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UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE FOR THE PEOPLE
WITH MAPS AND NUMEROUS WOOD ENGRAVINGS
W. AND R. CHAMBERS 47 PATERNOSTER ROW
A.ND HIGH STREET EDINBURGH
WITH SUBSEQUENT CORRECTIONS
All Rights are raerved
A DICTIONARY OF
UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE FOR THE PEOPLE
GOOD, Joirx Mason-, a physician and author, was born at Epping in Essex, 1764, and died in London in 1827. He commenced practice as a snrgeon in Sudbury in 1784, but meeting with little success, he removed to London in 1793, principally with the view of obtaining literary employment.
In addition to The Book of Nature, the work by which he is now chiefly known, and which onlyappeared shortly before his death, he published various poems, translations, and professional treatises. Of his original poems we need say nothing. Amongst his translations we may notice his Song of Songs, or Sacred Idylls, translated from the Hebrew, 1803; his translation of Lucretius, in verse, in 1805; of the Book of Job, in 1812; of the book of Proverbs, in 1821; and of the Book of Psalms, which was just completed at the time of his death. His chief professional work, his Study of Medicine, in four volumes, was published in 1822. It is a learned and amusing work, but by no means a trustworthy guide to the medical student. He likewise published, in conjunction with Olinthus Gregory and Bosworth, the Pantologia, or Encyclopaedia, comprising a General Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and General Literature, in twelve volumes, which were completed in 1813, and contributed largely to various periodicals. His friend, Dr Olinthus
published a Memoir of his Life in
GOOD BEHAVIOUR, a phrase rather popular than legal It is used chiefly as synonymous with keeping the peace. Thus, if one person assaults another, or threatens or provokes him to a breach of the peace, the offence is punishable summarily by justices of the peace, who, besides inflicting a fine, may, and often do bind over the offending party to keep the peace, and be of good behaviour for a period of six or twelve months. The mode of doing this is by requiring the offending party to enter into his recognizances with or without sureties, which is, in fact, the giving a bond for a specified mm to the crown, and if it is broken, that is, if
the recognizance is forfeited, then the party may be again punished.
GOOD-CONDUCT PAY is an addition made in the British army to the daily pay of corporals and private soldiers, in consideration of long service unaccompanied by bad behaviour. The amount awarded at one time is id. a day, with one white chevron on the arm as a badge of distinction. Successive awards of good-conduct pay may raise the total grant to (id. a day, with a corresponding number of stripes on the arm.
In each regiment there is kept a 'Regimental Defaulters' Book,' in which the commanding officer is bound to enter the name of every soldier in the corps who shall have been convicted by courtmartial of any offence, or who, in consequence of misconduct, shall be subjected to forfeiture of pay, either with or without imprisonment, or to any other punishment beyond seven days' confinement to barracks. No first or subsequent Id. of goodconduct pay can be awarded to a soldier, unless two continuous years have elapsed without his name being thus recorded; and if he have the misfortune to come within the provisions of this black book while actually in receipt of good-conduct pay, he loses for each offence Id. per diem, which can only be restored after one uninterrupted year of good service, during which his name has not been recorded in the defaulters' book. The loss of the Id. is of course accompanied by the loss of the corresponding distinguishing mark or stripe.
The first la. is obtainable after three years' service, the last two having been passed through without the name once appearing in the defaulters' book; the second, after 8 years; the third, after 13 years; the fourth, after 18 years; the fifth, after 23 years; and the sixth, after 28 years; the service being only reckoned in any case from the age of 18, and two years of uninterrupted good conduct immediately before the time at which the award i3 granted being requisite in every instance. As an additional inducement to continuous good behaviour, j 14 uninterrupted years without an adverse entry ! entitles a soldier, after 16, 21, or 26 years' service, i to the award for which he would only otherwise be j eligible after 18, 23, or 28 years, i Non-commissioned officers do not receive goodI conduct pay, an addition instead thereof of 2d. per diem having been made to their regular pay a few years since. A sum, however, not exceeding £4400 a year is distributed among sergeants of long service and good conduct, in the way of annuities, not ; over £20 each. The annuity is receivable during active service, and also in conjunction with the pension on retirement.
In the Ceylon Rifles, the Gold Coast Artillery, and the Malta Fencible Artillery, good-conduct pay is allowed to the native soldiers for similar periods of j service, but to only half the above amount.
A considerable increase of the army causes a I large decrease in the sum payable for good-con'duct pay, as the older soldiers become non-commissioned officers, and the ranks are swelled by young recruits, who have not yet had time to earn these extra rewards. The total charge in the army for good-conduct pay during the year 1862—1863 is estimated, exclusive of the annuities to sergeants, at £105,622.
Good-conduct pay and badges are also awarded in the navy to seamen of exemplary conduct; but the periods for obtaining, and the rules under which it is granted and forfeited, so nearly resemble those in force for the army, that a separate description is unnecessary. The leading differences are, that the grant is limited to three badges, and 3d. a day; that petty officers continue to hold it; and that it is of no account in the pension given at the expiration of active service.
