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βάθους πτωχεία αυτών έπερίσσευσεν εις το πλούτος της απλότητος αυτών, και ότι κατά δύναμιν (μαρτυρώ) και παρά , 3

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• τον πλούτον.

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6. Their great

to the context of " distress,” Christian poverty were of itself such as arose from the discoun- a treasure which never failed. tenance of their heathen or

Compare the story of the wiJewish neighbours, as when dow's mite, Luke, xxi. 3. 4.: joined with στενοχωρία and 66 She hath thrown in more ανάγκη, vi. 4.

than they all: they all of their ή περισσεία της χαράς αυτών. abundance (εκ του περισσεύ

.

( “ Their joy overflowed.” He OVTOS), she of her need (uotepcombines two ideas, partly that patos" ...)

) their joy appeared greater by

For the fact of their poverty reason of the distress in the

sce p. 145. midst of which it flourished, κατά βάθους, “reaching deep partly that it exceeded that down." distress, so that the distress be

TOÛTOS, “ wealth,” is here came insignificant in compa- used, partly in its literal sense rison. Their “joy” is men- as he is speaking of actual tioned from the connexion wealth, partly in the metaphowhich always exists in the rical sense in which he so Apostle's mind between cheer- often uses it, to express any fulness and liberality. Com- kind of excess : pare ix. 7.,

o God loveth a liberality.” Here, and in Eph. cheerful giver," and Rom. xii. ii. 7., iii. 8. 16.; Pbil. iv. 19.; 8., “ He that showeth mercy,

Col. ii. 2., the best MSS. read in cheerfulness.” (ίλαρόν, έλα- το πλούτος for ο πλούτος, as in pótnti), and the especial word Romaic, of which the tenxapà is used in connexion with dency is to substitute neuter χάρις zápis. “The Rabbis said that for masculine and feminine he who gave nothing, but re- nouns. So το έλεος for ο έλεος ceived his friend with a cheer- in LXX. (See Winer. Gram. ful countenance, was better than

p. 64.) he who gave all with a down- átlótns, in Eph. vi. 5.; Col, cast countenance.” See Wet- iii. 22., and in this Epistle (i. stein on ix. 7.

12., (?) xi. 3.), is "simplicity,"

" This sentence would run sincerity.” But throughout more naturally if it were, žu these two Chapters it is used της κατά βάθ. πτωχείας επε- for “ liberality” or “ munifiρίσσευσεν ο πλούτος. Its pre- cence," by the same ambiguity sent form is perhaps owing to as is attached to the word the oxymoron, by which po- liberality” in English. See verty, instead of restraining ix. 11. 13. (ó Metadidovs, ły liberality, is described as over- átlótnti, in Rom. xii, 8. may flowing into it; as though be taken in either sense.) åt

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δύναμιν, αυθαίρετοι, και μετά πολλής παρακλήσεως δεόμενοι ημών την χάριν και την κοινωνίας της διακονίας της εις τους

υπέρ δύν, Noûs may be so used in Prov. as to make it “asking for the xi. 25., where the verse which favour" (tùy xápuv, by its double is rendered, “ The liberal soul sense suiting this construcshall be made fat,” is in the tion); and then he explains it LΧΧ. ψυχή εύλογουμένη πάσα further by adding και την κοιútilî, which (unless the true νωνίαν της διακονίας, namely, reading be απάλη) must be “ the favour of sharing in the “every liberal soul is blessed,” ministration to the saints." or, “ every blessed (i. e. rich) The construction, thus lost, is soul is liberal.” In Tacit. Hist. recovered in the next verse by iii. 86. « simplicitas” (possibly ου καθώς ήλπίσαμεν. δέξασθαι in the same sense) is joined jās, which would clear the with “ liberalitas.” It seems construction, is a later insercertainly to be so used in Jo- tion. sephus, Ant. vii. 13. 4., where αυθαίρετοι in the New TesDavid admires the úrlórns and tament occurs only in this SecMeyadoyugía of Araunah. The tion of the Epistle, here and in context of Matt. vi. 22. suggests viii. 17. It is a common word in that opdaluos útnous in that later Greek (see Wetstein) for passage may bear this meaning. {XOVTES. For the connexion of

3-5. Here again, from ότι παράκλησις and δεόμενος, sce κατά δύναμιν το θεού in verse 5. v. 20. 21., vi. 1., x. 1. is a sentence which has been

