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OR THE

DOCTRINE OF THE MENTAL PHENOMENA.

By J. G. SPURZHEIM, M. D.
OF THE UNIVERSITIES OF VIENNA AND PARIS, AND LICENTIATE

OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS OF LONDON.

IN TWO VOLUMES.

VOL. II.
PHILOSOPHICAL PART.

SECOND AMERICAN EDITION,

GREATLY IMPROVED BY THE AUTHOR, FROM THE THIRD LONDON EDITION.

BOSTON:
MARSH, CAPEN AND LYON.

1833.

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Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1832, by MARSA, CAPEN

AND Lyon, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Massachusetts.

STEREOTYPED BY LYMAN THURSTON AND CO.

BOSTON.

PRE FACE.

Whoever wishes for truth is a philosopher; and of philosophers there are as many varieties as there are departments of knowledge, as well physical as meta. physical. The title, however, is more particularly given to him who looks for exact notions and positive knowledge, founded on principles dependent on the relations between cause and effect.

It is unfortunate for humanity, that those who assume distinctive titles do not act up to them. From this cause it is that the most noble appellations fall into discredit. Pretended patriots have sometimes been more dangerous than declared enemies—pretended Christians worse than heathens. Who would not be styled a philosopher, or friend, or lover of wisdom? Yet this name is often applied to decry individuals and their manner of thinking. Let us only observe, that all who call themselves philosophers deserye not the title, any more than those who are called noble do their titles.

The ancient philosophers were, in general, metaphysicians, that is, they examined objects without the reach of observation ; for instance, the primitive cause of the universe, the origin of beings, the cause of life, the nature of the soul, its immortality, &c. I incessantly repeat, that the aim of Phrenology is never to attempt

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