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confidentiality information exchanged under this part.

(b) In particular, neither party shall disclose to the public, nor permit a conformity assessment body (CAB) to disclose to the public, information exchanged under this part that constitutes trade secrets, confidential commercial or financial information, or information that relates to an ongoing investigation.

(c) A party or a CAB may, upon exchanging information with the other party or with a CAB of the other party, designate the portions of the information that it considers to be exempt from disclosure.

(d) Each party shall take all precautions reasonably necessary to protect information exchanged under this part from unauthorized disclosure.

$ 26.77 Fees.

Each party shall endeavor to ensure that fees imposed for services under this part shall be commensurate with the services provided. Each party shall ensure that, for the sectors and conformity assessment procedures covered under this part, it shall charge no fees with respect to conformity assessment services provided by the other party.

$ 26.80 Entry into force, amendment,

and termination. (a) The “Agreement on Mutual Recognition Between the United States of America and the European Community,” from which this part is derived, including its sectoral annexes on telecommunication equipment, electromagnetic compatibility, electrical safety, recreational craft, pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) inspections, and medical devices shall enter into force on the first day of the second month following the date on which the parties have exchanged letters confirming the completion of their respective procedures for the entry into force of that agreement.

(b) That agreement including any sectoral annex may, through the Joint Committee, be amended in writing by the parties to that agreement. Those parties may add a sectoral annex upon the exchange of letters. Such annex shall enter into force 30 days following the date on which those parties have exchanged letters confirming the completion of their respective procedures for the entry into force of the sectoral annex.

(c) Either party to that agreement may terminate that agreement in its entirety or any individual sectoral annex thereof by giving the other party to that agreement 6-months notice in writing. In the case of termination of one or more sectoral annexes, the parties to that agreement will seek to achieve by consensus to amend that agreement, with a view to preserving the remaining Sectoral Annexes, in accordance with the procedures in this section. Failing such consensus, that agreement shall terminate at the end of 6 months from the date of notice.

(d) Following termination of that agreement in its entirety or any individual sectoral annex thereof, a party to that agreement shall continue to accept the results of conformity assessment procedures performed by conformity assessment bodies under that agreement prior to termination, unless a regulatory authority in the party decides otherwise based on health, safety and environmental considerations or failure to satisfy other requirements within the scope of the applicable sectoral annex.

$ 26.78 Agreements with other coun

tries. Except where there is written agreement between the parties, obligations contained in mutual recognition agreements concluded by either party with a party not a party to the agreement from which this part is derived (a third party) shall have no force and effect with regard to the other party in terms of acceptance of the results of conformity assessment procedures in the third party.

8 26.79 Territorial application.

The agreement from which this part is derived shall apply, on the one hand, to the territories in which the Treaty establishing the European Community (EC) is applied, and under the conditions laid down in that Treaty and, on the other hand, to the territory of the United States.

50.53 Clinical investigations involving

greater than minimal risk and no prospect of direct benefit to individual subjects, but likely to yield generalizable knowledge about the subjects' disorder

or condition. 50.54 Clinical investigations not otherwise

approvable that present an opportunity to understand, prevent, or alleviate a serious problem affecting the health or

welfare of children. 50.55 Requirements for permission by par

ents or guardians and for assent by chil

dren. 50.56 Wards.

$26.81 Final provisions.

(a) The sectoral annexes referred to in § 26.80(a), as well as any new sectoral annexes added pursuant to $26.80(b), shall form an integral part of the “Agreement on Mutual Recognition Between the United States of America and the European Community," from which this part is derived.

(b) For a given product or sector, the provisions contained in subparts A and B of this part shall apply in the first place, and the provisions of subpart C of this part in addition to those provisions. In the case of any inconsistency between the provisions of subpart A or B of this part and subpart C of this part, subpart A or B shall prevail, to the extent of that inconsistency.

(c) The agreement from which this part is derived shall not affect the rights and obligations of the parties under any other international agreement.

(d) In the case of subpart B of this part, the parties shall review the status of such subpart at the end of 3 years from

the date described in $26.80(a).

AUTHORITY: 21 U.S.C 321, 343, 346, 346a, 348, 350a, 350b, 352, 353, 355, 360, 360c-360f, 360h360j, 371, 379e, 381; 42 U.S.C. 216, 241, 262, 263b263n.

SOURCE: 45 FR 36390, May 30, 1980, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A-General Provisions

PART 50-PROTECTION OF HUMAN

SUBJECTS

Subpart A-General Provisions

Sec. 50.1 Scope. 50.3 Definitions.

Subpart B-Informed Consent of Human

Subjects 50.20 General requirements for informed

consent. 50.23 Exception from general requirements. 50.24 Exception from informed consent re

quirements for emergency research. 50.25 Elements of informed consent. 50.27 Documentation of informed consent.

8 50.1 Scope.

