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αλλά και χειροτονηθείς υπό των εκκλησιων συνέκδημος ημών εν τη χάριτι ταύτη τη διακονoυμένη υφ' ημών προς την του

και συν.

b add αυτού.



hence used in the passive voice to its etymological sense.

In especially, in contradistinction this sense, probably, it is used to λαγχάνειν, “ election by in the subscriptions to the lot.” χειροτονηθείς ή λάχων. Second Epistle to Timothy, Plato, Polit. 300. a.


and to the Epistle to Titus, this meaning of “ deliberate,” ŠLO KOTOV Xelpotovnoévra. as distinct from a chance selec- υπό των εκκλησιών. By tion," in later Greek, it came the congregations in which he to signify

" election is praised,” referring back to “ choice" of any kind, whether Taowv ÉKKA noc@v. by show of hands or not. Thus συνέκδημος ημών, « to be in Josephus, passim, e. g. Ant. my fellow-traveller," so Acts, Vi. 2. 4. 9. 13. άπό τού θεού xix. 29., speaking of Gaius βασιλεύς κεχειροτονημένος. (See and Aristarchus. the other quotations in Wet- εν τη χάριτι ταύτη, « in the stein, ad h. 1.) In the LXX. matter of their contribution." the word never occurs (ex- See viii. 6. 7. cept that in Isa. lviii. 9. XEL- τη διακονουμένη, « which is potovla is used in its strictly now in the process of ministraetymological sense for “put- tion.” See viii. 4. ting forth the finger” in scorn.) ýpôv, which occurs in B.C. In the New Testament it is DF. G. J. and the Versions, always used, as in Josephus, is clearly the best reading ; for 6 election ” generally, as and the reading of vuôv may in Acts, xiv. 23., of the choice easily have arisen, partly from of presbyters by the Apostles; similarity of sound, partly beand in this passage, of the cause in this Chapter (verses election of the messenger by 11. 12.) tpoovula is generally the congregations. It is the used, not of the Apostle, but transference of the ancient of the Corinthians. He thus forms of political speech to the states that there were two main general ideas of Christian life, purposes to be answered by life, as in the case of łakanoia the contribution: First, “ The and Tío kotos in Greek, and glory of the Lord; “ ordo," " ordinatio,"

ordinatio,” “ dio- should say, the credit which cesis," in Latin. But from accrued to Christianity from this use of the word in the the liberality of the Gentile Christian congregations, a new Churches to the Jewish Chrismeaning sprung up in later tians. Compare Rom. xv. 16., Ecclesiastical Greek, of elec- Ministering the Gospel of tion by imposition of hands," God, that the offering up of thus returning in some degree the Gentiles might be accept

as we

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κυρίου δόξαν και προθυμίαν ημών"), 20 στελλόμενοι τούτο, μή τις ημάς μωμήσηται εν τη αδρότητι ταύτη τη διακονουμένη

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able.” Secondly, The proof (LXX.); 2 Macc. v. 1.; Wisof the Apostle's zeal for the dom, xiv. 1., which is also its Jewish Christians. (Compare ordinary use in classical Greek; Gal. i. 10., “That we should or (2.) “ Withdrawing from," remember the poor; the same shunning this,” from the sense which I also was forward to of " drawing in sails,” in the do,” εσπούδασα).

phrase, ιστία μεν στείλαντο, 20. otellójevou properly Iliad, i. 433.; as in Mal. ii. belongs to συνεπέμψαμεν, inti- 5., από προσώπου ονόματός mating that the reason of the pov otéreolai (LXX.), and Apostle's sending the brother again in Gen. viii. 1. of the with Titus was to avoid cause flood subsiding. So in classifor suspicion, two going in- cal Greek otéiedai mpóostead of one. But it probably wov,“ to draw in the face,” refers to the whole sentence,

Eur. Bacch. 669. So the Vulnot only to the Apostle's in- gate takes it here, "devitantes." tention of vindicating Titus, Either meaning will suit the but to the intention of the context here; but as the second Churches, with the concurrence sense is the only one which or at the suggestion of the will accord with the only other Apostle, to vindicate himself passage where it occurs in the from all suspicion. This agrees New Testament (2 Thess. iii. best with what follows, and also 6.: στέλλεσθαι υμάς από πάντος with the allusion to the same αδελφού ατάκτως περιπατούνsuspicion in xii. 18., from which tos), it is to be preferred here. it appears that he was charged μή τις μαμήσηται. See vi. with collecting money for his 2., where the word occurs in a own purposes, through the

similar context. εν τη αδρόmeans of his companions; and τητι ταύτη. αδρότης is pro

. thus the “brother” here men- perly “thickness," as of snow; tioned was added, first by the then “fulness,"

, Churches at his own request, as as of corn ; then “ largeness” a companion to himself, to act of any kind, chiefly of body. as a check upon his own con- Hence ádpòs in LXX. is duct; next by himself, as a com- used for the “rich" or "great," panion to Titus, to act as a check


in Latin on the conduct of Titus. otel. (1 Kings, i. 9., X. 6. 11. ; Xóuevou may either mean: (1.) Job, xxix. 10., xxxiv. 19.), in Preparing for this," from the which sense only (except as sense of “going on an expe- applied to the unicorn or bufdition," as in Prov. xxxi. 16. falo, the emblem of power, Isa.


