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Mr. GUNTHER. You have it. More than that the organization very strongly supports it and in January devoted most of its legislative meeting here to trying to visit people in support of it up here in Congress and went to see the President of the United States for an hour or two and all we talked about in there was the kind of legislation, tried to persuade the administration to change its mind and support it instead of staying either neutral or being against it.

Ir the lobby of the White House the President and all members of the executive committee, which included the Mayor of Philadelphia also, Mayor Tate, gave the press a statement saying among other items they discussed with the President was to try to persuade him to change his mind on this legislation now because it is urgent.

Senator CLARK. I am happy to hear that. Mayor Tate gave some splendid testimony the other day as a representative of the League of Cities.

Mayor Walsh, I would like to welcome you here.

We regret, I suppose as a result of the reaction in Baltimore to the tragedy of last night, that your colleague, Mayor D'Alesandro, felt it necessary to be there.

Mr. GUNTHER. He had a prepared statement and he asked your permission to file it.

Senator CLARK. We will be happy to have it printed in the record at this point.

(The prepared statement of D'Alesandro follows:)



Distinguished Members of the Senate, ladies and gentlemen, I am pleased to work with Mayor Walsh on the Conference of Mayor's Committee on Human Resources Development, because in Baltimore we regard the questions of employment and education as vital to the future of the cities.

I am happy to add my personal endorsement to the recommendations of the committee as presented to you by Mayor Walsh. As you know, this recommendation was adopted by the Executive Committee of the U.S. Conference of Mayors in January.

Just 3 days ago I had the privilege of addressing a labor group here in Washington on the crisis in our cities. Throughout the question and answer period following my address, I was struck by the recurrence of two themes: jobs and education. These two subjects are finally getting the kind of attention from organizations, individuals, and legislators that they deserve.

In my speech, I discussed the steps we have taken in Baltimore in the area of employment and job training. I discussed in detail the moves we have made to cure this urban sickness, which is at the heart of many of the other social and economic ills that plague our city and American society. I pointed out that we have recruited business into a partnership with the city to provide jobs and job training for the chronically unemployed. I mentioned our job bank program that aims at placing 1,000 able-bodied workers from the poverty ghettos into jobs by June 1 and 5,000 by June 1 of next year. I mentioned the full-time staff assistant I appointed shortly after taking office to work exclusively in the

area of jobs and manpower development. I mentioned the cooperative effort being made by the city of Baltimore and the National Alliance of Businessmen in attracting hard-core unemployed workers into jobs and job training programs.

In addition to this, I made a plea for some innovations, which lend themselves directly to the legislation you are considering today.

We are met by many frustrations in the city of Baltimore, but none are more demoralizing than the twin frustrations of finding an answer to the chronic problem of young men between the ages of 16 and 18 who have dropped out of school, who have no work and who are potential threats to law and order, and the frustration of jobs left undone.

Cleanup campaigns bog down because of insufficient manpower. If we could call upon a large manpower pool, I know we could begin to make repairs to vacant houses, demolish substandard structures and clean up the ghettos and keep them clean.

I believe something dramatic must be done.

I would like to see some of the following recommendations implemented:

Raise the age for compulsory attendance in school from 16 to 18. If this proves unworkable, let us investigate the possibility of enlisting these youths for 2 years of intensive vocational training. The standard truance laws might be extended to this group to put teeth in such a measure.

Let Government provide jobs for those who cannot find work.

Consolidate existing programs aimed at inner city improvements into an Urban Conservation Corps, which would not only

provide jobs but upward mobility for these young men. I'm aware that this is not a new idea, and that it may be considered as duplicating some existing programs. But, if we are going to solve this problem, we need to broaden programs such as the Job Corps and the Neighborhood Youth Corps, and make them relevant to the ghetto. We also need to do some further thinking about the way we can bring about change in attitudes—this might mean some kind of provision for enlistments.

As I outlined my idea of an Urban Conservation Corps, I saw it as a new way to provide training and jobs, as well as attacking the problems of the ghetto directly.

The corps might be organized around a cadre of professionals, including ex-servicemen especially NCO's, who are conversant with the problems these youths face and who can provide the leadership and authority symbols they need in their lives.

There ought to be 2-year enlistments; basic training which employs the best of the Army's nonmilitary physical, educational, and vocational training; uniforms and rank, and a disciplinary system based upon infusing an esprit de corps rather than punishment for violating rules.

These are among the things I've been thinking about, and I hope you might consider.

There is no need of my repeating Mayor Walsh's statistics and the findings of the urban coalition on job possibilities in public service. The findings and statistics are well borne out in my city of Baltimore. By an all-out attack on chronic unemployment we could wipe out the

problem of the enormous numbers of able-bodied men who could be added to our work force, as this legislation is designed to do.

We call upon you to favorably report this emergency employment measure as rapidly as possible.

Senator CLARK. Mayor Walsh, you may either read your statement or summarize it as you see fit.

I know you are an expert witness.



Mr. Walsh. I am Mayor Walsh and I am appearing on behalf of the U.S. Conference of Mayors, an organization of some 600 cities with populations greater than 30,000 persons.

As a member of the Conference Committee on Human Resources Development, Senator, I can assure you the mayors conference supports your legislation.

In January of this year the executive committee of the conference of mayors called for a public service employment program to provide for

500,000 public service jobs immediately. The emergency work and training programs pending before you will go far in reaching that objective.

While the 300,000 participants authorized by the program, on or before June 30, 1969, falls short of our immediate goal, the program is designed to create at least 2.4 million jobs in the public and private service during the next 4 years.

