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The official record of the proceedings of the House is its Journal.—Journal, 2, 48, p. 554.

The House may judge of what are and what are not "proceedings.”—Journal, 1, 29, p. 1047.

It is not usual to note in the Journal a personal explanation by a member when no action or proceeding of the House or question of order is based thereon.Journal, 2, 53, p. 435.

It is not in order to place on the Journal indirectly what the House has refused to place there directly.Journal, 3, 37, pp. 122, 123.

All proceedings of the House subsequent to the erroneous announcement of a vote which would have been irregular if such vote had been correctly announced, are to be treated as a nullity, and are not to be entered on the Journal.—Journals, 1, 29, p. 1032; 1, 31, p. 1436.

A demand to enter a protest upon the Journal does not present a question of privilege.Journal, 2, 33, p. 451.

A motion being made to amend the Journal while it is passing under judgment of the House for approval, should said motion to amend be laid on the table, the Journal does not accompany it.Journal 1, 26, p. 28.

When a member's vote is incorrectly recorded, it is his right on the next day, while the Journal is before the House for its approval, to have the Journal corrected accordingly.-Journal 2, 30, p. 211. But it is not in order to change a correct record of a vote given under a misapprehension.Journal, 1, 31, p. 1266.

The fact that a bill is read at length in the House pursuant to the rules does not authorize its publication in full either in the Journal or Congressional Record.Journal, 2, 48, p. 354.

Pending a call of the house and in the absence of a quorum it is not in order to entertain a motion to omit or expunge certain proceedings from the Journal.—Journal, 2, 52, p. 107.

Where by an error of the Clerk in reporting the vote by yeas and nays the Speaker announces a result different from that shown by the roll, the status of the question must be determined from the vote as actually recorded.-Congressional Record, 1, 49, p. 7546. If, however, by reason of such error the Speaker announces that the blouse decides to adjourn, and the House does in fact accordingly disperse and adjourn, although the vote as actually recorded shows a refusal to adjourn, the session of the House when it next meets will be considered not a continuation of the preceding session but as of a new legislative day.-Congressional Record, 2, 49, p. 314. · The Journal of the proceedings of the last day of a previous session, which has adjourned without day, is not read for approval by the House on the first day of a second or subsequent session.Journal, 2, 44, pp. 18-22. Neither is the Journal of the last day of the last session of a Congress approved, for the reason that legislative bůsiness usually continues up to the very moment of adjournment by limitation.

A motion for a recess being in the nature of business, was held not in order until after the Journal is read; (Congressional Record, 2, 50, p, 677) but it has since been held that a motion for a recess might be entertained before the reading of the Journal.—Journal, 2, 52, p. 98.

It is in order before, as well as after, the reading of the Journal to call up for consideration a report from the Committee on Rules touching the rules or order of business of the House.-Journal, 1, 52, p. 91.

When a bill, resolution, or memorial is introduced “by request” these words shall be entered upon the Journal.Rule XXII, clause 4.

The Speaker shall examine and approve the Journal before it is read.—Rule 1, clause 1. And every day, after taking the chair, “on the appearance of a quorum, shall cause the Journal of the proceedings of the last day's sitting to be read.”— Rule I.

When the point is made before the reading of the Journal that no quorum is present, the practice is for the Speaker to cause the roll to be called in order to ascertain the fact.

The approval of the Journal is the transaction of business, a proceeding which affects the regularity and validity of the proceedings of the previous day. If the point is made before the Journal is read that no quorum is present it is the duty of the Chair to cause the roll to be called to ascertain the fact. The rule provides that the Speaker before causing the Journal to be read shall have previously examined and approved

the same, but that is merely a preliminary examination and approval. The question as to whether or not the proceedings of the House are correctly or incorrectly recorded is always under the control of the House itself.—Journal, 1, 50, p. 2945.

When the question on approval of the Journal has been omitted or postponed on several successive days, the question on approving each of them respectively is taken in the chronological order of the Journals.—Journal, 2, 53, pp. 337, 338.

Since the rule authorizing the presentation of petitions by delivery to the Clerk for reference under Rule XXII, clause 1, that portion of the Journal which contains the record of petitions handed to the Clerk is not usually read.

The list of bills introduced and referred by delivery to the Clerk or Speaker and reports on private bills are not, according to the practice, read in the House. But it would seem to be the right of any Member to demand the reading of the entire Journal, including such lists.

