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of the nights is very marked. The heat and light are double that of the earth, while the circular form of its orbit gives nearly an equal length to its four seasons.

If the inclination of its axis is 75°, as some astronomers hold, its tropics must be 75° from the equator, and its polar circles 75° from the poles. The torrid zone is, therefore, 150° in width. The torrid and frigid zones interlap through a space of 60°, midway between the equator and poles.

Telescopic Features.—Venus, being an interior planet, presents, like Mercury, all the phases of the moon. This fact was discovered by Galileo, and was among the first achievements of his telescopic observations. It had been argued against the Copernican system that, if true, Venus should wax and wane like the moon. Indeed, Copernicus himself boldly declared that if means of seeing the planets more distinctly were ever invented, Venus would be found to present such phases. Galileo, with his telescope, proved this fact, and, by overthrowing that objection, again vindicated the Copernican theory. This planet is not sensibly fattened at the poles. It is thought to have a dense, cloudy atmosphere. This was established by the fact that at the transit of Venus over the sun in 1761 and 1769, a faint ring of light was observed to surround the black disk of the planet. The evidence of an atmosphere, as well as of mountains, rests very much upon the peculiar appearance attending its crescent shape. (1.) The luminous part does not end abruptly; on the contrary, its light diminishes gradually, which diminution may be entirely explained by the twilight on the planet. The existence of an atmosphere

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which diffuses the rays of light into regions where the sun has already set, has hence been inferred. Thus, on Venus, the evenings, like ours, are lighted by twilight, and the mornings by dawn. (2.) The edge of the enlightened portion of the planet is uneven and irregular. This appearance is doubtless the effect of shadows cast by mountains. Spots have been noticed on its disk which are considered to be traceable to clouds. Indeed, Herschel thinks that we never see the real body of the planet, but only its atmosphere loaded with vapors, which may mitigate the glare of the intense sunshine.

Satellites.—Venus is not known to have any moon.


Sign, ;D, a circle with Equator and Meridian.

The Earth is the next planet we meet in passing outward from the sun. To the beginner, it seems strange enough to class our world among the heavenly bodies. They are brilliant, while it is dark and opaque; they appear light and airy, while it is solid and firm; we see in it no motion, while they are constantly changing their position; they seem mere points in the sky, while it is vast and extended. Yet at the very beginning we are to consider the earth as a planet shining brightly in the heavens, and appearing to other worlds as a star does to us: we are to learn that it is in motion, flying through its orbit with inconceivable velocity; that it is not fixed, but hanging in space, held by an invisible power of gravitation which it cannot evade; that it is small and insignificant beside the mighty globes that so gently shine upon us in the far-off sky; that our earth is only one atom in a universe of worlds, all firm and solid, and equally well fitted to be the abode of life.

Dimensions.—The earth is not "round like a ball," but flattened at the poles. Its form is that of an oblate spheroid. Its polar diameter is about 7,899 miles, and its equatorial about 7,925^. The compression is, therefore, about 26£ miles. (See table in Appendix.) If we represent the earth by a globe one yard in diameter, the polar diameter would be one-tenth of an inch too long. It has been recently

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shown that the equator itself is not a perfect circle,

but is somewhat flattened, since the diameter which pierces the meridian 14° east of Greenwich is two miles longer than the one at right angles to it. The circumference of the earth is about 25,000 miles. Its density is about 5£ times that of water. Its weight is

6,069,000,000,000,000,000,000 tons.

The inequalities of its surface, arising from buildings, valleys, mountains, etc., have been likened to the roughness on the rind of an orange. This is not an exaggeration. On a globe sixteen inches in diameter, the land, to be in proportion, should be represented by the thinnest writing-paper, the hills by small grains of sand, and elevated ranges by thick drawing-paper. To represent the deepest wells or mines, a scratch might be made that would be invisible except with a glass. The water in the ocean could be shown by a brush dipped in color and lightly drawn over the bed of the sea.

The Eotundity Of The Earth.—This is shown in various ways, among which are the following: (1) By the fact that vessels have sailed around the earth ;*

* It is curious, in connection with this well-known fact, to recall the arguments urged by the Spanish philosophers against the reasoning of Columbus, when he assured them that he could arrive at Asia just as certainly by sailing west as east "How," they asked, "can the earth be round? If it were, then on the opposite side the rain would fall upward, trees would grow with their branches down, and everything would be topsy-turvy. Every object on its surface would certuinly fall off; and if a ship by s tiling west should get around

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