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best poems, “ Rimini," was written in prison, where he was condemned to remain for two years because he had published a satirical article about the prince regent. In his later years a pension of two hundred pounds was granted him. He died August 28, 1859.
George Gordon Noel, Lord Byron, was born in London, January 22, 1788. He studied at Trinity College, Cambridge, but did not remain to take his degree. While at the university he published a volume of poems,
“ Hours of Idleness," which he followed shortly by the satirical poem" English Bards and Scotch Reviewers," which won him immediate recognition. He wrote many dramatic poems, but his most beautiful work is • Childe Harold." He was the friend of Shelley and Leigh Hunt, and together they published The Liberal. In 1823 he joined the Greeks in their struggle for freedom, and the exposure and exertion that he suffered in this war brought on the fever of which he died in April, 1824.
Percy Bysshe Shelley was born at Field Place, England, August 4, 1792. He was entered at University College, Oxford, but was shortly expelled as an atheist. His life was a sad one, his first marriage was unhappy, and he was drowned when only thirty years old, in July, 1822. His longest and best works are “ The Cenci, "Prometheus Unbound,' 66 The Revolt of Islam, and " Adonais,” an elegy on the death of his friend, the poet Keats, near whom he was buried.
John Keats was born in London, England, in 1795 or 1796. His poem “ Endymion” was criticised severely in the Quarterly Review. Keats was so sensitive that this criticism is supposed to have aggravated his malady, and thus to be responsible for his early death. Among his other poems may be noted" Hyperion,"
Lamia,” and “ The Eve of St. Agnes." He died at Rome in 1821.
Thomas Hood was born in London, England, May 23, 1799. His humorous verses first attracted attention, but his serious poems have given him a lasting place in literature. Among these are “The Song of the Shirt," " " The Bridge of Sighs," " Eugene Aram," and “Ode to Melancholy.” He died in 1845.
APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES
Thomas Babington, Lord Macaulay, was born in Leicestershire, October 25, 1800. He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and studied law. He disliked his profession, greatly preferring literature. In 1830 he entered Parliament and was made Secretary of War in 1839. He was elected Lord Rector of Glasgow University and was raised to the peerage in 1857. He died in 1859. His bestknown poems are “ Ivry” and “ The Lays of Ancient Rome.”
The reign of Queen Victoria from a literary standpoint is second only to that of Elizabeth in brilliancy. The Victorian Age is usually applied to the whole century, during the better part of which Victoria reigned. The literature of this age is rich with the writings of Robert Browning, Alfred Tennyson, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Algernon Charles Swinburne, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and his sister Christina, William Morris, Matthew Arnold, Edwin Arnold, Jean Ingelow, Owen Meredith, Arthur Hugh Clough, Adelaide Procter, and a host of minor poets.
Alfred, Lord Tennyson, was born at Somersby, August 6, 1809. He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. His first book of poems, written with his brother Charles, was published two years before he entered college ; from that time until his death his literary work was continuous. In 1850 he succeeded Wordsworth as Poet Laureate, and thirty-four years later was raised to the peerage. His poems cover a wide range — lyrics, ballads, idyls, and dramas. His most important works are “The Princess," Memoriam, " " Maud,” and “ The Idylls of the King.” He died in 1892.
Elizabeth Barrett Browning was born at Durham, England, March 6, 1809. She was highly educated and was proficient in both Greek and Latin. She wrote her first verses at the age of ten, and her first volume of poems was published when she was but seventeen years old. In 1846 she was married to the poet Robert Browning. Her first known works are “Aurora Leigh,” a novel in verse, “ The Portuguese Sonnets,' “ Casa Guidi Windows,” and “ The Cry of the Children," a poem written to show the wretchedness of the little children employed in the mines
and factories of England. She died at Florence, Italy, in June, 1861.
Robert Browning was born in Camberwell, England, in 1812. He was educated at the University of London. He married Elizabeth Barrett, the poet, and together they lived much of their time in Italy. They were deeply interested in the struggle of Italy for freedom, and both wrote on this subject. In his long life Browning wrote many volumes of poems, and it is difficult to choose among them. “ The Pied Piper of Hamelin” is always a favorite with the young people, as are 6 How they brought the Good News from Ghent to Aix,” “Herve Riel,” and “Ratisbon."
His most popular poems are • Pippa Passes," " The Ring and the Book," " A Blot on the 'Scutcheon,” and “Saul.” He died in 1889.
