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Dr. SHEPPARD. We did not ask the mayors to rank them, if that is what you mean, that is true.

Mr. PATRICELLI. But you would expect that other areas that might not now be receiving city action might spring up as having a high priority for service needs—such as neighborhood rehabilitation—if different persons or groups were asked ?

Dr. SHEPPARD. Yes, sir.

Mr. PATRICELLI. Mr. Gardner, you suggested that one available means of increasing the effort in the urban filed would be for Congress and the executive branch to undertake budgetary cuts in the lower priority areas. There have been several such suggestions, Senator Clark made one last week, as to how this might be done. Would it be appropriate for the Urban Coalition to suggest low priority areas and budget cuts in its position as an objective and neutral group and to submit those to the Congress?

Mr. GARDNER. I don't think that is a very appropriate thing for use. In a coalition which involves such disparate elements we have to be extremely disciplined about the things that we want to try to seek consensus on.

In fact, we have had extraordinary success so far in finding a few big, central, terribly important things to on which we could build that consensus. I don't think we want to add to that list without giving great attention to the priorities. I think there are other things that would claim our attention before this kind of effort.

Mr. PATRICELLI. Just two more questions. You made reference to the need for funding public service employment programs through State and local government. Of course, you have had a great deal of experience in the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare with State plan arrangements and I know that you have done a good deal of thinking about creative federalism. What kind of role for State governments do you think would be advisable in a new employment program of this type? Would you advocate any kind of limited State plan or arrangement for some percentage or all of the funds involved?

Mr. GARDNER. I would not like to see a State plan that involved all of the funds. I think the pattern outlined, as I remember it, in the Javits' bill was in fact quite a workable arrangement. Am I correct in thinking 40 percent of the funds ?

Mr. PATRICELLI. Yes. Lastly, would you care to make any general comments about the bill which Senator Javits and 75 other Republicans introduced last week or would your prefer to submit more detailed comments for the record later?

Mr. GARDNER. I would prefer to submit comments for the record because I would like an opportunity to study it further.

Senator CLARK. That may be done.
Mr. PATRICELLI. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
Senator CLARK. Thank you ever so much, gentlemen.
The subcommittee will stand in recess until Wednesday at 10.

(Whereupon, at 11:25 a.m., the subcommittee recessed to reconvene at 10 a.m., Wednesday, April 3, 1968.)

EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING LEGISLATION—1968

WEDNESDAY, APRIL 3, 1968

U.S. SENATE,
SUBCOMMITTEE ON EMPLOYMENT, MANPOWER,
AND POVERTY OF THE COMMITTEE ON
LABOR AND PUBLIC WELFARE,

Washington, D.O. The subcommittee met at 10 a.m., pursuant to recess, in room 4221, New Senate Office Building, Senator Clark (chairman of the subcommittee) presiding.

Present: Senators Clark, Pell, and Prouty.

Committee staff members present: Stewart E. McClure, chief clerk; John F. Forsythe, general counsel; Eugene Mittelman, minority counsel of the committee; William C. Smith, counsel; Michael W. Kirst, professional staff member; and Robert Patricelli, minority counsel of the Subcommittee on Employment, Manpower, and Poverty.

Senator CLARK. The subcommittee will resume its hearings.

Our first witness this morning is the Honorable James H. J. Tate, mayor of Philadelphia and chairman of the National League of Cities.

Mayor Tate, we are very happy to welcome you here today. You have a well-deserved reputation for being well versed in all of these problems of poverty, emergency employment, and we are very happy to have your views.

I see you have a prepared statement which you perhaps would like to read.

STATEMENT OF HON. JAMES H. J. TATE, MAYOR OF PHILADELPHIA

AND CHAIRMAN, NATIONAL LEAGUE OF CITIES, ACCOMPANIED
BY RICHARD OLANOFF, MANAGING DIRECTOR FOR EMPLOY.
MENT; AND PATRICK MCLAUGHLIN
Mayor TATE. Yes, sir.

