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(2) Revision and change control procedures to maintain an audit trail that documents time-sequenced development and modification of systems documentation.

§ 11.30 Controls for open systems.

Persons who use open systems to create, modify, maintain, or transmit electronic records shall employ procedures and controls designed to ensure the authenticity, integrity, and, as appropriate, the confidentiality of electronic records from the point of their creation to the point of their receipt. Such procedures and controls shall include those identified in $11.10, as appropriate, and additional measures such as document encryption and use of appropriate digital signature standards to ensure, as necessary under the circumstances, record authenticity, integrity, and confidentiality.

be reused by, or reassigned to, anyone else.

(b) Before an organization establishes, assigns, certifies, or otherwise sanctions an individual's electronic signature, or any element of such electronic signature, the organization shall verify the identity of the individual.

(c) Persons using electronic signatures shall, prior to or at the time of such use, certify to the agency that the electronic signatures in their system, used on or after August 20, 1997, are intended to be the legally binding equivalent of traditional handwritten signatures.

(1) The certification shall be submitted in paper form and signed with a traditional handwritten signature, to the Office of Regional Operations (HFC-100), 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857.

(2) Persons using electronic signatures shall, upon agency request, provide additional certification or testimony that a specific electronic signature is the legally binding equivalent of the signer's handwritten signature.

§ 11.50 Signature manifestations.

(a) Signed electronic records shall contain information associated with the signing that clearly indicates all of the following:

(1) The printed name of the signer;

(2) The date and time when the signature was executed; and

(3) The meaning (such as review, approval, responsibility, or authorship) associated with the signature.

(b) The items identified in paragraphs (a)(1), (a)(2), and (a)(3) of this section shall be subject to the same controls as for electronic records and shall be included as part of any human readable form of the electronic record (such as electronic display or printout).

§ 11.70 Signature/record linking.

Electronic signatures and handwritten signatures executed to electronic records shall be linked to their respective electronic records to ensure that the signatures cannot be excised, copied, or otherwise transferred to falsify an electronic record by ordinary means.

8 11.200 Electronic signature compo

nents and controls. (a) Electronic signatures that are not based upon biometrics shall:

(1) Employ at least two distinct identification components such as an identification code and password.

(i) When an individual executes a series of signings during a single, continuous period of controlled system access, the first signing shall be executed using all electronic signature components; subsequent signings shall be executed using at least one electronic signature component that is only executable by, and designed to be used only by, the individual.

(ii) When an individual executes one or more signings not performed during a single, continuous period of controlled system access, each signing shall be executed using all of the electronic signature components.

(2) Be used only by their genuine owners; and

(3) Be administered and executed to ensure that attempted use of an individual's electronic signature by anyone other than its genuine owner requires

Subpart C-Electronic Signatures § 11.100 General requirements.

(a) Each electronic signature shall be unique to one individual and shall not

collaboration of two or more individuals.

(b) Electronic signatures based upon biometrics shall be designed to ensure that they cannot be used by anyone other than their genuine owners.

Subpart B-Initiation of Proceedings 12.20 Initiation of a hearing involving the

issuance, amendment, or revocation of a

regulation. 12.21 Initiation of a hearing involving the

issuance, amendment, or revocation of

an order. 12.22 Filing objections and requests for a

hearing on a regulation or order. 12.23 Notice of filing of objections. 12.24 Ruling on objections and requests for

hearing. 12.26 Modification or revocation of regula

tion or order. 12.28 Denial of hearing in whole or in part. 12.30 Judicial review after waiver of hearing

on a regulation. 12.32 Request for alternative form of hear

ing. 12.35 Notice of hearing; stay of action. 12.37 Effective date of a regulation. 12.38 Effective date of an order.

Subpart C-Appearance and Participation

12.40 Appearance. 12.45 Notice of participation. 12.50 Advice on public participation in hear

ings.

Subpart D-Presiding Officer

$11.300 Controls for identification

codes/passwords. Persons who use electronic signatures based upon use of identification codes in combination with passwords shall employ controls to ensure their security and integrity. Such controls shall include:

(a) Maintaining the uniqueness of each combined identification code and password, such that no two individuals have the same combination of identification code and password.

