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an event brought on by external circumstances as a soldier on the eve of battle, rather than his contemplation of death in itself as the natural termination of the exhausted powers of nature.

It is this last view which this section brings before us.

Whatever may have been the precise nature of the deep depression which marks the opening of this Epistle, and also the opening of this passage, it is evident that all the mournful feelings which crowd upon the mind under the pressure of anxiety, of sickness, of hardship, were now heavy on the Apostle's heart. He is “in the valley of the shadow of death.” He had been “pressed out of measure, above strength, insomuch that he despaired even of life :” he “had the sentence of death in himself:” he had been just “ delivered from a great death:"1 he had “no rest in his spirit:"? he felt that he was a “fragile earthen vessel :" 3 he was like a soldier in battle,“ pressed into a corner," “ bewildered,” “pur

, sued,” “trampled down :" 4 he was “a living corpse," always "delivered up to death,"5 his “outward man perishing,” 6 the “earthly house of his tabernacle" might at any moment “ be destroyed.” Two feelings emerge from this “horror of great darkness.” First: It is instructive to observe the Apostle's shrinking from the disembodied state beyond the grave, and his natural sympathy with the awe with which many good men have regarded the advance and process of death. There is no Platonic doctrine of a vague and impalpable immortality; no Stoic affectation of rising above the ordinary feelings of humanity. It is (on a lower scale) the same picture which is presented to us in the agony of Gethsemane, “Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me.” It is the Christian and

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Apostolical expression of the feeling described in the well known lines of Gray :

“ For who, to dull forgetfulness a prey,

This pleasing anxious being e'er resign'd ?
Left the warm precincts of the cheerful day,

Nor cast one longing lingering look behind ?” And, secondly, there is the confidence that he shall pass into a higher state, in which, amidst whatever changes, his personal being will be continued. His mortal state will not be taken from him, but will be transfused into something higher. What he has done in the passage through this life will be revealed for retribution of good or evil before the judgment seat of Christ. This is the hope which at once sustains him, and warns him. There is a world around him which he does not see, but which he believes to exist; a habi

; tation, a vesture awaiting him in heavenly regions; a home with the Lord, where he will arrive when his journey is ended; a judgment seat, where he will be rewarded or punished. The thought of the Judgment seat blends with the the thought of home, as in the Psalms the spirit of the Psalmist reposes with equal comfort and confidence on the mercy and on the justice of God. Even in these moments of earnest longing for rest, Christ is still, not only the Friend, but the true and faithful Judge, at whose hands the Apostle is content to receive that which is his due.

(3.) His Motive for his Service.

V. 11-VI. 10.


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11 Eιδότες ούν τον φόβον του κυρίου, ανθρώπους πείθομεν,


, θεώ δε πεφανερώμεθα· ελπίζω δε και εν ταις συνειδήσεσιν υμών πεφανερώσθαι. 12 ου πάλιν εαυτούς συνιστάνομεν υμίν,

11. The Apostle, in the pre- winning over men; but whilst ceding verses, after describing I do so, it is to God that my the support which in his trou- thoughts are

thoughts are manifested, as bles he received from the pro- clearly now as they will be at spect of a better life hereafter, the judgment, and as I trust was carried on to speak of the they are manifested clearly beenergy which this prospect fore your several consciences” imparted to his labours (verse (ovveidņO EoLv). For the phrase 9.). In order to reach that åvopórovs melbouev comp. Gal. home for which he so earnestly i. 10., where it is used in a longed, he, with all the rest of bad sense, which partly illusthe world, must pass before the trates its use here, as though awful judgment seat, where he had said,

he had said, “I am devoted, every thought would be dis

as they say, to making friends closed to Christ himself (verse of men," and hence the imme10.). And now the thought diate antithesis, “ No: it is of that hour brings before him not man, but God, whose apthe insinuations of concealment probation I seek.” In classical and dishonesty, which he had Greek the addition of uży before answered (iii. 1-iv. 6.), would have cleared up the oband he once more protests the scurity. For this sense of entire sincerity of his conduct melow, compare Acts, xii. 20., (v. 11–13.), appealing, first, to πείσαντες Βλάστoν, « having the overwhelming motive which won over Blastus." impelled him (v. 14–21.); se- πεφανερώμεθα is used in condly, to his own self-denying reference to pavepwdîvai in conduct (vi. 1–10.). It is the verse 10. For its connexion climax of the first part of the with the words ovveidnous and Epistle, thus occupies the same συνιστάνομεν compare iv. 2.: τη relative position as Rom. viii. φανερώσει της αληθείας συνισand 1 Cor. xiii.