(a) This part applies to all clinical investigations regulated by the Food and Drug Administration under sections 505(i) and 520(g) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as well as clinical investigations that support applications for research or marketing permits for products regulated by the Food and Drug Administration, including foods, including dietary supplements, that bear a nutrient content claim or a health claim, infant formulas, food and color additives, drugs for human use, medical devices for human use, biological products for human use, and electronic products. Additional specific obligations and commitments of, and standards of conduct for, persons who sponsor or monitor clinical investigations involving particular test articles may also be found in other parts (e.g., parts 312 and 812). Compliance with these parts is intended to protect the rights and safety of subjects involved in investigations filed with the Food and Drug Administration pursuant to sections 403, 406, 409, 412, 413, 502, 503, 505, 510, 513-516, 518-520, 721, and 801 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and sections 351 and 354–360F of the Public Health Service Act.

(b) References in this part to regulatory sections of the Code of Federal

Subpart C [Reserved)

Subpart D-Additional Safeguards for

Children in Clinical Investigations 50.50 IRB duties. 50.51 Clinical investigations not involving

greater than minimal risk. 50.52 Clinical investigations involving

greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct benefit to individual subjects.

Regulations are to chapter I of title 21, unless otherwise noted.

[45 FR 36390, May 30, 1980; 46 FR 8979, Jan. 27, 1981, as amended at 63 FR 26697, May 13, 1998; 64 FR 399, Jan. 5, 1999; 66 FR 20597, Apr. 24, 2001]

$ 50.3 Definitions.

As used in this part:

(a) Act means the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as amended (secs. 201-902, 52 Stat. 1040 et seq. as amended (21 U.S.C. 321–392)).

(b) Application for research or marketing permit includes:

(1) A color additive petition, described in part 71.

(2) A food additive petition, described in parts 171 and 571.

(3) Data and information about a substance submitted as part of the procedures for establishing that the substance is generally recognized as safe for use that results or may reasonably be expected to result, directly or indirectly, in its becoming a component or otherwise affecting the characteristics of any food, described in $$ 170.30 and 570.30.

(4) Data and information about a food additive submitted as part of the procedures for food additives permitted to be used on an interim basis pending additional study, described in 180.1.

(5) Data and information about a substance submitted as part of the procedures for establishing a tolerance for unavoidable contaminants in food and food-packaging materials, described in section 406 of the act.

(6) An investigational new drug application, described in part 312 of this chapter.

(7) A new drug application, described in part 314.

(8) Data and information about the bioavailability or bioequivalence of drugs for human use submitted as part of the procedures for issuing, amending, or repealing a bioequivalence requirement, described in part 320.

(9) Data and information about an over-the-counter drug for human use submitted as part of the procedures for classifying these drugs as generally recognized as safe and effective and not misbranded, described in part 330.

(10) Data and information about a prescription drug for human use sub

mitted as part of the procedures for classifying these drugs as generally recognized as safe and effective and not misbranded, described in this chapter.

(11) [Reserved]

(12) An application for a biologics license, described in part 601 of this chapter.

(13) Data and information about a biological product submitted as part of the procedures for determining that licensed biological products are safe and effective and not misbranded, described in part 601.

(14) Data and information about an in vitro diagnostic product submitted as part of the procedures for establishing, amending, or repealing a standard for these products, described in part 809.

(15) An Application for an Investigational Device Exemption, described in part 812.

(16) Data and information about a medical device submitted as part of the procedures for classifying these devices, described in section 513.

(17) Data and information about a medical device submitted as part of the procedures for establishing, amending, or repealing a standard for these devices, described in section 514.

(18) An application for premarket approval of a medical device, described in section 515.

(19) A product development protocol for a medical device, described in section 515.

(20) Data and information about an electronic product submitted as part of the procedures for establishing, amending, or repealing a standard for these products, described in section 358 of the Public Health Service Act.

(21) Data and information about an electronic product submitted as part of the procedures for obtaining a variance from any electronic product performance standard, as described in 8 1010.4.

(22) Data and information about an electronic product submitted as part of the procedures for granting, amending, or extending an exemption from a radiation safety performance standard, as described in § 1010.5.

(23) Data and information about a clinical study of an infant formula when submitted as part of an infant formula notification under section 412(c) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

(24) Data and information submitted in a petition for a nutrient content claim, described in $ 101.69 of this chapter, or for a health claim, described in $ 101.70 this chapter.

(25) Data and information from investigations involving children submitted in a new dietary ingredient notification, described in § 190.6 of this chapter.

(c) Clinical investigation means any experiment that involves a test article and one or more human subjects and that either is subject to requirements for prior submission to the Food and Drug Administration under section 505(i) or 520(g) of the act, or is not subject to requirements for prior submission to the Food and Drug Administration under these sections of the act, but the results of which are intended to be submitted later to, or held for inspection by, the Food and Drug Administration as part of an application for a research or marketing permit. The term does not include experiments that are subject to the provisions of part 58 of this chapter, regarding nonclinical laboratory studies.

(d) Investigator means an individual who actually conducts a clinical investigation, i.e., under whose immediate direction the test article is administered or dispensed to, or used involving, a subject, or, in the event of an investigation conducted by a team of individuals, is the responsible leader of that team.

