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himself. It is always with reference either to some position taken up by his opponents, or to some charge brought by them against himself. They occupy, as it were, the background of the portrait; and their conduct,

, with the misconceptions or suspicions entertained by the Corinthians regarding himself, form at once the justification of this departure from his ordinary usage, and supply the clue to the successive stages of his vindication, which we now proceed to follow.

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(a.) The Reality of his Boast.

X. 7-18.

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7 τα κατά πρόσωπον βλέπετε. * εί τις πεποιθεν εαυτό

. χριστού είναι, τούτο λογιζέσθω πάλιν άφ' εαυτού, ότι

βλέπετε ; 7. The point of connexion Gal. ii. 6., and the universal with the foregoing seems to be, sense of προσωπολήπτης, Acts,

, , “ Such is the authority which x. 34. -yla, Rom. ii. 11.; Eph. I claim, the power which I vi. 9.; Col. ïï. 25.; Jam. ii. 1. am prepared to wield.

But -πτείτε, Ιb. 9. That βλέπετε is there are those among you who to be understood, not as interrodoubt it; because you regard gative or imperative, but as in(not the inward reality, but) the dicative, appears (though more

, outside appearance of things. doubtfully), because if it were By the outside appearance (Tà interrogative or imperative it κατά πρόσωπον) he alludes to would probably be at the beginthe various points of alleged ning of the sentence; and, if insuperiority in his opponents, to terrogative, would probably be which he refers in this Section; preceded by tà or some similar their outward connexion with word ; if imperative, it would Christ, their commanding per- require to be taken in an irosonal address, and their com- nical sense, hardly justified by mendatory letters. Each of the context. these he proceeds to attack. He now proceeds to point That this (and not any of the out the various outward shows other meanings attached to it, which the Corinthians regarded “conspicuous," " what lies be- instead of the inward realities. fore you," &c.) is the significa- The first of these was the profestion of τα κατά πρόσωπον is sion made by the false teachers clear from the sense of πρόσω- of a closer connexion with Christ Trov in this Epistle (see v. 12. than that enjoyed by St. Paul. εν προσώπω καυχωμένους και That there were some at Coμη καρδία. x. 1., κατά πρόσω- rinth who prided themselves on a . x. ,

a TOV pè (where it is used, not peculiar connexion with Christ, merely as an equivalent to trú- appears from the enumeration pov, but "in external appear- of the party watchwords in ance"), and in the similar phrase 1 Cor. i. 10., amongst which is βλέπεις εις το πρόσωπον, Μatt. found, “I am of Christ;" and xxii. 16.; Mark, xii. 14. Comp. that the false teachers whom also Jude, 16.; Luke, xx. 21.; he now attacks did so, may

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be inferred, although not so language of the same party of certainly, from the preten- Judaizers at a later period, as sions which they made to be expressed in the Clementines “ Ministers of Christ,“ Apo- (Clem. Hom. xvii. 17.), stles of Christ.(xi. 23. 13.) Whether the phrase, “If any

From the fact that these false one" (TL) in the singular), teachers were Judaizers (xi. points to an individual, or not, 22.), it may also be inferred must be left in uncertainty. with great probability that the Similar expressions are repeatconnexion with Christ, on which ed in x. 10. 11. 18.; xi. 4. 20. they prided themselves, was the Tráliv, “ again," i. e. “ once bond of union which they sup- more," as in i Cor. xii. 21. posed themselves to have with å avtov, “ from himself," Him, through some earthly i. e. “ without being reminded relationship, either as being of it by me.” C. D. G. (LachJews, or as having seen Him, mann's second ed.) ¢¢' łautoû, or been His companions in His B. lifetime, or as claiming some nužis, i.e. the Apostle: here, immediate connexion with His as in the earlier portion of his kinsmen after the flesh, “the Epistle, using the plural for brethren of the Lord.” This the singular. would agree with the express 8. The connexion is, “I sion katà mpóownov in this truly belong to Christ; for passage, and with the Apostle's even if my boast extended far answers to the charges of this beyond this (Teplogótepov), it or a similar party in 1 Cor. ix. would be true.” The transi1., “ Am I not an Apostle ? tion from the singular to the

Have I not seen the Lord plural is occasioned by the mixJesus?” followed as it is imme- ture of personal and general diately afterwards by an allu- feelings which the passage consion to “ Cephas” and “the tains. The parenthesis which brethren of the Lord." (1 Cor. the Lord hath given us for buildix. 4.) It would also illustrate ing up (oikodouýv), not for pullthe Apostle's expression in this ing down" (kabaípeci), is a reEpistle (v. 16.): “ Even though currence to the former image of we had known Christ after the the fortress, in verse 5., which he flesh, yet henceforth know we here modifies, apparently under Him no more" (after the flesh], the same feeling as in i. 23 — implying that there were some 24., “ To spare you I came not who were proud of having so to Corinth ... not that we are known him. Compare also the lords of your faith.”

