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fit.--Sets sail on the “George Henry.”—The Voyage.--Kudlago.—Holsteinborg, Greenland.-Pop-

ulation of Greenland. --Sails for Davis's Strąit.-Character of the Innuits.-Wreck of the “Rescue."

--Ebierbing and Tookoolito.--Their Visit to England. Hall's first Exploration.-European and In-

nuit Life in the Arctic Regions.—Building an Igloo.-Almost Starved.-Fight for Food with Dogs.

---Ebierbing arrives with a Seal.--How he caught it.-A Seal-feast.—The Innuits and Seals.--The

Polar Bear.--How he teaches the Innuits to catch Seals. At a Seal-hole.--Dogs as Seal-hunters.-

Dogs and Bears.--Dogs and Reindeers.-Innuits and Walruses.-More about Igloos.-Innuit Imple-

ments.-Uses of the Reindeer.-Innuit Improvidence.--A Deer-feast.—A frozen Delicacy.-Whale-

skin as Food.-Whale-gum.-How to eat Whale Ligament.-Raw Meat.-The Dress of the Innuits.

--A pretty Style.- Religious Ideas of the Innuits. Their kindly Character. - Treatment of the
Aged and Infirm.- A Woman abandoned to die.--Hall's Attempt to rescue her.---The Innuit Nomads,
without any form of Government.-Their Numbers diminishing.-A Sailor wanders away.-Hall's
Search for him.--Finds him frozen to death.-The Ship free from Ice.- Preparations to return.---
Reset in the Ice-pack.--Another Arctic Winter.--Breaking up of the Ice.-Departure for Home.-
Tookoolito and her Child • Butterfly.”_Death of " Butterfly."-Arrival at Home.-Results of Hall's
Expedition.--Innuit Traditions. Discovery of Frobisher Relics.--Hall undertakes a second Expedi-
tion.--His Statement of its Object and Prospects.--Last Tidings of Hall................. Page 433

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1. Esquimaux Dog-team.........

2. The Tundra of Siberia...

3. Indian Summer Encampment, Alaska

4. Rocks and Ice.

5. Coast of Labrador.....

6. Coast of Norway.

7. Arctic Forest..

8. Verge of Forest Region......

9. Forest Confiagration........

10. Arctic Clothing..........

11. Arctic Moonlight ..........

12. Aurora seen in Norway...

13. Aurora seen in Greenland.

14. Group of Reindeer. .....

15. Elks....

............. ....

16. The Musk-ox. .....

17. Argali............

18. The Snowy Owl....

19. Bernide Goose.......

20. The Sea-eagle..........

21. Arctic Navigation......

22. Among Hummocks .

23. Drifting on the Ice......

24. Forins of Icebergs.....

25. Gothic Icebergs.......

26. Pinnacle Icebergs ......

27. Icebergs aground..

28. Icebergs and Glacier, Frobisher Bay

29. Glacier, Bute Inlet..

30. Scaling an Iceberg..

31. An Arctic Channel.

32. Open Water.....

33. Glacier Discharging..

34. The Whale.......

35. The Narwhal...

36. Walruses on the Ice......

37. Home of the Polar Bear....

38. The Gull...

39. Lava-fields.......

40. Effigy in Lava.....

41. The Strokkr.......

42. Entrance to the Almannagja

43. The Almannagja....

44. The Hrafnagja............

45. The Tintron Rock.. ....

46. Fall of the Oxeraa.....

47. Icelandic Horses.....

48. Shooting Reindeer ..

49. The Eider-duck......

50. The Jyrfalcon........

51. The Giant Auk....

52. Cathedral at Reykjavik...

53. Thingvalla, Lögberg and Almannagja

54. Reykjavik, the Capital of Iceland..

55. Governor's Residence, Reykjavik ...

56. Icelandic Houses.........

T. Church at Thingvalla......

58. The Pastor's House, Thingvalla. .

59. The Pastor of Thingvalla.

60. Bridge River, Iceland

61. Icelandic Bog..

62. Coast of Iceland......

63. Westman Isles.........

64. Home of Sea-birds.....

65. Fishing in Norway........

66. Norwegian Farm ......

67. Steaming along the Coast......

68. The Puffin..............

69. The Dovrefjeld.....

70. Midnight Sun off Spitzbergen..

71. Magdalena Bay, Spitzbergen..

72. Burial in Spitzbergen.......

73. Arctic Fox...

A CUIC FOX.........................

74. Chase of the Walrus......

75. A glimpse of Jan Meyen's Island.

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76. A Samoïede Priest....

