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compact not because it gave us everything we wanted or everything we thought we were entitled to; in fact, we felt that we got å little the worst of it, but it was the best agreement, apparently, which could be arrived at by the commissioners who had the matter under discussion, and we have agreed to abide by the result of their findings.

We in California do not blame Governor Hunt, of Arizona, for his desire to get everything and anything which he can for his State. Perhaps if I were the Governor of Arizona I would take that same position. But we do not believe that Arizona or any other State is entitled to any special favors under all the circumstances. Senator KENDRICK. As one member of the committee I


with you fully.

Senator SHORTRIDGE. I think that must be unanimous.

Mr. CRISWELL. May I just run along rapidly and state our reasons for opposing a proposition that has been advanced from time to time for the building of a low dam, simply a flood-control dam. I speak of this as not in connection with the part of the State which desires water for irrigation, but over on the coastal plain unless the dam is high enough to impound the water long enough for it to become desilted and clear, it will not be of any use for domestic water or for the generation of power.

Senator KENDRICK. In that connection, will this water, even after it is desilted, be anything like in character the water that you now bring down from the neighborhood of Owens Lake?

Mr. CRISWELL. Samples of the water have been taken from the river at various points and at different times during the past two years. They have been analyzed by our laboratory department in the water bureau, and it is declared by them to be a very potable water after it is cleared of the sediment.

Senator KENDRICK. My thought was that the long distance which it travels through bad land territory might make it decidedly alkaline in character.

Mr. CRISWELL. It is just a trifle saltier than our present water supply, but there is not enough difference to make it worth while to talk about.

The question has been asked why we are requesting that this development be made under a special law instead of under the Federal water power act. Our first reason is that the Colorado, being not only an interstate stream but an international stream, we have been told by members of the Cabinet as well as by other officials of the Government, that the only water body to have charge of the development work on the river is the United States Government, and that for us to file under the Federal water power act would not be a proper way to carry on the work. In fact, I think we have filings on the river under that act which we have not been pressing.

But another reason that causes us to look askance at the Federal water power act is the fact that the officials of the Federal Water Power Commission, although that law says that municipality shall have preferential right in the development of power, are all on record as opposed to municipal generation of power. Those statements they have made publicly and in reports. We are apprehensive that we might have difficulty in dealing with men who take that attitude.

Senator WALSH. You say that the water-power commission is on record as being opposed to municipal development under the Federal water power act?

Mr. CRISWELL. Where private capital is available. You will find that not only in one but in several of their reports and in speeches before organizations, etc.

The question has been raised as to the market and whether this 600,000 horsepower can be absorbed. I am authorized by the responsible officials of the city of Los Angeles to say to this committee that after all the power has been absorbed by other communities which they desire, the city of Los Angeles will enter into a contract to take all of the remaining power at a royalty that may amortize the bonds for the building of this dam in a period of 30 or 40 years.

Senator Ashurst. Do you say when all other communities get what they desire, when Arizona, Nevada, and the California counties that are interested have put in their demands for their necessities, Los Angeles will take the balance ?

Mr. CRISWELL. Los Angeles will take the balance, and not only will take the balance but we would probably wish that is was more.

Senator ASHURST. So that the 600,000 horsepower of hydroelectric energy proposed to be generated at Boulder might be considered to be already bargained for and ready to be taken?

Mr. CRISWELL., All of it is already taken, every kilowatt-hour.
Senator JOHNSON of California. Yes; every bit of it.



Senator JOHNSON of California. Mr. Finley, will you please state your name, your residence, and your occupation, and then proceed with your statement upon this matter?

Mr. FINLEY. My name is S. H. Finley. By profession I am a civil engineer. I reside in Santa Ana, Calif.

Senator JOHNSON of California. Santa Ana is the county seat of Orange County, Calif.?

Mr. FINLEY. Yes, sir.

Senator JOHNSON of California. Now, what is the population of Santa Ana at the present time!

Mr. FINLEY. Thirty thousand.

Senator JOHNSON of California. Can you give a fair estimate of the population of Orange County at the present time?

Mr. FINLEY. Approximately 100,000.

Senator JOHNSON of California. In it you have not only Santa Ana as a city but you have four other cities, have you not?

Mr. FINLEY. We have seven incorporated cities and 19 towns varying in population from 200 to 3,000.

Senator JOHNSON of California. It is a thickly settled county, is it not?

Mr. FINLEY. Yes, sir.
Senator JONES of Washington. How far is it from Los Angeles ?
Mr. FINLEY. Thirty-five miles.

Senator JOHNSON of California. You are a member of the board of governors of Orange county and also a member of the board of supervisors of that county?