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ο κύριος" εις οικοδομών και ουκ εις καθαίρεσιν υμών και, ουκ αισχυνθήσομαι, 9 ίνα μη δόξω ως αν εκφοβείν υμάς δια των επιστολών. 10 ότι Αι επιστολαί μέν φασιν βαρείαι

9

• Here ends the hiatus in C. begun i. 2.

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Αί μεν επιστολαί, φησί.

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9. ίνα μη δόξω ώς αν εκφοβείν and powerful (ίσχυραί, vigoújās dià TÔVĚTLOTTONô. This rous), but his bodily presence clause may be taken either: (ý tapovoia Toù owpatos, (1.) as part of the sentence his arrival in person) is weak, contained in verses 10. 11., őtt and his speech contemptible Αί μέν εξουδενημένος being (εξουδενημένος, i. e., “ contemnparenthetical, and TOUTO lo- ed,” but with the sense of “ to be γιζέσθω the principal clause, contemned,"like κατεγνωσμένος “ In order that I may not scem

in Gal. ii. 11.). to terrify you by letters (for is remarkable, as being the his letters, they say, , only instance, as it would powerful, but his bodily pre- appear, of the very words used sence is weak;") or, (2.) as by St. Paul's opponents. Lachan abrupt sentence, standing mann, with B., reads paoi; but by itself, as the reason for some onor of the Received Text is unexpected thought. As if it supported by D. E. F. G. J. K., were, “I will not be ashamed and

may

well be the true readto boast, only let me not seem to ing. If so, it points to a single terrify you.” Compare a simi- person, as confirmed by x. 7., larly abrupt use of kai un in xi. 20. It is also remarkable Rom. iii. 8. Ei un, 1 Cor. vii. as giving a cotemporary judg17. On the whole, the se- ment on his Epistles, and a cond seems preferable.

personal description of himself. ós åv, is used adverbially It is doubtless to the First like ós ki,

Epistle to Corinth, that the διά των επιστολών. The phrases are chiefly applied, plural (“ by his Epistles") and the account of its efneed not imply anything more fects, as given in chapter vii., than an allusion to his Epi- sufficiently illustrate the epistles generally, not meaning to thets here employed to express indicate that he had written the heavy blows which it dealt more than one to Corinth be- on the hearts of its readers. fore this.

The description of the personal 10. “His Epistles are weighty appearance of the Apostle is in (Bapelat, effective, impressive) accordance with all that we

as if.”

There is great obscurity in the statement of this reading in the various editions of the New Testament. The above appears to be substantially correct.

a

sources.

we

are

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και ισχυροί, η δε παρουσία του σώματος ασθενής και ο λόγος εξουδενημένος." 11 τούτο λογιζέσθω ο τοιούτος, ότι οίοί εσμεν τώ λόγω δι' επιστολών απόντες, τοιούτοι και παρόντες τω έργω. 12 ου γαρ τολμώμεν εγκρίναι η συγκρίναι

εξουθενημένος. gather of it from the New Rhetoricians, for energetic imTestament and from other pressive oratory, see Lucian,

The representations Dial. Mort. 10. ; Hermogenes, of it, with which

ii. 6.; Aristides, ii. p. 191. familiar from the pictures of Schol. (in Wetstein). Raphael, are probably in a 11. ο τοιούτος, see ii. 8. high degree delusive. The 12. The thought which runs express statement of his ar- through the previous verses rival at Corinth, “in weakness 7–10. is that the power which and with fear and much trem- he threatened to exercise in bling” (1 Cor. ii. 3.), agrees verses 1–6. was not an empty with the general impression boast, but a reality. From derived from this Epistle, and this he passes on to contrast that to the Galatians, of the ner- the reality of his claims with vous susceptibility and agita- the emptiness of the claims of tion of his temperament and his adversaries; his own claims his manner.

The comparison being grounded entirely on his of Barnabas to Jupiter and of own labours, theirs apparently himself to Mercury, by the on labours of which they appeople of Lystra (Acts, xiv. propriated the glory to them12.), implies that he was the selves, but which were really least commanding of the two. his (12.-18.).

These two The traditional description, as

thoughts, which here preserved in the allusions or blended together, are brought detailed accounts of Lucian

out separately in 1 Cor. iv. 1 (Philop. c. 12.), the Acts of -6. and Rom. xv. 17—24., Paul and Thecla (Fabric. Cod. with both of which this passage Pseudep.), Malalas (Chronog. must be carefully compared. 10. p. 257.), Nicephorus (H. E. Such is the general sense; the ii. 37.), is of a man of low sta- particulars must, to a great ture, bent figure, and awkward extent, depend on the readings gait; a white complexion ; of the MSS. bright gray eyes, under over- (1.) The Received Text, with hanging eye-brows; a strong which Lachmann and Tischenaquiline nose; nearly bald, but dorf substantially agree, and with a thick bushy beard, in- which is founded on B. D3. E.J. terspersed with grey hairs. K. has oύ συνιούσιν (or συνιά

βαρύς, or βαρύτης, was the σιν.) ημείς δε... καυχησόμεθα. word commonly used by later Of this the sense must be as fol

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