The names of Members voting and of those failing to answer on a roll call are not read unless the reading is specially demanded.

Every motion made to the House and entertained by the Speaker shall be reduced to writing on the demand of any Member, and shall be entered upon the Journal with the name of the Member making it, unless it is withdrawn the same day.-Rule XVI, clause 1.

And such motions are often inserted even where subsequently withdrawn, especially where a vote is taken intermediately between its being submitted and withdrawn. All motions, however, to be entered on the Journal must be first en. tertained and submitted by the Speaker, or if in writing must be read by the Clerk by direction of the Speaker.

Members having petitions or memorials or bills of a private nature to present may deliver them to the Clerk, indorsing their names and the reference or disposition to be made thereof; and said petitions and memorials and bills of a private nature, except such as, in the judgment of the Speaker, are of an obscene or insulting character, shall be entered on the Journal with the names of the Members presenting them.-Rule XXII, clause 1.

All other bills, memorials, and resolutions, may in like man. ner be delivered, indorsed with the names of Members introducing them, to the Speaker, to be by him referred, and the titles and references thereof shall be entered on the Journal.Rule XXII, clause 3.

The hour at which the House adjourns shall be entered on the Journal.-Rule XVI, clause 5.

The entry of petitions and memorials, as stated in Rule XXII, clause 1, is construed to require simply the entry of a brief statement of their contents, their reference, etc.

The names of the absentees reported upon a roll call in Committee of the Whole “shall be entered on the Journal."— Rule XXIII, clause 2.

All questions of order shall be noted by the Clerk, with the decisions, and put together at the end of the Journal of every session.—Rule III, clause 3.

The Clerk shall, as soon after the close of each session as possible, complete the printing, and distribution to Members and Delegates, of the Journal of the House, together with an accurate and complete index to the same.Rule III, clause 3.

It shall be the duty of the Clerk of the House, at the end of each session, to send a printed copy of the Journal thereof to the executive and to each branch of the legislature of every State.-Rule III, clause 3.

Extracts from the Journal, duly certified by the Clerk, shall be admitted as evidence in the several courts of the United States, and shall have the same force and effect as the original thereof would have if produced in court and proved.-R. S., sec. 895.


(See. Committees.)

JURISDICTION OF COMMITTEES. It is not essential in all cases that a bill should be introduced and referred to a committee to give such committee the right to report on the subject; it is sufficient if the subject be referred to it either in the form of a petition or an executive or other communication or generally by the rules of the House.

In this manner the Committee on Appropriations and other committees, whose duty it is to report general appropriation bills, acquire jurisdiction to prepare and report the general appropriation bills, these bills originating in the committee and being also based on estimates previously referred to it.

It is not competent for a committee to report a bill when the subject-matter has not been referred to it by the House, by the rules or otherwise.Journals, 1, 31, p. 590; 1, 45, p. 159.

A committee has no right to submit any report to the House unless it relates to a subject over which it has jurisdiction by the Rules of the House, or by a reference of the subject to it by order of the House.-Journal, 1, 48, p. 1108. It was held in the Fifty-third Congress that the Committee on Rules were authorized to report on the rules or order of business, notwithstanding the proposed rule or order had not been specially referred to that committee.Journal, 1, 53, p. 96.

Reference of a proposition to a committee by the House confers jurisdiction upon it.—Journal, 1, 41, p. 87.

It is competent for the House to refer a bill to any committee regardless of the ordinary jurisdiction of such committee.-. Journal, 1, 48, p. 703.

It is not in order for a committee to propose to pass under suspension of the rules a bill or resolution which has not been referred to it, or which it has not authority to report.-Journal, 1, 48, p. 1108; Congressional Record, 1, 51, p. 8773.

It is within the power of the House to authorize a committee to consider in the course of an investigation testimony taken before a committee of a previous Congress.Journal 1, 46, pp. 442, 443.

Bills, executive communications, etc., frequently embrace a subject or subjects within the proper jurisdiction of different committees. In such cases the principal object of the proposi. tion controls its reference; or if the objects are of nearly equal importance, it is referred to the committee which has already, by a previous reference of similar measures, acquired jurisdiction of the general subject. (See Record, 1, 51, pp. 2046, 2047.)

A resolution of inquiry asking information relative to the construction of public works built for the improvement of

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