(b) Ensuring that identification code and password issuances are periodically checked, recalled, or revised (e.g., to cover such events as password aging).

(c) Following loss management procedures to electronically deauthorize lost, stolen, missing, or otherwise potentially compromised tokens, cards, and other devices that bear or generate identification code or password information, and to issue temporary or permanent replacements using suitable, rigorous controls.

(d) Use of transaction safeguards to prevent unauthorized use of passwords and/or identification codes, and to detect and report in an immediate and urgent manner any attempts at their unauthorized use to the system security unit, and, as appropriate, to organizational management.

(e) Initial and periodic testing of devices, such as tokens or cards, that bear or generate identification code or password information to ensure that they function properly and have not been altered in an unauthorized manner.

12.60 Presiding officer. 12.62 Commencement of functions. 12.70 Authority of presiding officer. 12.75 Disqualification of presiding officer. 12.78 Unavailability of presiding officer.

Subpart E—Hearing Procedures 12.80 Filing and service of submissions. 12.82 Petition to participate in forma

pauperis. 12.83 Advisory opinions. 12.85 Disclosure of data and information by

the participants. 12.87 Purpose; oral and written testimony;

burden of proof. 12.89 Participation of nonparties. 12.90 Conduct at oral hearings or con

ferences. 12.91 Time and place of prehearing con

ference. 12.92 Prehearing conference procedure. 12.93 Summary decisions. 12.94 Receipt of evidence. 12.95 Official notice. 12.96 Briefs and argument. 12.97 Interlocutory appeal from ruling of

presiding officer. 12.98 Official transcript. 12.99 Motions.

PART 12-FORMAL EVIDENTIARY

PUBLIC HEARING

Subpart A-General Provisions

Subpart F-Administrative Record

Sec. 12.1 Scope.

12.100 Administrative record of a hearing. 12.105 Examination of record.

Subpart G-Initial and Final Decisions

12.120 Initial decision. 12.125 Appeal from or review of initial deci

sion. 12.130 Decision by Commissioner on appeal

or review of initial decision. 12.139 Reconsideration and stay of action.

Subpart H-Judicial Review

12.140 Review by the courts. 12.159 Copies of petitions for judicial re

view. AUTHORITY: 21 U.S.C. 141-149, 321-393, 467f, 679, 821, 1034; 42 U.S.C. 201, 262, 263b-263n, 264; 15 U.S.C. 1451-1461; 5 U.S.C. 551-558, 701-721; 28 U.S.C. 2112.

SOURCE: 44 FR 22339, Apr. 13, 1979, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A-General Provisions

ing Act, and meets the requirements for filing, follow the provisions of $10.40 (b) through (f);

(2) If it involves a color additive or food additive, and meets the requirements for filing in $$71.1 and 71.2, or in $8171.1, 171.6, 171.7, and 171.100, publish a notice of filing of the petition within 30 days after the petition is filed instead of a notice of proposed rulemaking.

(c) [Reserved]

(d) The notice promulgating the regulation will describe how to submit objections and requests for hearing.

(e) On or before the 30th day after the date of publication of a final regulation, or of a notice withdrawing a proposal initiated by a petition under $10.25(a), a person may submit to the Commissioner written objections and a request for a hearing. The 30-day period may not be extended except that additional information supporting an objection may be received after 30 days upon a showing of inadvertent omission and hardship, and if review of the objection and request for hearing will not thereby be impeded. If, after a final color additive regulation is published, a petition or proposal relating to the regulation is referred to an advisory committee in accordance with section 721(b)(5)(C) of the act, objections and requests for a hearing may be submitted on or before the 30th day after the date on which the order confirming or modifying the Commissioner's previous order is published. [44 FR 22339, Apr. 13, 1979, as amended at 64 FR 399, Jan. 5, 1999)

$ 12.1 Scope.

The procedures in this part apply when

(a) A person has a right to an opportunity for a hearing under the laws specified in 10.50; or

(b) The Commissioner concludes that it is in the public interest to hold a formal evidentiary public hearing on any matter before FDA.