TÌv rápiv, as observed on entirely shattered in passing verse 1, has here the double through the Apostle's mind. sense of “gift” and “ favour," If restored to order it would and so also Koivwviav of “ combe: öti katà dúvajiv, kaì ÚTèp municating" and of “participaδύναμιν, ου καθάπερ ήλπίσαμεν, ting.” διακονία, except in this την χάριν [των χρημάτων] άλλ' Section, where χάρις is so often autoüs avðalpetou čowkav. The used instead, is the ordinary εαυτούς αυθαίρετοι έδωκαν. verb to which aŭsalpetou is at- word in the New Testament tached, and by which tùy xúpiv for a charitable contribution to is governed, is really čewkav. the wants of others; and hence But, when he comes to express

the technical sense of διάκονος their spontaneous ardour (avd. in ecclesiastical Greek, and in aipetol), he enlarges upon it by Phil. i. 1. ; 1 Tim. vi. 8. 12.; describing that it was not at Rom. xvi. 1., for the adminishis request, but at theirs, that trators of such bounty, whether it was done; and this induces male or female. Compare ix. him to insert μετά πολλής πα- 1. 13.; Rom. xv. 31. with repakl. dóuevot, which, in turn, gard to this same matter; and attaches tnv zápiv to itself, so Acts, vi. 1., xi. 29., xii. 25.

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αγίους, 5 και ου καθώς ήλπίκαμεν, αλλ' εαυτούς έδωκαν πρώτον τώ κυρίω και ημίν δια θελήματος θεού, και εις το παρακαλέσαι ημάς Τίτον, ίνα καθώς ενήρξατο, ούτως και επιτελέση εις υμάς και την χάριν ταύτην. 1 αλλ' ώσπερ εν παντι περισσεύετε, πίστει και λόγω και γνώσει και πάση σπουδή και τη εξ ημών εν υμίν αγάπη, ίνα και εν ταύτη τη

* δέξασθαι ημάς. ήλπίσαμεν. προενήρξατο, εξ υμών εν ημίν. τους αγίους. The Christian to the interest which Titus had poor in Judæa. See on 1 Cor. taken in this contribution on xvi. 1.

his first mission to Corinth 5. ήλπίκαμεν Β., ήλπίσαμεν with the First Epistle, xii. 17.; C.D. E. F.G. J.K. The latter, 1 Cor. Xvi. 1. 12. contrary to Lachmann, seems και

την χάριν ταύτην. to be the true reading from the “ That he may complete this sense, and the nearly equal contribution, as well as the authority. Expected,” in general good work of zeal and the New Testament always in repentance” (described in vii. a good sense.

13. 14.). εαυτούς, « themselves

7. The sentence here may companions."

be regarded either, (1.) as πρώτον τώ κυρίω και ημίν. growing out of the preceding, In classical Greek this would and depending grammatically, have been expressed by te and though not in

though not in sense, upon καί, i. kai. Here, as in Rom. i. 16., iva: or (2.) as a new beginning

: () a . ii. 9. 10., it is not priority of of exhortation, iva depending time, but of importance, that on παρακαλώ, supplied from is meant.

παρακαλέσαι. “I have enδιά θελήματος θεού is partly treated Titus, now I entreat

, I that their complete surrender you to show the same exubeof themselves was the work of

rance of spiritual attainments God, as in the phrase την χά- in this, as in other points.” ριν του θεού in viii. 1.; partly For πίστει, λόγω, γνώσει, that they consented to go with see 1 Cor. xii. 9. him, if God

so permitted. For σπουδή see vii. 11. See 1 Cor. xvi. 7.; James iv. For τη εξ ημών εν υμίν αγάπη,

1 . . 7. 15.

see i. 11. Here, as in vii. 12., 6. παρακαλέσαι is the word the readings vary between ημών he always uses in speaking of and υμών. υμών εν ημίν in C. D. the two missions of Titus, ix. E. F. G. J. K. and most ver17., xii. 17. ; 1 Cor. xvi. 12. sions ; ημών εν υμίν Β., and ενήρξατο, used only in

the Syriac, Armenian, Sclathis Section of the Epistle, vonic, and Origen. This suits here and in viii. 11. It refers better with the general tone

no

χάριτι περισσεύητε. 8 ου κατ' επιταγήν λέγω, αλλά δια .