Senator CLARK. Please proceed. We will have the entire statement printed in full in the record.

Mayor TATE. Thank you, Senator.

I am pleased, of course, to address you as the chairman of the Subcommittee on Employment, Manpower, and Poverty in these times when the eyes of the Nation are on this particular subject.

I do thank you for the courtesy of appearing before your subcommittee and inviting me here today, especially after we have had such a successful enterprise in Pennsylvania last night and on both ends of the State, both in Pittsburgh and Philadelphia, which I trust will be to your advantage.

I appreciate the fact that you have invited me as the mayor of a city of which you had the honor of leading just 15 years ago and which, of course, you sparked to a program of reform and renaissance which has redounded to our credit.

I come to the committee today as the mayor of Philadelphia, which is the fourth largest city, and also as the president of the National League of Cities which represents close to 15,000 municipalities across the Nation.

Senator CLARK. Those are all sizes, aren't they?

Mayor Tate. That is correct. We refer to them as the cities, the boroughs, the townships, and the villages.

We would like also to refer to them as the big city where most of the problems are. I am also on the Steering Committee of the National Urban Coalition with whose program I am sure you are now acquainted.

We, also, in Philadelphia, have organized the Philadelphia Urban Coalition.

Senator CLARK. Let me interrupt you to say that we had some perfectly splendid testimony the day before yesterday from John Gardner, the former Secretary of HEW, and now the Chairman of the National Urban Coalition. He told us that local urban coalitions had been organized in some 33 cities and undertook to send us a list of the names and numbers of the players.

Do you have them in Philadelphia?

Mayor Tate. Yes, sir, we do. I am happy to say we organized as early as February 15. We have now developed what are known as task forces which are very actively engaged in the entire program in Philadelphia.

Senator CLARK. Can you give me in very general terms the nature of the leadership, civic, labor, business, and the like?

Mayor Tate. The leadership follows the pattern of the urban coalition and the convocation which was organized in August 1967.

At that time by men like Henry Ford, Walter Reuther, and Mr. Randolph, Bayard Rustin, Whitney Young, and so many others that were engaged in the leadership in the educational field and religious field, and we had the same kind of leadership in Philadelphia which has engaged the attention of the business leadership as well as of labor and of the people in the disadvantaged areas.

Senator CLARK. Can you give me a few of the names of the leaders! I don't mean all of them. You know I come from there, too.

Mayor Tate. I understand. Our original convocation was chaired on several occasions by Dr. Gladfelder, chancellor of Temple University; and Dr. Bruce Waldon, associate with our manpower program.

Both of them are representatives but they work very close with us in this kind of thrust in the community.

We have some of the younger element among the Negroes and the disadvantaged poverty areas who are working very actively with us

Some names that people would not very well remember but they are active in the Philadlephia program. We have, of course, the labor people headed by Mr. Kelly and Mr. Touhy, and men like Mr. William Ross, who is very active.

As a matter of fact, Mr. William Ross has already sent contributions to the program.

Senator CLARK. That is the International Ladies Garnient Workers Union !

Mayor Tate. That is correct.
Senator CLARK. How about the businessmen?

Mayor TATE. The utilities have organized a finance group which is now raising money to support the modest budget of some $55,000 which we think is necessary.

Senator CLARK. Do you have a full-time executive director? Mayor TATE. We do not yet but it is now being handled by the Office of the Development Coordinator which is headed by Mr. Philip Coladner, who is the son of Judge Coladner, of the circuit court of appeals, and they are doing a very good job.

This program is well underway with task forces on employment, one on education, one on the summer program which is developing quite rapidly and one, of course, on the problem of housing which is engaging most of our attention right now.

Senator CLARK. Is there a policy group board of directors and is there a president?

Mayor Tate. We have not organized as such yet. It is still on an ad hoc basis.

Senator CLARK. Do you coordinate very closely with the poverty program and community action people?