77. Banks of the Irtysch.....

78. Group of Kirghis....

79. View of Tagilsk......

80. The Beach at Nicolayevsk.

81. On the Amoor...

82. Village on the Amoor..

83. Koriak Yourt........

84. Kamchatka Sables ......

85. Tartar Encampment....

86. Siberian Peasant.........

87. View of Irkutsk.........

88. A Jakut Village........

89. Bering's Monument at Petropavlosk...........

90. Church at Petropavlosk ....

91. View of Petropavlosk ......

92. Dogs Fishing ............

93. Dog-team.....

94. Dogs Towing Boat.

95. Frame-work of Tchuktchi House

96. Tchuktchi Canoe....

97. Tchuktchi Pipe.....

98. An Aleut............

99. View of Sitka.....

100. A Baidar...........

101. Fort St. Michael......

102. The Frozen Yukon....

103. Under-ground House.....

104. Fish-traps on the Yukon.

105. Aurora at Nulato....

106. Breaking up of the Ice

107. Fort Yukon...

108. A Deer Corral....

109. Lip Ornaments.

110. A Baidar....

111. Four-post Coffin.......

112. Tanana Indian......

113. Winter Hut of Hunters....

114. Fort Edmonton, North Saskatchewan.......

115. Trader's Camp.........

116. Swamp formed by deserted Beaver Dam...

117. Hunting Bison in the Snow.......

118. Herd of Bison.........

119. Driving Bison over a Precipice......

120. Watching for Crees...........

121. A Cree Village ......

122. The Albatross..........

123. Strait of Magellan ........

124. A Highway of Commerce.....

125. Patagonians...

126. Coast of Fuegia...

127. Fuegian Traders..

128. A Fuegian and his Food...

129. Starvation Beach...........

180. Surveying in Greenland....

131. Hall and Companions, in Innuit Costume................

132. Kudlago ................

133. Greenland Currency.....

134. Woman and Child. (Drawn and Engraved by an Innuit.) ...

135. Festival of the Birthday of the King of Denmark. .........

136. Preparing Boot-soles..........

137. Wreck of the Rescue...

138. The George Henry laid up for the Winter..

139. Storm-bound...........

140. Innuit Stone Lamp...

141. Fighting for Food.....

142. Through the Snow,....

143. Waiting by a Seal-hole..

144. Looking for Seals...

145. Innuit Strategy to Capture a Seal.

146. Seal-hole and Igloo....

147. Waiting for a Blow.............

148. Dog and Seal................

149. Spearing through the Snow....

150. Dogs and Bear ....

151. Barbekark and the Reindeer.

152. Head of Reindeer.....

153. Spearing the Walrus.......

154. Innuit Igloos..............

155. Walrus Skull and Tusks...

156. The Woman's Knife.........

157. Innuit Implements.....

158. Finding the Dead.....

159. Iunuit Summer Village...

160. Returning to the Ship......

161. Over the Ice......

162. The Frozen Sailor......

163. Farewell of the Innuits....

PAGE

..ATKINSON. 179

..... ATKINSON. 185

.... ATKINSON. 188

...... ATKINSON. 191

HARPER'S MAG. 196

.HARPER'S Mag. 197

HARPER'S MAG. 198

.....HARPER'S MAG. 199

.HARPER'S MAG. 201

......ATKINSON. 204

.......ATKINSON. 207

.....HARPER'S MAG. 209

.. HARPER'S Mag. 229

.WHYMPER. 248

.. WHYMPER. 254

HARPER'S MAG. 257

..HARPER'S MAG. 259

.........WHYMPER. 259

.HARPER'S MAG. · 260

......... WHYMPER. 262

..... HARPER'S Mag. 263

....... WHYMPER. 264

. WHYMPER. 268

. WHYMPER. 270

HARPER'S MAG. 272

...... WIYMPER. 277

...... WHYMPER. 279

...... WHYMPER. 280

..... WHYMPER. 281

..... WHYMPER. 282

... WHYMPER. 283

.. WHYMPER. 285

..... WHYMPER.

HARPER'S Mag. 287

HARPER'S MAG. 288

WHYMPER. 288

....... WHYMPER. 289

.......MILTON.

........MILTON. 311

...HARPER'S MAG. 312

..........MILTON. 314

HARPER'S MAG.

319

HARPER'S MAG. 320

.HARPER'S MAG. 321

........ MILTON. 322

.HARPER'S MAG. 324

...........Wood. 396

.....HARPER'S MAG. 408

HARPER'S MAG.

....HARPER'S MAG. 417

HARPER'S MAG. 425

HARPER'S MAG. 427

HARPER'S MAG. 429

HARPER'S MAG. 432

.........HALL. 433

.......HALL. 434

......HALL. 436

HALL. 437

.... HALL. 438

......HALL. 439

..HALL. 440

.....HALL. 441

..HALL. 442

......HALL. 443

.......HALL. 444

.....HALL. 445

.....HALL. 446

......HALL. 447

.....HALL. 448

......HALL. 449

.....HALL. 450

......HALL. 450

......HALL. 451

......HALL. 452

.......HALL. 453

.......HALL. 454

......HALL. 454

......HALL. 455

......HALL. 456

......HALL. 457

.....HALL. 457

.......HALL. 458

.......HALL. 461

.......HALL. · 462

.......HALL. 463

......HALL. 464

....HALL. 465

......HALL. 467

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CHAPTER I.

THE ARCTIC LANDS. The barren Grounds or Tundri.--Abundance of animal Life on the Tundri in Summer.-Their Silence

and Desolation in Winter. ---Protection afforded to Vegetation by the Snow. -Flower-growth in the highest Latitudes.-Character of Tundra Vegetation. Southern Boundary-line of the barren Grounds.—Their Extent.—The forest Zone.--Arctic Trees.---Slowness of their Growth.-Monotony of the Northern Forests.—Mosquitoes.—The various Causes which determine the Severity of an Arctic Climate.—Insular and Continental Position. Currents.-Winds.-Extremes of Cold observed by Sir E. Belcher and Dr. Kane.-How is Man able to support the Rigors of an Arctic Winter? Proofs of a milder Climate having once reigned in the Arctic Regions.-Its Cause according to Dr. Oswald Heer.—Peculiar Beauties of the Arctic Regions.--Sunset. -Long lunar Nights. The Aurora. | GLANCE at a map of the Arctic regions shows us that many of the 1 rivers belonging to the three continents-Europe, Asia, America-discharge their waters into the Polar Ocean or its tributary bays. The territories drained by these streams, some of which (such as the Mackenzie, the Yukon, the Lena, the Yenisei, and the Obi) rank among the giant rivers of the earth, form, along with the islands within or near the Arctic circle, the vast region over which the frost-king reigns supreme.

Man styles himself the lord of the earth, and may with some justice lay claim to the title in more genial lands where, armed with the plough, he compels the soil to yield him a variety of fruits; but in those desolate tracts

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