, της ετέρων σπουδής και το της υμετέρας αγάπης γνήσιον δοκιμάζων ? (γινώσκετε γαρ την χάριν του κυρίου ημών

° ( Ιησού, ότι δι' υμάς επτώχευσεν πλούσιος ών, ίνα υμείς τη

* Add xplotou. of the Epistle_(compare i. 6., poverty, might become rich in vi. 11. 12.). In this passage goodness." it must mean

« The love It is difficult to determine which I have awakened in in what sense the Apostle used you.” (Comp. i. 11.)

the words πλούσιος and έπτώFor this general description XEvos, as applied to our Lord, of the gifts of the Corinthians, whether of his surrendering the compare 1 Cor. i. 5.

glory which He had with the 8. kat' ériáy Néyo. Father (John xvii. 5.; and “I speak not to command you.” probably Phil. ii. 6., the passage Compare the same expression which most resembles this), or in 1 Cor. vii. 6., where, hown of the poverty of His actual ever, the meaning is not quite condition in life. The probathe same.

There it is, “Ibility is, that whilst êTTÁXevo have commandment of is taken entirely in the literal Christ to give.” Here it is, sense, πλούσιος ών, though “I have no commandment of taken in the literal sense to a my own to give.

certain extent, yet has also the διά της ετέρων σπουδής. more general meaning implied “ Making use of the zeal of the in Touthonte in the next

πλουτήσητε Macedonians to stimulate you, clause, as is so often the case viii. 1-5. δοκιμάζων, « in in St. Paul's metaphorical use order to try." yvňolov,“ the of the word “ riches " (Tlougenuineness.”

τος). The words πλούσιος ών, της υμετέρας αγάπης refers “ being rich," must, when to verse 7., τη αγαπη.

taken with the context, mean, 9. This parenthesis explains “ when it was in His power to the reference to their love be rich," " when riches were (αγάπη). “ If your love is in his grasp.'

in his grasp.” For a similar genuine, you will make your- use of the present participle in selves poor for the sake of exactly similar passages, comothers, after Christ's example; pare John iii. 13.: “He that for you know the favour that came down from heaven, even He gave to us (zápiv is used the Son of man which is (o ôv) for the sake of allusion to in heaven." Phil. ii. 6. 7.: xápiv in verses 6. 7.); for He, “ Who being (útápxwv) in the when he might have been rich, form of God, made Himself of became subject to poverty for no reputation;" in which latter you, that you, through his passage, however, the sense is

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εκείνου πτωχεία πλουτήσητε), 10 και γνώμην εν τούτω δί

more clearly brought out by because in the New Testament the sense of the word 'Tápxw. it almost seems to have su

Whether &TTÁYevos signifies perseded the common word “ He was poor,” or “ He be- for “ poverty” (πενία, πενής), came poor," is doubtful. The which occurs only once (2 Cor. classical usage is in favour of ix 9.). But it certainly exthe first. The context, and presses extreme destitution, as perhaps the passages in the in the LXX., wherever it ocLXX., Jud. vi. 6.; Ps.lxxviii. curs; and thus agrees with the (lxxix.) 8., xxxiii. 11. (Tloú- general account of His life in σιοι επτωχεύσαν) are rather the Gospels, as leading a housein favour of the second. The less and wandering life," not general sense will thus be, having where to lay his head” “When all power, and wealth, (Matt. viii. 20.). And the imand greatness, earthly and Di- plied assertion that this poverty vine, were His, He yet led a was a voluntary choice, agrees life of poverty, not merely for with the account of the offer the world in general, but for and rejection of the kingdoms you, that you might gain

, you might gain of the world in the Temptation in spiritual wealth (compare (Matt. iv. 9.), and of the king1 Cor. i. 5. &THOUTío Onte, iv. dom of Judæa (John vi. 15.), 8., πλουτείτε) - by His human and with the general exprespoverty.” Si úpâs is empha- sions, “ No man taketh my tic by position.

life from me, but I lay it down The passage is remarkable of myself”

of myself” (Johnx. 18.). on many accounts: 1st. It is a - Thinkest thou that I cannot striking instance of the Apo- now pray to my Father, and stle's frequent mode of allusion He shall presently give me to the most solemn truths of more than twelve legions of Christian Revelation, in the angels” (Matt. xxvi._53.). midst of arguments referring

" The

cup
which

my

Father to what may almost be called hath given me, shall I not the every day business of life. drink it” (John xvii. 11.). It

2ndly. It is the only passage should be observed, also, that in the Epistles (unless Phil. ii. the peculiar form in which the 7. be so called) which directly contrast is here expressed, alludes to the ordinary trials Being rich he was poor and humiliations of our Lord's (πλούσιος ών επτώχευσε), as life; and as such bears witness though He were rich and poor to the accuracy of the Gospel at the same time, agrees with narrative. It is perhaps hardly the whole tone of the Gospels, fair to press the word (ÉTTÓ- by which, more than by any XEVOE) to its strictly classical direct expressions, we infer the sense of “ became a beggar," indissoluble union of Divine

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