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PARAPHRASE VIII. 1–15.—“Now comes my task of an

nouncing to you the goodness of God, which I found manifested in the goodness of the congregations of Macedonia. They were plunged in deep distress and poverty, but this only served to make them more anxious to show their cheerfulness and generosity. And not only so, but even beyond their power they contributed ; and not only so, but it was voluntary, and at their own eager request that they gave, not only their money, but themselves to Christ and to us, to help the Christians elsewhere. The result of this was, that I entreated Titus to return to Corinth and complete this sign of goodness in you, as well as those other good works and feelings which he had begun to promote in the visit from which he has just returned ; and truly it becomes you who have such exuberance of other great gifts and signs of God's goodness to be exuberant in this also.

I do not command, I only advise it; because of the zeal which others have shown, and to prove

the genuineness of your love to men for Christ's sake, acting to them as He acted to you, in exchanging riches for poverty in your behalf, that you, through His poverty, might enjoy His riches. I give nothing but advice ; and this is in fact all that you need, for already in the past year, not only the act of your collection, but the eagerness with which you made it, was apparent; and all that you have to do is to complete the act, in order that the act may correspond to the eagerness of the intention. And even in the act, remember that it is to be proportioned to your means ; for it is not the amount, but the intention which is regarded in a gift. This is

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so always; and in this case there is no wish that you should be heavily pressed for the relief of others. There must be a fair equality. If you contribute now, they must contribute afterwards ; so that in your acts of liberality, the saying will be fulfilled which we read in the account of the manna gatherers, Much was not too much, and little was not too little.'

Whatever general instruction may be gathered from this portion of the Epistle has been sufficiently expressed in the notes on viii. 9.; 1 Cor. xvi. 1.

(2.) The Mission of Titus.

VIII. 16-24.

16 Χάρις δε τω θεώ τω διδόντι την αυτήν σπουδήν υπέρ

The Apostle had already nabas, or Apollos, or Silas. sent Titus with one or more They are distinguished from Christians from Ephesus, the Macedonian Christians charged with the duty of com- (ix. 4.); and, therefore, canmunicating the First Epistle, not be Aristarchus, Sopater, and of stiinulating the Co- or Secundus (Acts, xx. 4.), or rinthians in the matter of this Epaphroditus (Phil. ii. 30.), contribution. (xii 18.; 1 Cor. or (if the view be correct which xvi. 12.) He now sends him supposes the author of the Acts again with the Second Epistle; to have joined him from Phi

; and whereas before the con- lippi, Acts, xvi. 10. 40.), tribution had, in comparison of St. Luke. the greater interests at stake, If it were worth while to been a secondary considera- hazard a conjecture, it would tion, it was now to be the be that one of the two may chief object of his mission. have been Trophimus. TrophiWith him he joins two other mus (see Acts, xxi. 29.) was, Christians, whose names are like Titus, one of the few not mentioned, but who, for Gentiles who accompanied the that very reason, we must sup- Apostle; an Ephesian, and pose to be well known to the therefore likely to have been Corinthian Church, and, there- sent by the Apostle from fore to be, either one, or both, Ephesus, with the First Episthe same as he had sent be- tle, or to have accompanied fore. (τον αδελφόν, xii. 18. ; him from Ephesus now; he των αδελφών, 1 Cor. xvi. 12.) was, as is implied of “this Who they were it is now im- brother,” “ whose praise was possible to ascertain. As in in all the Churches," well the case of the authorship of known; so well known that the Epistle to the Hebrews, the Jews of Asia Minor at we can only say who they are Jerusalem, immediately recognot. They are subordinate to nised him; he was also espeTitus ; and, therefore, can cially connected with the hardly be any of the Apostle's Apostle on this very mission more equal companions, Bar- of the collection for the poor υμών εν τη καρδία Τίτου, 17 ότι την μεν παράκλησιν εδέξατο, σπουδαιότερος δε υπάρχων αυθαίρετος εξήλθεν προς υμάς. . in Judæa, for it was on that apparently have been known mission that the Apostle to the Corinthians, they had brought him to Jerusalem with not been specially commended him, and was seen in the city before for this particular with him.” Thus far would mission. appear from the description of He begins by expressing his him in Acts xxi. 29. From Acts gratitude to God, for the earxx. 4. it also appears that he was nestness of Titus, in this parwith St. Paulon his return from ticular matter, as he had before this very visit to Corinth.* for his earnestness in behalf of And the mention in this last the Corinthian Church genepassage of his companion, rally, ii. 14.; vii. 6. 7. 15. might further suggest that the 16. other nameless “brother" in το δίδουτι, “who is giving,viii. 22., was Tychicus. He as though the Apostle saw also was an Ephesian (Acts before his eyes the working of xx. 4.; “of Asia," 2 Tim. iv. 12.; Titus's eagerness. Eph. vi. 21. “sent to Ephe- την αυτήν σπουδήνυπέρ υμών, sus.") He is mentioned amongst o the same earnestness in your the few names which occur in behalf that I feel myself, and the Epistle to Titus (iii. 12.) that I have just expressed” (in The manner in which he is verses 8–15.). spoken of in Eph. vi. 12. ; Col. εν τη καρδία Τίτου. iv. 7. as "a beloved brother,” merely in the words or deeds, “ faithful minister and fellow- but in the very heart of Titus.” servant in the Lord,” “know- The word (not yet familiarised ing the Apostle's affairs,” by use) is probably always to agrees well with the language be taken in an emphatic sense here used concerning the third in these Epistles. messenger, so far as concerns 17. ότι την μεν παράκλησιν his relations to the Apostle εδέξατο, σπουδαιότερος δέ. “Inour brother, whom we have