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υφ' ημών: 21 προνοούμεν γαρ καλά" ου μόνον ενώπιον κυρίου,

' : αλλά και ενώπιον ανθρώπων. 22 συνεπέμψαμεν δε αυτούς τον αδελφών ημών, όν εδοκιμάσαμεν εν πολλοίς πολλάκις σπουδαίον όντα, νυνι δε πολύ σπουδαιότερον πεποιθήσει πολλη τη εις υμάς. 23 είτε υπέρ Τίτου, κοινωνός έμος και εις υμάς συνεργός: είτε αδελφοί ημών, απόστολοι εκκλησιών, δόξα

προνοούμενοι καλά.

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xxxiv. 7.) it occurs in the which else wants an explanaLXX.


more earnest by reason In the New Testament, the of the confidence in you inword occurs only here, and is spired by Titus's account.' evidently used in the sense of 23. είτε υπέρ Τίτου, κ. τ. λ. «« abundance,” as in Zosimus, He now winds up his account of quoted by Wetstein; in this

the messengers, with a general passage, apparently to indicate

recommendation of them to the the need there was for caution Corinthian Church. The sense in a contribution so large as is easy, though the constructhis promised to be.

tion is abrupt. After Τίτου προνοούμεν γαρ καλά ού μό- must be supplied some such νον ενώπιον κυρίου, αλλά και phrase as λέγω. For the use ενώπιον ανθρώπων.


of kite with independent nomiwords occur almost verbatim natives, see 1 Cor. xiii. 8. : είτε in Rom. xii. 17. in speaking γλώσσαι... είτε γνώσις, κ. τ. λ. of dealings with the heathen κοινωνός is generally used world. προνοείσθαι is « to with some word to express in take precautions for." The

what it is that the person parwords are taken from Proverbs ticipates. But here and in iii. 4. (LΧΧ.): προνοού καλά Philem. 17., standing alone, ενώπιον κυρίου και ανθρώπων. it must be s


intimate comB. D. E. F. G. read προ- panion.” νοούμεν γάρ. The Received και εις υμάς σύνεργος, “ and Reading (J. K.) is probably especially my fellow labourer copied from Rom. xii. 17.

towards you. 22. For the conjectures re

απόστολοι εκκλησιών. “They specting this third “brother,” are messengers of congregasee viii. 16.

tions." From the omission of πεποιθήσει πολλή τη εις the article, it is evident that úpâs may be, “I send the the stress is laid on εκκλησιών, brother, &c., with the confi- to express the authority with dence which I have in you,

which they came. It would whether on behalf of Titus,” appear from this, that the ex&c. But it is better to con- pressions χειροτονηθείς υπό των nect it with σπουδαιότερον, εκκλησιών in verse 19., applies

χριστού. 24 την ούν ένδειξιν της αγάπης ομών και ημών καυχήσεως υπέρ υμών εις αυτούς ένδεικνύμενοι εις πρόσωπον των εκκλησιών.

ενδείξασθε, και είς.

to the second, as well as to the Christians in their behalf; and first, nameless brother.

the same is implied in the narThis passage is remarkable, rative of the Acts. xv. 3.,

. as being one of the few where « The conversion of the Genthe word åtóotolos is applied tiles . . . caused great joy to to any besides the Apostles of all the brethren;" and xxi. 19., Christ. Compare Phil. ii. 25., “ When James and the elders where it is used of Epaphro- had heard what things God ditus, and probably Rom. xvi. had taught among the Gentiles 7. of Andronicus and Junius, by his ministry, they glorified and Acts, xiv. 4. 14. of Bar- the Lord.” nabas.

24. ένδειξις, is both in the δόξα χριστου. It is hard to New Testament and in the say why this expression “ the classical writers, always used for or "a" "glory of Christ” ”

“a strong," "a decisive" proof.

a should be used so emphatically καυχήσεως. «My boast of

. of these brethren. It evidently your readiness.” What this expresses the same thought as s boast” was, appears more the phrase zepòs TV TOû clearly from ix. 1. 2. 3., and

προς την Kupiou súčav, in verse 19. and the mention of it here marks δοξάζοντες τον θεόν, in ix. 13. the point of transition to a new This last passage seems to

seems to subject. imply that the glory of Christ The construction of the parwould in an especial manner be ticiple for the imperative is shown to the Jewish Christians frequent in St. Paul, sce Rom. by the zeal of the Gentile xii. 9—21.

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PARAPHRASE VIII. 16–24. — Before I proceed I must

thank God, whose goodness I see before my eyes in the earnestness equal to my own, which has taken possession of the inmost being of Titus ; for, though he received the entreaty which I made to him, yet it was from his own intense earnestness that he determined to leave Macedonia again spontaneously, to come to you. As his companion, you will find the Christian friend who has his praise repeated in all the congregations where he has preached the glad tidings of Christ, and not only so, but was chosen by those congregations to travel with me whilst I was collecting this contribution, the contribution which will redound to the glory of no less than Christ Himself, and will prove my zeal for the Christian poor in Judæa. This precaution has been taken, to avoid any

. imputation of misappropriation of so large a sum, and in the wish, as it is said in the Proverbs, to look for. ward for the exhibition of what is good, not only before the Lord, but before men. And with these two I have sent another friend, my own companion, whose earnestness I have proved often before, and now see to be yet more increased by his confidence in

confidence in you. Remember, therefore, that Titus is my own intimate counsellor, and as far as you are concerned, my active fellow labourer; and that the others are messengers of many Christian congregations, and are the glory of the name of Christ. Give proof to them, and in the presence of the congregations which have sent them, of the truth of your

love and of my boast of you."

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