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the necessary opposition between Simon and Peter, from our Lord's prophecy in Matt. xxiv. 11. 14. 15. and from the account of Simon's universal reception in Acts viii. 10. But, when taken in conjunction with the designation of "the enemy" in Ep. Pet. ad Jac. 2. it seems impossible to doubt that the whole passage contains allusions, sometimes even verbally exact, to such charges against St. Paul as are implied in 2 Cor. vi. 8. 9.; Acts xxi. 28. or to the general success of his mission in parts where the Jewish Apostles had not yet penetrated, as implied especially in Rom. xvi. 19. 20.; 2 Cor. x. 13.-16.; 1 Cor. i. 13. 15.; Gal. iv. 14.-16. All doubt, however, is removed by the more precise language of another passage in a later part of the work. In an argument between Simon and Peter, in which the former insists on the superiority of visions as evidence to our Lord's discourses, the latter on that of actual intercourse, Peter concludes as follows: "If then, Jesus our Lord (8 Ingoûs vilõv) was seen in a vision, and was known by thee and conversed with thee, it was in anger with thee as an adversary that He spoke to thee through visions and dreams, and even through outward revelations. But can any one be made wise to teach through a vision ? If thou sayest that he can, why then did our Master abide and converse with His disciples, not sleeping but awake, for a whole year? And how shall we believe the very fact that He was seen of thee? And how could He have been seen of thee, when thou teachest things contrary to His teaching? And if by having been seen and made a disciple by Him for one hour, thou becamest an Apostle, then expound what He has taught, love His Apostles, fight not with me who was His companion. For against me, the firm rock, the foundation of the Church, even me thou didst 'withstand’ openly (avgéOTYxas). If thou hadst not been an adversary, thou wouldst not have calumniated me, and reviled my preaching, to deprive me of credit when I spoke what I had heard myself in intercourse with the Lord; as if I were to be blamed, I whose character is so great. Or if thou sayest that I was to be blamed (xateywwopévov), thou accusest God who revealed Christ to me, and attackest Him who blessed me because of that revelation. But since thou wishest truly to work with the truth, now learn first from us what we learned from Him; and when thou hast become a disciple of the truth, then become a fellow-worker with us." (Hom. xvii. 19.) The objections here made to St. Paul's Divine mission, are the very same which might have been inferred to exist from his own expressions in Gal. i. 1. 12. 15, 16-20.; 1 Cor. ix. 1.; 2 Cor. x. 16., xi. 1-5. And in the indisputable reference to St. Paul's own words in the account of the feud at Antioch, duréotyy, xateyrwouévov (Gal. ii. 11.), there is hardly an attempt to draw over the true object of the passage even the thin veil of the character of Simon, which serves to darken only, not conceal it.

SECOND EPISTLE TO THE CORINTHIANS.

ΠΡΟΣ ΚΟΡΙΝΘΙΟΥΣ Β.

(Ι.) THE TIDINGS BROUGHT BY TITUS.

.

(1.) Introduction.

I. 1-11. Ι. 1 ΠΑΥΛΟΣ απόστολος Ιησού Χριστού δια θελήματος θεού, και Τιμόθεος ο αδελφός, τη εκκλησία του θεού τη δύση έν Κορίνθω συν τοις αγίοις πάσιν τοις ούσιν εν όλη τη 'Αχαΐα. 2 χάρις υμίν και ειρήνη από θεού πατρός ημών και κυρίου Ιησού Χριστού.

Ευλογητός ο θεός και πατήρ του κυρίου ημών Ιησού

3

1. For the general language follows, stands in the same reof the salutation, see on 1 Cor. i. lation to the Second Epistle, as 1. The peculiarities of this are: the analogous opening of the (1.) The introduction of Timo- First, and furnishes, as it were, theus in the place of Sosthenes, the key-note to the ensuing which is naturally explained six chapters. by his absence at the time of Two feelings rise in his the writing of the First Epistle, mind, the moment that he on the journey described in begins to address the Corin1 Cor. iv. 17., xvi. 10.; Acts thians, and cross each other in xix. 22., and his return before almost equal proportions in the writing of the Second. this passage. The first is an

. (2.) The mention of the Chris- overwhelming sense of gratitians of Achaia generally, as

tude for his deliverance from included in the address to his distress, whether it were Corinth, for which see 1 Cor. the actual dangers to which he i. 2. ο αδελφός « our brother,” had been exposed at Ephesus, i.e. "our fellow Christian," as or the inward trouble which in 1 Cor. i. 1., where it is simi- he suffered from his anxiety larly applied to Sosthenes. for the Corinthian Church,

