their conmmendatory and εαυτους εαυτούς, as applied letters, into his sphere; and to the Apostle himself, would this forms the subject of the be explained by the desire to next verses, 14–18.

express as strongly as possible "The meaning of the next the strict limits within which words varies, of course, ac- he confined himself. He would cording to the two readings thus oppose himself both to given above. If the reading the exaggerated boasts and the of the Received Text is pre- unwarranted intrusions of his ferred, then ustpoūvTES is opponents; “ limiting our“ measuring," not in the sense selves within our own limits, in which it is used in the fol- and associating ourselves only lowing verses of " limiting with ourselves.” (which is its usual sense, see 13. In order to enter into Rom. xii. 3. ; Eph. iv. 7.), but the following passage, we must of " comparing, as by a stand- conceive something of the order ard;” and ovykpívoutes is used, which it presumes to exist in

are

"

αλλά κατά το μέτρον του κανόνος, ού εμέρισεν ημίν ο θεός

the Apostolic age.

Without (Acts xv. 1.; Gal. ii. 12.) adopting the tradition which In Galatia “a little leaven" represents the Apostles as por- of their influence had so comtioning out the world amongst pletely " leavened the whole them, with a peculiar province Tump,” that the Apostle was for each, it is clear from Gal. ii. regarded as an “enemy." 9. that at least in the great (Gal. v. 9., iv. 16.) And even

( divisions of Jew and Gentile, at Corinth, their power had the former were undestood to reached such a height, that belong to the original Apostles, “ the majority,” at least of the James, Peter, and John, the teachers, had joined them (ii. latter to Paul and his com- 18.); and already in the First panions. It would also appear Epistle(whether, or not, against to have been the Apostle's this particular section of his maxim, never to establish him- rivals or opponents is doubtself for any permanent stay, ful) the Apostle complained in those parts where the Gos- that “ he had laid the foundapel had already been preached tion, and another built upon by some previous teacher; so much so, that his visit to Rome ten thousand teachers (παιδα(which had already received yoyoùs) they had but one father, the faith) was regarded by him for that he only (éryw) had bemerely as taken on his way to gotten them through the GosSpain, which was still open to pel.” (1 Cor. iii. 10., iv. 15.) any new teacher (Rom. xv. 18 Now they were claiming to be - 24.)

“ Apostles,” and “ more than This

arrangement Apostles” (xi. 5. 13.), and doubly infringed by the ap- endeavouring to shut out the pearance of Jewish teachers

Apostle of the Gentiles from at Corinth; the sphere of the the greatest and proudest field Apostle of the Gentiles was of his exertions (x. 16.). invaded by Jews; the sphere It is this conduct that the which St. Paul had won for Apostle rebukes by contrast himself by his own labours, with his own forbearance. His was appropriated by those who “ boasting” was confined to the had no original claim to it. sphere which had been marked And they followed, like vul- out for him, and which, actures, upon his track, partly cording to the joint representato mar, partly to avail them- tions of Rom. xvi. 18-24. selves of the effects of his and Acts xiii. —xxviii. seems to teaching To Antioch, the have extended “ from Jeruoriginal seat of his teaching, salem to Illyricum," they came

from James." through all the Grecian pro

was

9

i, e.,

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μέτρου, εφικέσθαι άχρι και υμών 14 (ως γάρ μη εφικνούμενοι

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The expres

as far

vinces of Asia Minor and ing by the Italian cities, where Greece, properly so called, and the Gospel had already been ending apparently where the preached, to the still further barbarian languages of Illyria regions of Spain. put a check to his communica- τα άμετρα, properly

, “untions with the natives. Of measured;" but here “beyond this sphere Corinth, up to this the measure fixed for us. time, had probably been the κατά το μέτρον του κανόνος, extreme point.

ου έμέρισεν ο Θεός μέτρου. καsion in Rom. xv. 19.,

vòv is the “ rule” by which as Illyricum” (uéxpi toù 'Il- the limits of the sphere are Xupikoû), if taken literally, can marked out. In the New only apply to journeys made Testament the word only occurs in the interval which elapsed in this passage and in Gal. vi. between the writing of this 16., Phil. iii. 16., in both of Epistle and that to the Ro- which texts the expression is mans, and would most likely the same, OTO1XEîv tỘ kavovi be accomplished in the route (“ to walk within the prescribed described in Acts xx. 2. as limit”). In the LXX. it occurs “ the passage through those in Psalm xix. (xviii.) 4.; Job, parts," i. e. the parts contigu- xxxviii. 5. for “a measuring ous to Macedonia. But be- line." The construction is, fore this time, we gather with “ which rule” (referring to tolerable precision from Acts, Toll kavóvos) “God appointed xvii. 15-xviii. 18., that during us as a measure” (μέτρου). ου the whole of his long stay in = όν. μέτρου = μέτρον. Greece, on his previous visit, špikeolai, " to reach." These Corinth had been his head last words serve to explain the quarters; and was the western- introduction of the name of most point which he reached. God as the author of his limits. IIence the expressions used em- “God has appointed and enphatically here (äxpı xai úpôv, abled me to fulfil my duty.” εφικνούμενοι εις υμάς), “ to Compare the parallel passage, you,” “ as far as you,” imply Rom. xv. 18.: “I will not that he had a right to speak venture to speak of the things confidently of his labours so

which Christ has not wrought far, but no further; whilst at in me. the same time he had hopes, 14. The sense is the same, which he afterwards

whatever be the right reading. plished, of advancing westward. “We are not extending our first as far as Illyria, and boast beyond our limit.” For then, omitting, or hastily pass- the metaphor “ stretching out

accom

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