Subpart B-Initiation of

Proceedings

$ 12.20 Initiation of a hearing involv

ing the issuance, amendment, or revocation of a regulation. (a) A proceeding under section 409(f), 502(n), 512(n)(5), 701(e), or 721(d) of the act or section 4 or 5 of the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act may be initiated

(1) By the Commissioner on the Commissioner's own initiative, e.g., as provided in $ 170.15 for food additives; or

(2) By a petition

(i) In the form specified elsewhere in this chapter, e.g., the form for a color additive petition in $71.1; or

(ii) If no form is specified, by a petition under $10.30.

(b) If the Commissioner receives a petition under paragraph (a)(2) of this section, the Commissioner will

(1) If it involves any matter subject to section 701(e) of the act or section 4 or 5 of the Fair Packaging and Label

$ 12.21 Initiation of a hearing involv

ing the issuance, amendment, or

revocation of an order. (a) A proceeding under section 505 (d) or (e), 512 (d), (e), (m) (3) or (4), of section 515(g)(1) of the act, or section 351(a) of the Public Health Service Act, may be initiated

(1) By the Commissioner on the Commissioner's own initiative;

(2) By a petition in the form specified elsewhere in this chapter, e.g., § 314.50 for new drug applications, $514.1 for new animal drug applications, $514.2 for applications for animal feeds, or $601.3 for licenses for biologic products;

or

(3) By a petition under $10.30.

(b) A notice of opportunity for hearing on a proposal to deny or revoke approval of all or part of an order will be published together with an explanation of the grounds for the proposed action. The notice will describe how to submit requests for hearing. A person subject to the notice has 30 days after its issuance to request a hearing. The 30day period may not be extended.

(c) The Commissioner may use an optional procedure specified in $10.30(h) to consider issuing, amending, or revoking an order.

(d) In a proceeding under sections 505(e), 512(e) or (m), or 515(e) of the act in which a party wishes to apply for reimbursement of certain expenses under the Equal Access to Justice Act (5 U.S.C. 504 and 504 note), FDA will follow the Department of Health and Human Services' regulations in 45 CFR part 13.

and do not limit the evidence that may be presented if a hearing is granted.

(i) A copy of any report, article, survey, or other written document relied upon must be submitted, except if the document is

(a) An FDA document that is routinely publicly available; or

(b) A recognized medical or scientific textbook that is readily available to the agency.

(ii) A summary of the nondocumentary testimony to be presented by any witnesses relied upon must be submitted.

(b) Requests for hearing submitted under $ 12.21 will be submitted to the Dockets Management Branch and will be accepted for filing if they meet the following conditions:

(1) They are submitted on or before the 30th day after the date of publication of the notice of opportunity for hearing.

(2) They comply with $8 314.200, 514.200, or 601.7(a).

(c) If an objection or request for a public hearing fails to meet the requirements of this section and the deficiency becomes known to the Dockets Management Branch, the Dockets Management Branch shall return it with a copy of the applicable regulations, indicating those provisions not complied with. A deficient objection or request for a hearing may be supplemented and subsequently filed if submitted within the 30-day time period specified in $ 12.20(e) or $ 12.21(b).

(d) If another person objects to a regulation issued in response to a petition submitted under $ 12.20(a)(2), the petitioner may submit a written reply to the Dockets Management Branch. [44 FR 22339, Apr. 13, 1979, as amended at 54 FR 9035, Mar. 3, 1989; 64 FR 69190, Dec. 10, 1999]

[44 FR 22339, Apr. 13, 1979, as amended at 47 FR 25734, June 15, 1982; 54 FR 9035, Mar. 3, 1989]

$ 12.22 Filing objections and requests

for a hearing on a regulation or

order. (a) Objections and requests for a hearing under $12.20(d) must be submitted to the Dockets Management Branch and will be accepted for filing if they meet the following conditions:

(1) They are submitted within the time specified in $ 12.20(e).

(2) Each objection is separately numbered.

(3) Each objection specifies with particularity the provision of the regulation or proposed order objected to.