Mayor Tate. Yes, sir; they are actively engaged in it. As a matter of fact, at the time of the convocation in Philadelphia a great deal of the exposure to the problems of the big city was organized by the poverty groups at the hub areas.

The business people themselves, of which there were close to some 500 of them that attended, went out on bus tours and were very much impressed and sometimes shocked with some of the conditions that confronted them.

Senator CLARK. I would appreciate it if you would have Mr. McLaughlin or one of your other assistants send down for the record a statement of the membership of the Philadelphia Urban Coalition.

Mayor TATE. We will be happy to do that. In fact, we are quite proud of our efforts.

Senator CLARK. Perhaps it would be very well for the record since other Senators will be reading this record, if you introduce your colleagues.

Mayor Tate. I might say to you, also, it is my privilege to serve with the steering committee for the National Urban Coalition and very recently in New York at a meeting with Mr. Gardner and Mr. Heiskell we developed some of the testimony which was presented to your committee the day before yesterday.

For the record, I would like to present with me, today, our staff people in Philadelphia who work very actively in this program, Mr. Patrick McLaughlin, who, of course, handles our Federal program in Washington and who works very closely with me at the National League of Cities, and Mr. Richard Olanoff, deputy managing director for employment in Philadelphia, a new position which we created because of the great success he had with the job opportunity program last summer in Philadelphia.

Senator CLARK. I also see my old friend Mr. Patrick Stanton sitting over there. Did he come down with you?

Mayor Tate. He came down today and I do say, proudly, for the record, we are very happy to have Mr. Patrick Stanton associated with us.

I would like to say that I do agree that there is a problem of the disadvantaged and unemployed, the hard-core unemployed who lack the education, the skills, the previous work experience and even the drive or the motivation to keep on trying to find work in the face of defeat after defeat. This problem is at the very heart of the crisis that faces America today both in the cities and in the rural areas.

You, Senator Clark, made a very clear presentation on the floor of the Senate when you introduced your bill last February 29.

At that time, you noted that as of September 1966 there were 4.4 million able-bodied, working-age Americans who were jobless, and we have substantial reason to believe that the total number is about the same today.

At that time, you further noted that the best estimates of available jobs for people with required skills is about 2 million. This leaves us with the unhappy fact that in the United States today there are some 2.4 million persons who are able and willing to work but for whom no jobs exist at all anywhere in this country.

There have been, it is true, a number of meaningful programs developed over the past 5 or 6 years by the Federal Government, including manpower training courses and on-the-job training programs but their total capacity regretfully falls far short of the total need.

In Philadelphia, for example, during 1967, there were a total of perhaps 6,000 disadvantaged persons who were helped either by a formal training program or an on-the-job training opportunity, but in the same year more than 8,000 disadvantaged youngsters dropped out of school before completing their education. It is an unhappy fact that most of them will inevitably swell the rolls of the unemployed sooner or later.

I might say this is a very conservative figure in checking with our board of education staff people only last week.

Last year, they issued some 2,500 worker permits for the kids who just turned '16 years of age and they say at the age of 17 there are some 4,000.

So it gives you a pretty good idea how conservative it is.
Senator CLARK. What is a work permit?

Mayor Tate. If you are 16 years of age you are not permitted to work unless you get a work permit.

Senator CLARK. Is that the child labor law?
Mayor TATE. I beg your pardon?
Senator CLARK. Is that the child labor law?

Mayor Tate. It ties in with the compulsory school law which we have in Pennsylvania. You add to this imbalance the unknown number of poor, unskilled migrants who unhappily found their way into the ghettos of our cities from the poverty areas of rural South or the ghettos of other cities.

Senator CLARK. Do you have any statistics which would indicate how much inmigration from the South is coming into Philadelphia ?

Mayor Tate. We don't have any accurate figure, sir. We don't have any registration program in that respect.

Senator CLARK. I suppose in terms of adults maybe the best way to check this up might be through political organizations trying to get people registered.

Mayor TATE. I would say so. There have been some efforts to do that but in this time of freedom we do not accept the fact that this is a

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