τωντες εαυτούς προς πάσαν συειδότες ούν τον φόβον του νείδησιν ανθρώπων, ενώπιον του κυρίου. - «

. Knowing that there Jeoû. For the general sense is this fearful aspect of the see 1 Cor. iv. 5. Lord, I proceed on my task of 12. The mention of their

αλλά αφορμήν διδόντες υμίν καυχήματος υπέρ ημών, ίνα έχητε προς τους εν προσώπω καυχωμένους και μη εν καρδία." 13 είτε γαρ εξέστημεν, θεω· είτε σωφρονούμεν, υμίν. 14 η

• ου γαρ .... και ου καρδία.

doubting his sincerity recalls be mad,” “to be of sound what he had already said in mind,” is clear. See Mark, iii. 1., iv. 2., about the com- iii. 21.; Acts, xxvi. 25. On mendatory letters,—the charge the one hand, the “madness that, instead of bringing com- may allude, either to the exmendations from others, he travagant freedom, as it was was always commending him thought, with which he spoke self.” Our object is not to of his own claims (see xi. 1. commend ourselves, but to 16. 17., where he himself calls give you an opportunity of it by the name of “ folly "), boasting in my behalf against or more generally to the ecsta. my opponents.

He assumes,

sies and the enthusiasm which with something of an ironical led Festus to call him mad. tone, that all that they wished (Acts, xxvi. 24.). On the was to vindicate him. After other hand, the “soundness of ěxnte, supply kaúxnua. This mind” which also was misunis the most explicit mention derstood, may have been the of his opponents in this part accommodation to all men of the Epistle, and is to be (1 Cor. ix. 20.), which led to compared with the more open the insinuation of worldly wisattacks of x. 2. 7., xi. 18. dom (2 Cor. xii, 16.; 1 Cor. ix.

They pride themselves on 18. 19.). In either case, it was their outward pretensions, their not himself that he wished to dignified appearance, as con- serve.

His enthusiasm came trasted with my weak presence from devotion to God; his (x. 10.), their Jewish descent seeming worldiness, from devo(xi. 22.), their commendatory tion to man. letters (iii. 1.), not on that 14. ή γάρ αγάπη του χριστου deep sympathy which lies at ouvéxel nuás, “ The love which

συνέχει ημάς, the bottom of my heart for Christ has shown is what holds, you." (iii. 2., iv. 6., vi. 11.)

presses, urges me forward.” 13. It is impossible to de That this is the meaning of termine precisely the allusions

" the love of Christ," appears in εξέστημεν and σωφρονούμεν, from the following context, in without knowing the charges which he goes on to explain against him, at which they are it. Compare Rom. v. 5., aimed. That the words them- where there is the same amselves signify respectively “ to biguity with regard to “ the



γαρ αγάπη του χριστού συνέχει ημάς, 15 κρίναντας τούτο,


, ότι είς υπέρ πάντων απέθανεν άρα οι πάντες απέθανον και » ·

* ei els.


love of God," and still more where åraš corresponds to εls, Rom. viii. 35., « Wlio shall περί αμαρτ. ημών to υπέρ πάνseparate us from the love of Twv, and the construction of Christ?” where, as here, the δίκαιος υπέρ αδίκων to είς υπέρ context shows that, though it Távtwv. It is to be observed may include the love awakened how great a stress is laid on in man to Christ, it chiefly the solitary and unique nature means the love of Christ to of our Lord's death (compare

Rom. v. 15., " The free gift of Ouvexel is always used of one man ;

” Rom. vi. 10., “ He some strong outward pressure, died unto sin once"). In the as of a crowd (Luke, viii. 43.), representation contained in or of anxiety and sickness the Epistle to the Hebrews, (Phil. i. 23.; Luke, iv. 38., where it is contrasted with viii. 37.; Acts, xxviii. 8.). the manifold repetitions of the

15. kpivavtas TOŪTO, K. 7. d., legal sacrifices, the reason is « The love which Christ has clear. But this does not seem shown by that great example to be prominently, if at all, of love in His death, constrains brought forward in the Epistles us to forget ourselves, and to to the Romans and Corinthidevote ourselves to God and ans, or those formed on their to you; because at our model. It arises, partly, from version we came to this deci- the undefined consciousness of sion, that He died, He alone the pre-eminent greatness of and once, for all." That that death above all others, and Christ's death was the great from the wish to bring out proof of His love compare strongly the fact of the one John, xv. 13. : “ Greater love single event extending its inhath no man than this, that fluence to the whole range of he lay down his life for his humanity : partly also (as in friends." That ó xpiotos is 1 Tim. iv. 5., “ One God and the nominative case to åré- one Mediator"), from the deθανεν, and είς υπέρ πάντων 18 sire to exhibit the unity of in apposition with it, seems mankind in the redemption : proved by the consideration • not two Christs, but one that else ó εis would have been alike for all, whether Jew or the more natural expression, Gentile." and also by the parallel pas

El is omitted in B. C. D. sage, 1 Pet. iii. 18.: Xpiotòs E. F.J. K., some Fathers, and άπαξ περί αμαρτιών ημών απέ- most versions. It is retained θανεν, δίκαιος υπέρ αδίκων, in C. and some Fathers, and


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