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αυτό τούτο το κατα 9εον λυπηθήναι" πόσην κατειργάσατο [Εν] υμίν σπουδήν· αλλά απολογίαν, αλλά αγανάκτησιν, αλλά φόβον, αλλά επιπόθησιν, αλλά ζήλον, αλλά εκδίκησιν. εν παντί συνεστήσατε εαυτούς άγνους είναι [ε] τα πράγματι. 12 άρα εί και έγραψα υμίν, ουχ ένεκεν του αδικήσαντος, αλλ' ουδε ένεκεν του αδικηθέντος, αλλ' ένεκεν του φανερωθήναι την σπουδήν υμών την υπέρ ημών προς υμάς ενώπιον

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tlie World.” θάνατον, «Death,” cestuous person.”

του αδικηin the highest sense, as opposed θέντος, « tlie father of the off

, , to σωτηρίαν, as in Rom. V. fender, whose wife he had 21.

taken." See 1 Cor v. 1. 11. He proceeds to point When he says that he out in all its details the good wrote, not on account of the effects of this sorrow, and, offender or the injured person, therefore, of his Epistle. “For but for their manifestation of the look at the picture you pre

zeal of the Corinthian Church, sented to Titus” (ιδού).

it is in the same sense as in σπουδήν, earnestness" or ii. 4. he had said that it “ seriousness," is expanded into that they might know his love; the remaining part of the verse,

and in verse 9., that it was which exhibits their conflict of that they might lose nothing. feelings.

In each case, he speaks of the απολογία. “ Self-defence” chief object as the only object; for their sin. αγανάκτησις. and also of the object which “ Self-accusation against it.” was effected by Providence, as

φόβον. « Fear of Paul's if it had been his object. arrival.” έπιπόθησιν, « long- There is a variety in the ing for it."

MSS., occasioned partly by ζηλον. “ Zeal against the the similarity of sound between offender.” εκδίκησιν, “ punish- ύ and ή in later Greek, partly ment of his sin.".

by the difficulty of the senεν τω πράγματι. « In the tence. Received Text, B. affair of the incestuous person.” (e sil.), ημών την υπέρ υμών, For this mode of referring G. ημών την υπέρ ημών. Lachto a painful subject, compare mann, c. D3. E. "I. K., vuôn

. , ημών 1 Thess. iv. 6. έν in B., onitted την περί ημών. in C. I), G.

In such a confusion the 12. ει και έγραψα, « Even sense is the only guide. On though I did write to you se- tlie one hand, tlie * manifesverely.”

tation of your zcal for us του αδικήσαντος. « The in- agrees better with the general

«

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του θεού. 13 διά τούτο παρακεκλήμεθα· επί δε τη παρακλήσει ημών και περισσοτέρως μάλλον έχάρημεν επί τη χαρά Τίτου, ότι αναπέπαυται το πνεύμα αυτού από πάντων υμών, 14 ότι εί τι αυτω υπέρ υμών κεκαύχημαι, ου κατισχύνην, αλλ' ως πάντα έν αληθεία ελαλήσαμεν υμίν, ούτως και η καύχησις υμών επί Τίτου αλήθεια εγενήθη, 15 και τα σπλάγχνα αυτού περισσοτέρως εις υμάς έστιν αναμιμνησκομένου την πάντων υμών υπακοήν, ως μετά φόβου και τρόμου εδέξασθε αυτόν. 16 χαίρω, ότι εν παντί θαρρώ εν υμίν.

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context and with the previous have mentioned, namely, the

, , use of σπουδή in speaking of. effects of my Epistle, I have the Corinthians, in verse 11. been comforted. But with this On the other hand,“ the comfort before me, I was still ,

, I manifestation of our zeal for more rejoiced by the joy of you” is simpler, is borne out Titus.” It is a stronger exby the parallel of ii. 4., and pression of what he had alsuits tipos únâs, which, though ready said in verses 6. and 7. tautological if we adopt this 13. 14. Observe the liveliness reading, is unintelligible with of the perfect tense, “ we have

« the other; which would re- been comforted; he has been quire it to mean “amongst refreshed; I have boasted.” yourselves," and this in a sense από πάντων. “ Refreshed which would only be expressed from your presence.” (not by προς υμάς, but) by εν 14. The same protestation εαυτοίς. ενώπιον του θεού, « In of the truth of his teaching, as the sight of God,” also agrees in i. 18—21., ii. 17., iv. 2., in ,

i. ., , . , better with a protestation of little things as in great. the Apostle's zeal for them, 15. αναμιμνησκομένου. «Rethan with an allusion to theirs calling to himself.” for him. Compare v. 11.

v

16. θαρρώ εν υμίν. Not I Additional force is given to have contidence in you" (which the argument by Lachmann's would be πέπoιθα), but «Ι reading (Β. C. D. G.) of δε am bold through your enand nuôv: “For this that I couragement.”

