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their flocks, their most valued possession. Then followed in order Taurus (the bull) and Gemini (the twins), called from the herds, which were esteemed next in value. At the summer solstice the sun appears to stop, and, crab-like, to crawl backward; hence the name Cancer (the crab). When the sun is in Leo, the brooks being dry, the lion leaves his lurking-place and becomes a terror to all. Virgo comes next, when the virgins glean in the summer harvest. At the autumnal equinox the days and nights are equally balanced, and this is beautifully represented by Libra (the scales). The vegetation decays in the fall, causing sickness and death; the Scorpion, that stings as it recedes, is suggestive of this Parthian warfare. Sagittarius (the archer) tells of the hunting month. Capricornus (the goat), which delights in climbing lofty precipices, denotes how at the winter solstice the sun begins to climb the sky on his return north. Aquarius (the waterbearer) is a natural emblem of the rainy season. Pisces (the fishes) is the month for fishing.

Signs And Constellations Do Not Agree.—By the precession of the equinoxes, as we have before described on page 121, the signs have fallen back along the ecliptic about 30°, so that those stars which were, in the infancy of astronomy, in the sign Aries (T) are now in Taurus (H), and those which were in the sign Pisces () are now in Aries (V).*

• If the teacher put a pin at the centre of Fig. 72, and, drawing a sharp knife between the signs and the constellation*, cause the inner part to revolve, the signs may be tamed before any constellation, and thus this change be clearly apprehended.

The accompanying cut may illustrate this more clearly.

Pig. 72.

[graphic]

SIGNS AND CONSTELLATIONS, AS THEY NOW COMPABE IN THE
HEAVENS, THJf FORMER HAVING FALLEN BACK, AND THE
LATTER APPARENTLY ADVANCED, 30* EACH.

Permanence Of The Consteijations.—The figures which the stars form, and the general appearance of the constellations, are due to the position we occupy. Could we cross the gulf of space beyond Neptune, the stars now so familiar to us would look strangely enough in their new groupings. As one in riding through a forest sees the trees apparently increase in size and open up to view before him, while they

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their flocks, their most valued possession. Then followed in order Taurus (the bull) and Gemini (the twins), called from the herds, which were esteemed next in value. At the summer solstice the sun appears to stop, and, crab-like, to crawl backward; hence the name Cancer (the crab). When the sun is in Leo, the brooks being dry, the lion leaves his lurking-place and becomes a terror to all. Virgo comes next, when the virgins glean in the summer harvest. At the autumnal equinox the days and nights are equally balanced, and this is beautifully represented by Libra (the scales). The vegetation decays in the fall, causing sickness and death; the Scorpion, that stings as it recedes, is suggestive of this Parthian warfare. Sagittarius (the archer) tells of the hunting month. Capricornus (the goat), which delights in climbing lofty precipices, denotes how at the winter solstice the sun begins to climb the sky on his return north. Aquarius (the waterbearer) is a natural emblem of the rainy season. Pisces (the fishes) is the month for fishing.

Signs And Constellations Do Not Agree.—By the precession of the equinoxes, as we have before described on page 121, the signs have fallen back along the ecliptic about 30°, so that those stars which were, in the infancy of astronomy, in the sign Aries (T) are now in Taurus (8), and those which were in the sign Pisces (3<) are now in Aries (V).*

* If the teacher put a pin at the centre of Fig. 72, and, drawing a sharp knife between the signs and the constellations, cause the inner part to revolve, the signs may Be turned before any constellation, and thus this change be clearly apprehended.

The accompanying cut may illustrate this more clearly.

Pig. T2.

[graphic]

SIGNS AND CONSTELLATIONS, AS THET NOW COMPARE IN THE
HEAVENS, Tlyf FORMER HAVING FALLEN BACK, AND THE
LATTER APPARENTLY ADVANCED, 30* EACH.

Permanence Of The Constellations.—The figures which the stars form, and the general appearance of the constellations, are due to the position we occupy. Could we cross the gulf of space beyond Neptune, the stars now so familiar to us would look strangely enough in their new groupings. As one in riding through a forest sees the trees apparently increase in size and open up to view before him, while they decrease in size and close in behind him, forming clusters and groups which constantly change as he passes along; so, as our earth travels with the solar system on its immense sidereal journey, the stars will grow larger and brighter in front, while those behind us will appear smaller and dimmer. Since, in addition to this," the stars themselves are in motion with varying velocity and in different directions, the constellations must change still more rapidly, so as ultimately to transform entirely the appearance of the heavens. In time, the "bands of Orion" will be loosened, and the "Seven Sisters" will glide apart into remote space. Such are the di9tances however, that, although these movements have been going on constantly, yet since the creation of man no variation has occurred that is perceptible, save to the watchful astronomer. Nothing in nature is as invariable as the stars. They are the standards of time. Myriads of years must elapse before new starmaps will be required. We need not, then, allow any fear of confusion to disturb us while we study the sky as it is.

Value Of The Stabs In Practical Life. — "The stars are the landmarks of the universe." They seem to be placed in the heavens by the Creator, not alone to elevate our thoughts and expand our conceptions of the infinite and eternal, but to afford us, amid the constant fluctuations of our own earth, something unchangeable and abiding. Every landmark about us is constantly changing, but over all shine the

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