3. The thanksgiving which or more probably from both

χριστού, ο πατήρ των οικτιρμών και θεός πάσης παρακλήσεως, 4 και παρακαλών ημάς επί πάση τη θλίψει ημών, εις το δύνασθαι ημάς παρακαλεϊν τους εν πάση θλίψει διά της

together. The second is the moved all check to his indulkeen sense which breathes gence of the two master-feelthrough both the Epistles to ings described, but it is out Corinth, but especially through of keeping with the irregular the Second, of his entire unity and impassioned tone of this of heart and soul with his Epistle to suppose that they Corinthian converts, so that were put prominently forward not only did he naturally pour as the groundwork of a formal out his deepest feelings to and deliberate plan. them, but felt also that they ευλογητός ο θεός. This phrase, were actually one with him in which occurs in Eph. i. 3., is his sorrows and in his joys; parellel to the more usual form that his comfort and deliver- of the Apostle's thanksgiving. ance would be shared by them, evxaplotô Tô Jeợ, and it is as it had been the result of therefore indifferent whether their prayers.

These two the verb supplied be toti or thoughts combined are suffi- ŽOTW, probably the latter. cient to account for the abrupt- In the fulness of this thankness and prominence of the fulness, he at once proceeds to subject in the opening of the invest the names of “God” Epistle. It is possible, how- and “the Father,” which in ever, that he may have also these thanksgivings are usually been influenced partly by the left without more direct apdesire to begin from that serene plication, with the attributes of atmosphere of thankfulness and which he was now himself most love, which he felt would soon conscious. The two clauses be disturbed in the course refer to the words in the first of the Epistle by the harsher part of the verse. 66 Blessed topics on which he should be be God, i.e. the God of comobliged to dwell, and partly by fort, and the Father, i. e. the the anxiety, here as in his Father of mercies," the inother Epistles, to exhibit his version being occasioned partly relations to his converts in the by the convenience of the conmost friendly aspect, and to struction, which required that dispel at once by his own παρακλήσεως should be confrankness and cordiality the tinued into the next sentence, cloud of suspicion which, as we partly by the fact that the first see from many subsequent pas- of the two expressions (“ the sages intervened between him Father of mercies”) is the most and them. These secondary natural and obvious of the considerations may have re- two. It was possibly suggested

παρακλήσεως ής παρακαλούμεθα αυτοί υπό του θεού, και ότι καθώς περισσεύει τα παθήματα του χριστού εις ημάς, ούτως διά του χριστου περισσεύει και η παράκλησις ημών. 6 είτε by the phrase in the opening θλίψει ημών- εν πάση θλίψει, of Jewish prayers,

is Our

“ in any kind of affliction that Father, Merciful Father," befalls me or “ them.” The

But it is article in the first phrase is only .אבינו אב הרחמן

us

sure.

66 So

same way

evidently used here in a more used in consequence of the personal and emphatic sense : more particular application of it, and as in the Jewish formula defined by the genitive ňuôv. just given, the idea is expressed, 5. τα παθήματα του χριστου not through a substantive geni- are the sufferings undergone tive, but an adjective, so it is by Christ in His own person. most natural in the present case Teplorevet eis nuās. " overflow

περισσεύει εις ημάς not to resolve the genitive Tôv

to us," with the double meaning Oiktipuôv merely into a He- that the sufferings of Christ braism, but to combine in it pass

pass “ from Him to us," and the two ideas that God's es- that they are to be found in sence consists in showing mer

in a superabundant meacies, and also that He is the

See Rom. v. 15. Father and source of mercies. ούτως διά χριστου περισσεύει Compare “ the Father of glo- kai ń Taparanois nuwv. ry,” Eph. i. 17.; "the Father also through Him in whom we of spirits,” Heb. xii. 9. ; “the all suffer together, the comfort Father of lights,” James, i. 17. which we possess ourselves In the the next phrase from God, passes over abundexpresses that God is the Author antly to you.” of comfort. Compare the phrase This is the meaning of the “the God of hope,” Rom. xv. 13. particular words. The general

The words, παράκλησις, πα- sense of the whole passage is pakalôv, are remarkable here, based on the idea, that he was as being the earliest passage in one with Christ, and through the New Testament where they Christ with all Christians. are applied to God; and as il. " It is of the very nature lustrating the more precise of spiritual things that they sense in which they are ap- cannot be confined within plied in St. John's writings, themselves. Freely we have not, as here, to God generally, received, freely we give. The but to the Son and the Spirit.

comfort which we feel ours 4. ñuâs, “ us." It is charac- selves communicates itself to teristic of this Epistle that the you. Because Christ sufApostle speaks of himself in fered, therefore we suffer; bethe plural number more usually cause He comforts us, therethan elsewhere. Šv máon fore we are able to comfort VOL. II.

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