GOOD FRIDAY, the Friday before Easter, sacred as the commemoration of the crucifixion of our Lord. This day was kept as a day of mourning and of special prayer from a very early period. It was one of the two paschal days celebrated by the Christian Church, and in memory of the crucifixion, was called by the Greeks Pasclia Staurosimon, or the 'Pasch of the Cross.' That it was observed as a day of rigid fast and of solemn and melancholy ceremonial, we learn from the apostolic constitutions (b. v. c. 18), and from Eusebius (Eccl. Hist. b. ii. c. 17), who also tells that, when Christianity was established in the empire, Constantine forbade the holding of law-courts, markets, and other public proceedings upon this day. In the Roman Catholic Church, the service of this day is very peculiar; instead of the ordinary mass, it consists of what is called the Mass of the Prcsanctified. the sacred host not being consecrated on Good Friday, but reserved from the preceding day. Tho priests and attendants are robed in black, in token of mourning; the altar is stripped of its ornaments; the kiss of peace is omitted, in detestation of the kiss of the traitor Judas; the priest recites a long series of prayers for all classes, orders, and ranks in the church, and even for heretics, schismatics, pagans, and Jews. But the most striking part of tho ceremonial of Good Friday is the so-called 'adoration of the cross,' or, as it was called in the old English popular vocabulary, 'creeping to the cross.' A large crucifix is placed upon the altar with appropriate ceremonies, in memory of the awful event which the crucifix represents, and the entire congregation, commencing with the celebrant priest and liis ministers, approach, and upon their knees reverently kiss the figure of our crucified Lord. In the eyes of Protestants, this ceremony appears to partake more strongly of the idolatrous character than any other in the Roman Catholic ritual; but Catbohos earnestly repudiate all such
construction of the ceremony. See Idolatry; Images. The very striking office of 'Tenebrre' is held upon Good Friday, as well as on the preceding two days: it consists of the matins and lauds of the office of Holy Saturday, and has this peculiarity, that at the close all the lights in the church are extinguished except one, which for a time (as a symbol of our Lord's death and burial) is hidden under the altar.
In the English Church, Good Friday is also celebrated with special solemnity. Anciently, a sermon was preached at St Paul's Cross on the afternoon of this day, at which the lord mayor and aldermen attended. The practice of eating upon this day 'cross buns'—cakes with a cross impressed upon them—is a relic of the Roman Catholic times, but it has lost all its religious significance. In England and Ireland, Good Friday is by law a dies non, and all business is suspended. In Scotland, the day meets with no peculiar attention, except from members of the Episcopal and Roman Catholic communions.
GOOD HOPE. See Cape Of Good Hope.
GOODALL, Frederick, an eminent English artist, the son of Edward Goodall, an engraver of reputation, was born in London, September 17, 1822. His first oil-picture was entitled, 'Finding the Dead Body of a Miner by Torchlight,' for which the Society of Arts awarded him the large silver medal. During the summers of 1838—1842, he visited Normandy and Brittany, and in 1839, when but 17 years of age, he exhibited his first picture at the Royal Academy, 'French Soldiers Playing Cards in a Cabaret.' His 'Entering Church,' as well as 'The Return from a Christening,' which received a prize of £50 from the British Institution, and others of his early pictures, were purchased by Mr Wells. 'The Tired Soldier,' exhibited in 1842, was purchased by Mr Vernon, and is now in the Vernon Gallery. Some of his French scenes are, 'Veteran of the Old Guard describing his Battles,' 'La Fete du Mariage,' 'The Wounded Soldier Returned to his Family,' 'The Conscript.' In 1844, he went for subjects to Ireland, and subsequently visited North Wales. Among his Irish scenes are, 'Irish Courtship,' 'The Irish Piper,' and the 'Departure of the Emigrant Ship.' His later efforts nave chiefly been directed to English subjects. 'The Village Festival,' one of the best of them, exhibited in 1847, was purchased by Mr Vernon. His 'Hunt the Slipper' (1849), 'Raising the Maypole' (1851), 'An Episode of the Happier Days of Charles L' (1853), 'Arrest of a Peasant Loyalist—Brittany, 1793' (1855), and 'Cranmer at the Traitor's Gate' (1856), also added greatly to his reputation. In 1852, G. was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy.
GOODENIA'CE^;, a natural order of exogenous plants, of which about 150 species are known, mostly herbaceous plants, although a few are shrubs, and mostly natives of Australia and the islands of the Southern Ocean, a few being also found in India, the south of Africa, and South America. The order is allied to Campanulaceat and Lobeliacece, but is destitute of the milky juice which is found in both of these. The corolla is monopetalous, more or less irregular. A remarkable character of this order is that the summit of the style bears a little cup, in the bottom of which the stigma is placed. The flowers of some of the species are of considerable beauty. The young leaves of Sccevola taccada are used as a salad by the Malays; and the pith furnishes a kind of rice-paper, which they make into artificial flowers and other ornaments.