as,

whilst he did indeed oftentimes proved earnest in receive the charge from me, many things” (viii. 22.). yet he was more earnest of These three men, he now

himself to go.” παράκλησιν. .

. proceeds to commend to their Properly “ eager exhortation,” attention - Titus, merely by

see viii. 6. expressing his own confidence otrovdauótepos, either: (1.) in him, the other two more “ more earnest than myself," formally. Though they must or (2.) “ more earnest than he

* Since writing the above, I observe that the same conjecture occurs in Mr. Lewin's Life of St. Paul, p. 465. VOL. II.

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18 συνεπέμψαμεν δε μετ' αυτού τον αδελφόν, ού ο έπαινος εν το ευαγγελίω διά πασών των εκκλησιών 19 (ού μόνον δε,

(' ,

was before," or (3.) “ very whom you know,” so xii. 18., earnest,” like deloidaquoveoté where probably the same perpovs, in Acts, xvii. 22.

son is meant. útrápxwv, instead of ov, ex- où ó & raivos, who has his presses that this was the cause praise.” Comp. 1 Cor. iv. 5.; of his departure. “Because he Rom. iv. 29. εν τω ευαγγελίω, was already so earnest, before “in the preaching,” or “the I entreated' him.” See xii. 16., sphere of the glad tidings of υπάρχων πανούργος.

Christ,” like šv XplotØ. So x. aúbaípetos. See on viii. 3. 14.; Phil. vi. 3. ; 1 Thess. iii.

Endav, “left the province 2. διά πασών των εκκλησιών, of Macedonia for that of through the whole range of Achaia.” The word, when congregations through which I used absolutely, seems always have passed.” Compare “the

” to have an emphatic meaning care of all the Churches,” xi. of this kind. See ii. 13. The

. 28. These words are applied to tense used here and throughout St. Luke, in the longer version this passage, OUVETéuyajev, of the Ignatian Epistles, and

, συνεπέμψαμεν, ĚTruya, would naturally im- by Jerome, in his commentary ply that the events described on the Epistle to Philemon, and had taken place before the his catalogue of “ Illustrious Apostle wrote. But the whole Men," alluding expressly to the strain of the passage so clearly written Gospel. But this is a indicates a present mission, clear misunderstanding of the that the past tense must be words εν τώ ευαγγελίω, and ascribed to the forms of ancient only worth recording as such. epistolary communication, ac- The error was first pointed out cording to which the events are by Grotius. represented in the light in which 19. ου μόνον δέ. - And not they will appear to the persons only is he generally praised” who receive the letter; as (for the abrupt construction though he said, “You will compare viïi. 5.; Rom. ix. 10.),

5. find that Titus departed,” &c. “ but he was specially selected

18. συνεπέμψαμεν δε μετ' αυ- for the very purpose of the του. The phrase μετ' αυτού is, contribution." properly speaking, superfluous. χειροτονηθείς. χειροτονεϊν in It is like saying, "We sent him classical Greek is properly" to with Titus as his companion.” vote by show of hands," then For the person here meant “ to elect by show of hands," see viii. 16.

as χειροτονείν τινα στράτηγος, τον αδελφόν, « the brother ,

Xen. Hell. vi. 2. 11., and

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