Marian Evans, who wrote under the name of George Eliot, was born at Aubury Farm, near Nuneaton, England, November 22, 1819. She was carefully educated and was a most earnest student. While her poems are beautiful, her best work is in prose; and she ranks as one of England's greatest novelists. Her most famous novels are “ Adam Bede," " The Mill on the Floss," " Silas Marner,” and “ Middlemarch." She married Mr. John Cross, in May, 1880, and died December 22 of the same year.
Jean Ingelow was born at Boston, England, in 1820. She is known both as a poet and novelist. Her best-known poems are “ Songs of Seven” and “ The High Tide on the Coast of Lincolnshire." She died in 1897.
Matthew Arnold, son of Thomas Arnold of Rugby, was born at Laleham, England, December 24, 1822. He was educated at Rugby and Oxford. In 1857 he was elected professor of Poetry at Oxford. He is chiefly noted for his essays, though his poems are lofty in sentiment and polished in diction. “ Sohrab and Rustum” is his most important poem. He died in 1888.
Dinah Maria Mulock Craik was born in Staffordshire, England, in 1826. She won her fame as a writer of novels, of which the best is “John Halifax, Gentleman." She died in 1887.
APPENDIX: BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES
William Morris was born in Walthamstow, March 24, 1834. He was educated at Exeter College, Oxford. Before he was thirty years old he founded an establishment for the manufacture of artistic materials for household decoration. His work in this direction has improved the beauty of all household fabrics, and has affected the taste in household art in both England and America. Nevertheless he is best kuown as a poet. His finest poems are "The Earthly Paradise," a series of Norse legends, “ Three Northern Stones,” translated from Icelandic poems, and his translations of “ The Odyssey.” He died in 1896.
Algernon Charles Swinburne was born in London, April 5, 1837. He was educated partly in France, at Eton, and at Balliol College, Oxford. He left the University without a degree to spend several years in travel.
He is a master of English, using a wider vocabulary than any of his contemporaries, and the musical effects of his many varied meters have won for him a unique position in poetry. He has been called “ the greatest metrical inventor in English literature."
His works in French and Latin show him to be a poet in three languages. His best-known works are “Poems and Ballads," " Songs before Sunrise,” and “ Mary Stuart.” He is the greatest living English poet.
Dante Gabriel Rossetti was born in London, May 12, 1828. He studied art in the antique school of the Royal Academy, and became known as an artist before he won fame as a poet. His most widely known poem is “ The Blessed Damozel.” He died in 1882.
Christina Georgina Rossetti, the sister of D. G. Rossetti, was born in London, December 5, 1830. She ranks as one of the greatest and most spiritual of English poetesses.
Sir Edwin Arnold was born in Sussex, June 10, 1832. He was educated at King's College, London, and at University College, Oxford. He was appointed principal of the Government Sanscrit College at Poonah, India, and Fellow of the University of Bombay, and held these posts through the Sepoy Rebellion. Returning to London in 1861, he was one of the editors of the Daily Telegraph, and through his influence Henry M. Stanley undertook his first
expedition into Africa to find Livingstone. Nearly all of his poetry deals with Oriental legends, and much of his time was spent in India and Japan. His principal works are “ The Light of Asia," “ Pearls of the Faith," “ Indian Song of Songs,'' “ Japonica," and “ The Light of the World.”
Rudyard Kipling was born in Bombay, India, December 30, 1865. He was educated partly in England, but returned to India when he was only fifteen, and there began his literary work and first won fame. His writings are mainly in prose, and he is at his best when writing of India. His poems are all short, and “ The Recessional” and - The Dove of Dacca" are especially fine. In prose the
Jungle Books," “The Naulakha,” and “Kim” are the most popular.
Among the minor poets of the Victorian Age may be mentioned the following :
John Henry, Cardinal Newman, 1801-1890. Author of many volumes of sermons and the hymn “Lead Kindly Light.”
Henry Francis Lyte, 1793–1847. Author of many hymns, the most popular of which is “ Abide with Me."
Alfred Domett, 1811-1887. Author of “ Christmas Hymn."
Arthur Hugh Clough, 1819–1861. Author of " Bothie of Toberna-vuolich."
Charles Mackay, 1814–1889. Author of many songs, among them " There is a Good Time Coming” and “Cheer, Boys, Cheer!”
In the early days of this country the time and thought of the settlers were taken up in struggling with the difficulties of their surroundings, so that there was little opportunity for the establishment of an American literature. For art, poetry, and the beautiful in life, the colonists naturally turned to the mother country - to the home which they had so lately left. During the period before the French and Indian War the subject of religion and nice points of doctrine filled the minds of the Americans, hence we find that the first American writer who attained to a European reputation