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PARAPHRASE VI. 11-VII. 16. - And now the full cur

rent of my words finds unrestricted utterance, my own Corinthian converts; for the gates of my heart, of my rejoicing heart, are open wide to receive you. If there be any narrowness, it is in your affections, not in mine.

[Here begins the digression without connexion with what

either precedes or follows.]

Do not make ill-suited unions with heathens, which compromise the difference between righteousness and lawlessness, light and darkness, Christ and the author of evil, Christian and heathen, God's temple and false idols. You are the temple, not of a dead statue, but of

. a living God, of that God who in the Law, the History, and the Prophets of the old dispensation, has assured you that He will dwell with His people, and has commanded their separation from impurities, and has declared that He will receive them all. Therefore every pollution must be abandoned, not ceremonial only, but moral, in order to attain a purity not ceremonial merely but moral.

[The main argument is resumed.]

,

Make room for me in your hearts ; I have made room for you in mine. . When I was with

you,

I did no wrong or injustice to any one ; and I say this, not to taunt you, but from my love to you. I have again and again said that

my heart for life and death. I have no restraint with you ; I am proud of your excellence ; I am filled to overflowing with the comfort and the joy which after all my trouble awaited me from you in Macedonia. There, after all my anxieties, both

you are in

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from without and from within, I, at last, met Titus ; and at once the comfort which I received from him was so great that I thankfully ascribe it to God the author of all comfort, not only the comfort which he gave me himself, but the comfort which you gave him, and which through him was transmitted to me. He told me of your affection for me, and of your sorrow for your faults; and this at once made me cease my regrets for my severity in my First Epistle. I see now that your sorrow was not mere worldly remorse, which has no good end ; but sorrow as in the sight of God, which issues in a change of heart and life that tends to your highest welfare. Look only, let me look at the picture of your sorrow and its effects, its deep earnestness, showing itself in your self-defence and self-accusation, your fear and yet your longing for my arrival, your zeal and your severity towards the offender. This fear, more than any actual punishment or reparation of the crime, was the result which I sought to produce by my Epistle ; and, therefore, I am now completely satisfied. And Titus's joy shows me that I had not overstated your excellence to him ; that in my communications with him as well as with you, I had been sincere, and he loves you no?

?! as truly as I do."

This passage is interesting, as giving in the most lively form the human personal sympathies of the Apostle. His great consolation, after that which he derived from communion with Christ, was the restoration of confidence towards his converts and intercourse with his friend. An exactly parallel passage, though less strongly expressed, may be seen in his description of the feelings with which he waited for the return of his other confidential friend, Timotheus, with tidings

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from Thessalonica (1 Thess. iii. 148.). This is important, as presenting that side of Christianity which distinguishes it from stoicism and from fanaticism; and also as a counterpoise to other passages

which describe the calls of the Gospel as severing all human ties. “ To be left at Athens alone,”1 and “to have no man like-minded with him," 2 to have“

» 2

only Luke with him,” 3 to part with the Ephesian elders who " would see his face no more,' are spoken of in that plaintive strain which, even more than direct expressions, implies that solitude, want of sympathy, estrangement or bereavement of friends, were to the Apostle real sorrows. And on the other hand, the unfeigned pleasure which he manifests at the restoration of intercourse, the enumeration of the names of his friends in the frequent salutations, the joy with which his heart was lighted up at his meeting with the brethren at Appii Forum, “whom, when he saw, he thanked God and took courage," 5 indicated the true consolation he derived from the pure spring of the better human affections. His life is the first great example of the power of Christian friendship. It is also (without passing a harsh judgment on the ascetic fervour called out by peculiar times and circumstances) a perpetual protest against the seclusion from all human society, which, in a later age, was regarded as the highest flight of virtue. It is impossible to imagine the 6th and 7th Chapters of this Epistle proceeding from the pen of Simeon Stylites.

1

2 Phil. ii. 20.

1 Thess. iii. 1. 4 Acts, xx. 25.

3 2 Tim. iv. 11.
5 Acts, xxviii. 15.

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