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of Days in Daniel, Dan. vii. 9. is represented as having garments white as snow; when our Saviour was transfigured, his raiment was white as the light; and whenever Angels have appeared to men, they have always been clothed in white linen, Matth. xxviii. 3, and passim. Linen also was deemed more cleanly than woollen; and was therefore preferred for the Priest's garments, under the law, during the public service. The priests were to wear a linen Ephod. Exod. xxviii. 4, 5. 1 Sam. ii. 18. The Levites also, that were singers, were arrayed in white linen, 2 Chron. v. 12. The armies that

followed the Lamb were clothed in fine linen, white and clean; and to the Lamb's wife was granted, that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white; for the fine linen is (that is, represents) the righteousness of Saints, Revel. xix. 14, 8.

As to its shape, it has been observed, that as the garments used by the Jewish Priesthood were girt tight round, to signify the bondage of the Law, so the looseness of the surplice, used by the Christian Priests, signifies the freedom of the Gospel.

So much may be said for the significancy of a dress, which might, however, be sufficiently defended, if we only regarded its conveniency, gravity, and decency; how it should lose all these favourable considerations, merely because it is also worn by Popish priests, it is not easy to see.

The Hood, in Latin called Caputium, or Cucullus, is another part of the old ministerial dress still in use. The Cucullus was a habit among the ancient Romans; being a coarse covering for the head: from the Romans it was taken up by the Monks, and Ascetics, who assumed this covering for the head as suited to their reservedness; when they pleased, they might let it fall back, and hang down behind. After this it came to be used by the members of Cathedral Churches, and Colleges, though these persons were not permitted to wear it in the same manner as the Monks: from them the Universities adopted it, to distinguish their different degrees, varying the materials, colour, and fashion, according to the difference of the several degrees. That these academical honours may be known abroad, as well as in the Universities, the Church enjoins by this Rubric, and in Canons 17, 25, and 58, that every minister, who is a graduate, shall wear his proper hood during divine service; all others are forbidden to wear any such under pain of suspension; allowing them, however, in the

room of it, to wear upon their surplices some decent tippet of black, 66 SO it be not silk.”

Among other Ornaments of the Church, then in use, and therefore within the meaning of this Rubric, there were two lights, enjoined to be set upon the Altar, as a significant emblem of the light, which Christ's Gospel brought into the world. This was ordered by the same injunction, which prohibited all other lights and tapers, that used to be superstitiously set before images and shrines. These two lights are still used in Cathedral Churches, and Chapels, as often as divine service is performed at candle-light; and they ought also, by this Rubric, to be used in all parish churches and Chapels when there is service at candle-light. The Pulpitcloth, Cushions, and Coverings for the Altar, with certain other articles, are likewise among the Ornaments used in the Church, under the authority of the reference made in this Rubric, to the Rubrics in the first Common Prayer Book of Edward VI.

As to the direction, that the Morning and Evening Prayers shall be used in the accustomed place of the Church, Chapel, or Chancel, it should be remembered, that in the first Book of Edward VI. the Rubric ordered, the Priest being in the Choir, to begin, with a loud voice, the Lord's Prayer, called the Pater Noster, with which Prayer the Morning and Evening Service then began: so that, it was then the custom for the minister to perform divine service (that is, the Morning and Evening Prayer, as well as the Communion Office), at the upper end of the Choir, near the Altar, towards which, whether standing or kneeling, he always turned his face in the Prayers, though, whilst reading the Lessons, he turned to the People. This practice, however, was not approved; and it was accordingly altered in the Rubric prefixed to the second Book, which directed, that the Morning and Evening Prayer shall be used in such places of the Church, Chapel, or Chancel, and the Minister shall turn him, AS THE PEOPLE MAY BEST HEAR. And if there be any controversy therein, the matter shall be referred to the Ordinary, and he, or his deputy, shall appoint the place.

This alteration is said to have caused great contentions; some kneeling one way, some another, though still keeping in the Chancel; whilst others left the accustomed place, and performed all the service in the body of the Church among the people.