(e) Sponsor means a person who initiates a clinical investigation, but who does not actually conduct the investigation, i.e., the test article is administered or dispensed to or used involving, a subject under the immediate direction of another individual. A person other than an individual (e.g., corporation or agency) that uses one or more of its own employees to conduct a clinical investigation it has initiated is considered to be a sponsor (not a sponsor-investigator), and the employees are considered to be investigators.

(f) Sponsor-investigator means an individual who both initiates and actually conducts, alone or with others, a clinical investigation, i.e., under whose immediate direction the test article is administered or dispensed to, or used in

volving, a subject. The term does not include any person other than an individual, e.g., corporation or agency.

(g) Human subject means an individual who is or becomes a participant in research, either as a recipient of the test article or as a control. A subject may be either a healthy human or a patient.

(h) Institution means any public or private entity or agency (including Federal, State, and other agencies). The word facility as used in section 520(g) of the act is deemed to be synonymous with the term institution for purposes of this part.

(i) Institutional review board (IRB) means any board, committee, or other group formally designated by an institution to review biomedical research involving humans as subjects, to approve the initiation of and conduct periodic review of such research. The term has the same meaning as the phrase institutional review committee as used in section 520(g) of the act.

(j) Test article means any drug (including a biological product for human use), medical device for human use, human food additive, color additive, electronic product, or any other article subject to regulation under the act or under sections 351 and 354–360F of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 262 and 263b-263n).

(k) Minimal risk means that the probability and magnitude of harm or discomfort anticipated in the research are not greater in and of themselves than those ordinarily encountered in daily life or during the performance of routine physical or psychological examinations or tests.

(1) Legally authorized representative means an individual or judicial or other body authorized under applicable law to consent on behalf of a prospective subject to the subject's particpation in the procedure(s) involved in the research.

(m) Family member means any one of the following legally competent persons: Spouse; parents; children (including adopted children); brothers, sisters, and spouses of brothers and sisters; and any individual related by blood or affinity whose close association with the subject is the equivalent of a family relationship.

(n) Assent means a child's affirmative agreement to participate in a clinical investigation. Mere failure to object may not, absent affirmative agreement, be construed as assent.

(0) Children means persons who have not attained the legal age for consent to treatments or procedures involved in clinical investigations, under the applicable law of the jurisdiction in which the clinical investigation will be conducted.

(p) Parent means a child's biological or adoptive parent.

(q) Ward means a child who is placed in the legal custody of the State or other agency, institution, or entity, consistent with applicable Federal, State, or local law.

(r) Permission means the agreement of parent(s) or guardian to the participation of their child or ward in a clinical investigation. Permission must be obtained in compliance with subpart B of this part and must include the elements of informed consent described in $ 50.25.

(s) Guardian means an individual who is authorized under applicable State or local law to consent on behalf of a child to general medical care when general medical care includes participation in research. For purposes of subpart D of this part, a guardian also means an individual who is authorized to consent on behalf of a child to participate in research. [45 FR 36390, May 30, 1980, as amended at 46 FR 8950, Jan. 27, 1981; 54 FR 9038, Mar. 3, 1989; 56 FR 28028, June 18, 1991; 61 FR 51528, Oct. 2, 1996; 62 FR 39440, July 23, 1997; 64 FR 399, Jan. 5, 1999; 64 FR 56448, Oct. 20, 1999; 66 FR 20597, Apr. 24, 2001)

representative. An investigator shall seek such consent only under circumstances that provide the prospective subject or the representative sufficient opportunity to consider whether or not to participate and that minimize the possibility of coercion or undue influence. The information that is given to the subject or the representative shall be in language understandable to the subject or the representative. No informed consent, whether oral or written, may include any exculpatory language through which the subject or the representative is made to waive or appear to waive any of the subject's legal rights, or releases or appears to release the investigator, the sponsor, the institution, or its agents from liability for negligence. [46 FR 8951, Jan. 27, 1981, as amended at 64 FR 10942, Mar. 8, 1999]

re

$50.23 Exception from general

quirements. (a) The obtaining of informed consent shall be deemed feasible unless, before use of the test article (except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section), both the investigator and a physician who is not otherwise participating in the clinical investigation certify in writing all of the following:

(1) The human subject is confronted by a life-threatening situation necessitating the use of the test article.

(2) Informed consent cannot be obtained from the subject because of an inability to communicate with, or obtain legally effective consent from, the subject.

(3) Time is not sufficient to obtain consent from the subject's legal representative.

(4) There is available no alternative method of approved or generally recognized therapy that provides an equal or greater likelihood of saving the life of the subject.

(b) If immediate use of the test article is, in the investigator's opinion, required to preserve the life of the subject, and time is not sufficient to obtain the independent determination required in paragraph (a) of this section in advance of using the test article, the determinations of the clinical investigator shall be made and, within 5 working days after the use of the article, be

Subpart B-Informed Consent of

Human Subjects

SOURCE: 46 FR 8951, Jan. 27, 1981, unless otherwise noted.

$ 50.20 General requirements for in

formed consent. Except as provided in $850.23 and 50.24, no investigator may involve a human being as a subject in research covered by these regulations unless the investigator has obtained the legally effective informed consent of the subject or the subject's legally authorized

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