(4) Each objection on which a hearing is requested specifically so states. Failure to request a hearing on an objection constitutes a waiver of the right to a hearing on that objection.

(5) Each objection for which a hearing is requested includes a detailed description and analysis of the factual information to be presented in support of the objection. Failure to include a description and analysis for an objection constitutes a waiver of the right to a hearing on that objection. The description and analysis may be used only for the purpose of determining whether a hearing has been justified under $ 12.24,

$ 12.23 Notice of filing of objections.

As soon as practicable after the expiration of the time for filing objections to and requests for hearing on agency action involving the issuance, amendment, or revocation of a regulation under sections 502(n), 701(e), or 721(d) of the act or sections 4 or 5 of the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act, the Commissioner shall publish a notice in the FEDERAL REGISTER specifying those parts of the regulation that have been stayed by the filing of proper objections and, if no objections have been filed, stating that fact. The notice does not constitute a determination that a hearing is justified on any objections or requests for hearing that have been filed. When to do so will cause no undue delay, the notice required by this section may be combined with the notices described in $$ 12.28 and 12.35.

$ 12.24 Ruling on objections and re

quests for hearing. (a) As soon as possible the Commissioner will review all objections and requests for hearing filed under $12.22 and determine

(1) Whether the regulation should be modified or revoked under $ 12.26;

(2) Whether a hearing has been justified; and

(3) Whether, if requested, a hearing before a Public Board of Inquiry under part 13 or before a public advisory committee under part 14 or before the Commissioner under part 15 has been justified.

(b) A request for a hearing will be granted if the material submitted shows the following:

(1) There is a genuine and substantial issue of fact for resolution at a hearing. A hearing will not be granted on issues of policy or law.

(2) The factual issue can be resolved by available and specifically identified reliable evidence. A hearing will not be granted on the basis of mere allegations or denials or general descriptions of positions and contentions.

(3) The data and information submitted, if established at a hearing, would be adequate to justify resolution of the factual issue in the way sought by the person. A hearing will be denied if the Commissioner concludes that the data and information submitted are insufficient to justify the factual determination urged, even if accurate.

(4) Resolution of the factual issue in the way sought by the person is adequate to justify the action requested. A hearing will not be granted on factual issues that are not determinative with respect to the action requested, e.g., if the Commissioner concludes that the action would be the same even if the factual issue were resolved in the way

sought, or if a request is made that a final regulation include a provision not reasonably encompassed by the proposal. A hearing will be granted upon proper objection and request when a food standard or other regulation is shown to have the effect of excluding or otherwise affecting a product or ingredient.

(5) The action requested is not inconsistent with any provision in the act or any regulation in this chapter particularizing statutory standards. The proper procedure in those circumstances is for the person requesting the hearing to petition for an amendment or waiver of the regulation involved.

(6) The requirements in other applicable regulations, e.g., 88 10.20, 12.21, 12.22, 314.200, 514.200, and 601.7(a), and in the notice promulgating the final regulation or the notice of opportunity for hearing are met.

(c) In making the determination in paragraph (a) of this section, the Commissioner may use any of the optional procedures specified in $ 10.30(h) or in other applicable regulations, e.g., $8 314.200, 514.200, and 601.7(a).

(d) If it is uncertain whether a hearing has been justified under the principles in paragraph (b) of this section, and the Commissioner concludes that summary decision against the person requesting a hearing should be considered, the Commissioner may serve upon the person by registered mail a proposed order denying a hearing. The person has 30 days after receipt of the proposed order to demonstrate that the submission justifies a hearing. [44 FR 22339, Apr. 13, 1979, as amended at 54 FR 9035, Mar. 3, 1989; 64 FR 399, Jan. 5, 1999]

$ 12.26 Modification or revocation of

regulation or order. If the Commissioner determines upon review of an objection or request for hearing that the regulation or order should be modified or revoked, the Commissioner will promptly take such action by notice in the FEDERAL REGISTER. Further objections to or requests for hearing on the modification or revocation may be submitted under $8 12.20 through 12.22 but no further issue may be taken with other provisions in the regulation or order. Objections and requests for hearing that are

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