Mr. FINLEY. Yes, sir. My expenses are paid by the board of supervisors of Orange County, and I am appearing here as a member of the board of supervisors and also as secretary of the Colorado River Aqueduct Association.

Senator JOHNSON of California. What is the Colorado River Aqueduct Association ?

Mr. FINLEY. That is an association of municipalities of southern California organized for the purpose of securing water from the Colorado River.

Senator JOHNSON of California. How many municipalities are in it?

Mr. FINLEY. There are about 35 municipalities and thick settled communities.

Senator JOHNSON of California. It embraces practically every municipality in southern California, does it not?

Mr. FINLEY. Yes, sir. Senator JOHNSON of California. And they are all of a like view with you in respect to this matter!

Mr. FINLEY. Yes, sir; so far as I know.
Senator JOHNSON of California. Will you proceed?

Mr. FINLEY. Representing Orange County, I appear inbehalf of the cities and communities of that county interested in securing a permanent and dependable source of domestic water supply.

Within the boundaries of that small county of 1,200 square miles are located seven incorporated cities, the largest having a population of 30,000, and 19 smaller towns varying in population from 200 to 3,000. The present source of their domestic water supply is from the underground basins within the county. During my residence of 46 years in Santa Ana, the largest city, I have observed the water flow under that city decline from a condition where artesian wells existed to a depth of 60 feet below the surface. Practically the same conditions prevail in other cities.

It is apparent to us that the time has arrived when it is necessary to look forward to securing a different source of supply in order that we may have a more stable supply, and that the underground reservoirs may be permitted to refill and the water conserved for the use of our agricultural and horticultural sections. Hence, we are looking to the Colorado River as the only available source.

The Colorado River Aqueduct Association, which I have the honor to represent as secretary, is an organization of representatives from about 35 incorporated cities and communities interested in securing additional water for domestic use. The meeting, at which it was organized, was called by the Boulder Dam Association and met in Pasadena September 17 of this year.

I have with me a certificate prepared and signed by the president and secretary of that association giving its plan of organization and its purpose, which I will read, with your permission.

This is to certify that (1) at the annual meeting of the membership of the Boulder Dam Association, held at Long Beach, July 19, 1924, on motion duly made and carried, the president of the association was authorized and directed to appoint a committee of seven to call a general meeting of municipalities of southern California interested in securing domestic water supply from the Colorado River, to consider what, if anything, should be done looking to the attainment of their desire in this respect.

(2) Pursuant to said action the president of the Boulder Dam Association appointed the following committee: Hiram W. Wadsworth, president of the board of city trustees, Pasadena, chairman ; R. F. Del Valle, president board. of public service commissioners, city of Los Angeles; S. H. Finley, county supervisor of Orange County, Santa Ana ; Charles H. Windham, city manager city of Long Beach ; S. W. McNabb, mayor city of San Bernardino; C. D. Hamilton, chairman board of supervisors, Riverside County, Banning; John L. Bacon, mayor city of San Diego.

(3) Said committee sent out a general call for a meeting to be held at Pasadena on September 17. Such meeting was held and there were present over 200 delegates representing, among others, the following cities and districts: Los Angeles, Imperial irrigation district, El Segundo, Altadena, Covina, Van Nuys, Glendora, San Bernardino, Trujunga, Ontario, Seal Beach, Pasadena, South Pasadena, Glendale, Fullerton, Beverly Hills, Santa Ana, Redlands, San Fernando, Banning, Huntington Park, Coachella Valley, San Dimas, Perris, Riverside, Colton, Whittier, Arcadia, and Long Beach.

In convening said meeting the committee which issued the call presented the following agenda, covering the objects and purposes of the meeting:

“ The Boulder Dam Association was formed in May, 1923, at Fullerton, for the specific and limited purpose of forwarding by all proper means the authorization by Congress of the plan of development of the Colorado River recommended by the United States Reclamation Service. This plan is popularly known as the Boulder Canyon project. The association has a membership of some 200 organizations consisting of counties, cities, chambers of commerce, and patriotic and civic organizations scattered about southern California, Arizona, and Nevada. Some have joined because of their interest in one phase of the project; others because of their concern with a different phase, and some have joined because the realized the general benefits which would flow to the southwest from the consummation of this great improvement.

“Within the past year investigations have indicated that if this project is consummated it will be feasible to bring water from the Colorado River to the coastal plain for domestic use, while the rapid growth of cities of this region, together with the practical demonstration of the fact of periodic droughts (such as we are now experiencing) has emphasized the need of such an additional supply. Thus there has arisen a new interest in the project.