Let me add here, Mr. Chairman, that the conference of mayors takes heart in finding that two significant groups have called for a similar program.

In the exhaustive study released by the President's National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders this approach among others is recommended as a significant step in dealing with the crisis of the cities.

The Urban Coalition, whose chairman, John W. Gardner, former Secretary of the Department of Health, Éducation, and Welfare, appeared before you earlier this week, has also endorsed the approach taken by the emergency work and training program.

In developing the position of the conference of mayors on the need for a public service employment program supported by the Federal Government as proposed in this bill, we have been influenced by three major factors:

1. We have recognized the steady and continuing demand for public services from both local government and nonprofit public service institutions.

2. We have also noted the current fiscal inability of local government to expand and support these public services on the scale that is needed.

3. It has been our observation that public works programs, although vitally needed, can no longer generate the types and numbers of jobs that are appropriate to our hard-core and youth unemployment situation.

I would like to make the following points from the latest Manpower Report from the Secretary of Labor:

1. There are still 17 major areas in the continental United States in which unemployment is above 6 percent.

2. There are still more than 650,000 people, one-fifth of the unemployed who have been out of work for 15 weeks or longer.

3. There are still 1.75 million employed who want to work full time but have only part-time work.

4. One out of every eight teenagers who are looking for work--half of them only have part-time work-cannot find it.

5. Negroes still constitute one-fifth of the unemployed and double their share of the labor force. There are 200,000 unemployed Negro teenagers highly concentrated in the poor neighborhoods.

Senator CLARK. I take it that is 200,000 school dropouts because they could not be in the labor force if they were still in school.

Mayor Walsh. That is right.

6. Over 3 million household heads are working full time but still living in poverty.

Senator CLARK. Are you using the criteria for poverty that was established by OEO of $3,300 for a family of four?

Mavor WALSH. That is right.

While these statistics are very important to us, Mr. Chairman, and suggest the gravity of the problem, no better definition of the problem can be found than that presented by you in introducing this bill to the Senate.

I was particularly impressed by your statements indicating that while the unemployed rate has been going down since 1961, the total number of unemployed persons in the United States has gone up.

In fact, it continues to rise at the rate of about 100,000 individuals

each year.

Senator CLARK, The reason for this which might otherwise be puzzling is that the total population of the country is growing so rapidly and while the unemployment rate goes down, the number of unemployed goes up?

Mayor Walsh. That is correct.

When this fact is added to the number of the hidden unemployed and underemployed, it suggests an overwhelming case for legislation of this kind.

In looking for effective ways to rapidly expand employment in areas that would be suitable to the needs that exist, the conference of inayors naturally began to examine the possibilities of accelerated public works programs of the types used in the recession of 1959 and 1960.

In consultation with officials of the Department of Commerce, the Economic Development Administration, and the Public Work Committees of the Congress, it became evident that the technology involved in public works construction has vastly changed the capacity of this sector of the public economy to effectively pull into employment the hard-core unemployed workers and chronic youth unemployed groups that are so critical to our current situation,

It has been estimated that it takes about $10,000 in capital under a public works program to produce one job.

The conclusion, therefore, is that while the conference of mayors strongly supports the public works program we do so for their overall benefit to the community rather than as programs of high employment impact.

Senator CLARK. Did you have some experience in Syracuse, in this area you are speaking about?

How about your public works program there! Do these figures tie in pretty well with your own experience!

Mayor Walsh. That is very true, with the sophistication that is developing in the public works area there is not the need for manpower and you just don't get it.

Senator CLARK. This would not apply in the conservation and recreational fields? In Philadelphia, for instance, we have a large park, Fairmount, where there is an almost indefinite amount of unskilled work that can be done in cleaning up storm damage, opening trails, building bridle paths, and creating recreational facilities.

Do you have anything like that in Syracuse ? Mayor Walsh. We have a number of work programs under the Urban Beautification Act. As an administrator of a city of our size, I am convinced you never have enough workers to do the jobs you need.

As an example, there is an editorial in the paper this morning that criticized us because our streets are not clean. It is a little hard to clean them because the snow just left a few days ago and we had the accumulation of several months of winter there, but this is an example.

It would not be the meaningful job experience that some people talk about. We like to term it a worthwhile work experience and we think it would be that.

Senator CLARK. I agree. I don't think there is a city in the country that is as clean as it could be. Some cities do not have the money to hire the workers and some cannot find the workers.

Mayor Walsh. This is a major problem. We can't find the workers we need and, of course, we can't pay them high enough to attract them.

Senator CLARK. Do you pay a minimum wage!

Mayor Walsh. Yes. We are trying to set up 4,000 jobs this summer, Senator, a summer jobs program. This will be in both the public sector and the private sector and we need tremendous help in order to do it.

We have letters that went out this week to all of the business organizations, even the churches in the community, and we are setting a type of quota for these organizations.

We are asking them to provide make-work jobs and we don't have the results yet. We hope we can come up with 4,000 jobs, but we may fall short of that goal, but this type of legislation would help us tremendously.

Senator CLARK. You have had your own problems up there, I know. I wonder if you have any personal view as to why the threat of disorder and violence seem to be so much greater in the summer than it is in the winter.

Mayor Walsh. I think it probably has to do with the frustrations that occur amongst the disadvantaged in the corridors of the cities and probably we get a little more irritated about things on hot nights than we do on cool nights.

Senator CLARK. It is just as unsophisticated as that.
Mayor Walsh. I think so.

Although we have been greatly impressed by the studies of the National Commission on Technology, Automation, and Economic Prog. ress, we know from our experience as mayors that the potential

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