“ Many of the cities in the coastal plain which are members of the association have evinced a deep interest in the possibility of thus securing additional water for domestic purposes. Because of this, it seemed appropriate for the association, at its annual meeting recently held, to authorize the appointment of a committee to call together such of its member cities and others as are particularly interested in securing a domestic water supply from the Colorado River, to discuss and consider what, if anything, they should do to forward their desires in this respect. We were appointed by the president of the association as the committee to call you together for this purpose.

“ Before turning the meeting over, it seems appropriate for us to outline the situation as we understand it.

“ First. It will be a mistake to get the idea that the so-called domestic water project may be separated and divorced from the general project of river improvement. Large storage is a condition precedent to securing a domestic water supply from the Colorado.

(a) It is most unlikely that Arizona and the Imperial and Coachella Valleys will assent to water being brought across the mountains to the coastal plain unless the waters of the river are so conserved that there will be no wastage. This, of course, requires storage of very large capacity, so that even the water running down the river in years of heavy flood may be saved. To effect such storage will undoubtedly require the utilization of the extremely fine natural site for storage in the vicinity of Boulder Canyon.

(b) Again, such storage is necessary to meet the problem caused by the large amount of silt carried by the river. Desilting processes will be necessary not only to make the water suitable for domestic use but also susceptible of being pumped the considerable elevation necessary to bring it across the mountains to the coastal plain. Storage at Boulder Canyon will largely, at least, accomplish this desilting process. A mere flood-control dam or a series of low power dams (such as have been proposed) will not accomplish this


end, as spilled flood water would prove highly injurious, if not fatal, to the utilization of the water for domestic purposes.

(c) Furthermore, if the so-called Colorado River compact, already ratified by all of the States affected except Arizona, is finally ratified by Arizona, the States of the upper Colorado River basin will have the right to withhold all of the waters of the river for one or possibly more years. This, of course, makes it imperative to provide hold-over storage for the use of the lower basin. It would be absurd for cities to expend millions of dollars to secure a water supply from the Colorado River and then in a year of low run-off find there was no water coming down and no water held in storage.

“ It should be understood then that the securing of a domestic water supply from the Colorado is but one of the various benefits to flow from the development of the river. Those who are primarily interested in domestic water should have in mind that others are equally concerned with flood control or with reclamation. Success in securing a domestic water supply can best be insured by recognizing the rights and interests of others. This means understanding of the peculiar needs and interests of the Imperial and Coachella Valleys, and later, when Arizona has found itself, a like understanding of its interests, together with a spirit of friendliness and utmost fairness toward these sections. The importance of understanding and fairness and teamwork can not be overestimated.

“ Second. While it is true that the so-called domestic water-supply project can not be disassociated from the general plan of river improvement, there exist several reasons why it is important that communities primarily and directly interested in this partieular phase should meet at this time:

(a) The water project should be carefully limited and defined at the very outset. When a great project such as this is generally discussed, it is almost inevitable that loose talk occurs. The whole situation affecting the Colorado River improvement is so delicate that such talk may do incalculable harm. For instance, if the idea spreads that the plan is to bring water to the coastal plain for general irrigation purposes, antagonism will be created which will be disastrous. Of course, as a matter of fact, any water brought here from the Colorado River will be too costly for economical irrigation. Hence the importance of making it perfectly clear from the outset that the plan is to bring in a supply for domestic purposes only.

"(6) The attention of Congress has already been called to the fact that this region will need water for domestic purposes. It is important and will be helpful if Congress is advised definitely of the number of cities interested, the amount of water that will be desired, and that plans are actually under way for effectuating their desires.

"(c) The magnitude of the project points to the necessity of creating a big public district to carry it through. The creation of such a district will require legislation to meet the peculiar conditions present. This, of course, takes time, involving, as it does, the study of the practical situation to be met; investigation of the legal situation; possibly, though not probably, the preparation and adoption of an amendment to the State constitution, and very likely test proceedings in court to determine the legality of the district created. I would be indeed unfortunate if the improvement of the Colorado River should go forward and the cities, because of their tardiness in getting ready, should be unable to take advantage of the opportunity presented to secure a water supply so essential to their future growth.

(d) Definite steps looking to the formation of such a district preparatory to securing a domestic water supply from the Colorado would have a wholesome effect in creating confidence in the future water supply of this territory."

(4) After a full discussion, the following resolutions were unanimously adopted :

Be it resolved, By representatives of the various cities present at the meet. ing called and assembled at Pasadena on September 17, 1924, for the purpose of considering the matter of a water supply from the Colorado River, as follows:

“First. That the rapid growth of the cities of the coastal plain of southern California, together with the occurrence periodically of cycles of dry years, indicates the necessity of securing an additional domestic water supply to meet the demands of the future, and that the Colorado River is the only available source of an additional supply adequate for the future needs of this section.

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