To appease this strife, and remove such diversity, it was thought fit, when the English Service was again brought into use, at the accession of Queen Elizabeth, that the Rubric should be corrected into the Form, in which we now have it; namely, that the Morning and Evening Prayer shall be used in the accustomed place of the Church, Chapel, or Chancel: by which, it should seem, must be understood the Choir, or Chancel, which was directed by the first Book of Edward VI. for the second Book had been in use only for one year, and could not be said to have made a custom in that short period. However, a dispensing power was lodged with the Ordinary to determine otherwise, if he saw just cause, respecting the place of reading. Pursuant, therefore, to this Rubric, the Morning and Evening Service was again, as formerly, read in the Chancel, or Choir: but, because in some Churches, the body of the Church was too distant from the Chancel for the minister to be well heard, the Bishops, at the solicitation of their inferior Clergy, and by virtue of the discretion to dispense lodged in them by this Rubric, allowed the Clergy, in several places, to supersede their former practice, and to have desks, or reading-pews, in the body of the church, where they might perform the Morning and Evening Service with more ease to themselves, and more convenience to the people. This practice soon became so general, that the Convocation, in the beginning of James I. ordered, that in every Church there should be a convenient seat made for the minister to read service in, Canon 82. This being almost threescore years before the Restoration of Charles II. when the last Review was made, it is very probable, that when the Commissioners at the Savoy were for continuing this Rubric, they intended the desk, or reading-pew, should be understood as the accustomed place for reading Prayers.

The direction, that Chancels should remain as they had in times past, was to obviate a disposition, that had at one time strongly prevailed, to destroy the distinction of a Chancel. This direction had been made in the second Book of King Edward; and the enforcing of it seemed to be needed after the riotous behaviour of the Puritans, who, in the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, proceeded to pull down the rails and frames that separated them from the body of the church, and to demolish Chancels, with the Altars, and every thing ornamental, that distinguished them from the body of the Church, and gave any intimation of their being more

sacred than the rest of the building. The prevalence of similar Puritanical prejudices during the late Rebellion, was, no doubt, the reason why this direction about chancels, was continued, at the last Review of the Common Prayer Book.


At a very early period in the history of Christianity, we find express testimony, that they met, not only on Sundays, but every day, for the public worship of God. In a later period, that of the Apostolical Constitutions, the very order of such Service (as has been before noticed) is given in detail. The Morning Service is there described in the following manner. It began with the 63d Psalm, which was therefore called the Morning Psalm. Immediately after this, followed the prayers for Catechumens, for those that were possessed, for the Candidates for Baptism, and the Penitents, which were performed in the manner of bidding of Prayers. After these were finished, then followed Prayers for the peace of the whole world, and for all orders of men in the Church: after these came another short bidding Prayer, for Peace and Prosperity the ensuing day; which was immediately succeeded by the Bishop's Commendatory Prayer, or Morning Thanksgiving. When this was ended, the Deacon bid them bow their heads, and receive the Bishop's solemn benediction; and then the Deacon dismissed the congregation with-Depart in peace; the form for dismissing every Church assembly.


Such is the Order of the Morning Service as described in the Apostolical Constitutions. To this, the evening service, as there set down, was in most things conformable. The principal difference consisted in this; it began with the 141st Psalm; and instead of the bidding Prayer for Peace and Prosperity, and the Bishop's Commendatory Prayer, two others were added, more proper for the evening, and which were called the Evening Bidding Prayer, and Evening Thanksgiving. There was a difference in the Bishop's Benediction.

It further appears from other rituals, that it was customary, in some places, to recite several of the Psalms, and to mix Lessons along with them, both out of the Old Testament and New, for the edification of the people.

e Called by the Greeks Προσφώνησις.


When the Wicked Man, &c.

King Edward's first Book of Common Prayer began with the Lord's Prayer; but such a beginning was afterwards thought too abrupt, and therefore when that Book was reviewed in the same reign, they prefixed these Sentences, with the following Exhortation, Confession, and Absolution, as a proper introduction to bring the minds of the congregation to a spiritual frame, and prepare them for the duty of prayer, which is to follow.

The Sentences here selected from Scripture are the most plain, and the most likely to bring all sorts of sinners to repentance. It is in the discretion of the Minister to use one, or more of them, as it shall appear to him most suitable to the occasion.


Dearly Beloved Brethren, &c.

This Exhortation is to apply the foregoing Sentences, and to direct the congregation how to perform the Confession that follows. The Minister offers to accompany us to the throne of Grace, knowing his Master will gladly receive him with so many penitents in his retinue. He promises he will put words into our mouths, and speak with us, and for us; only we are to declare our assent to every sentence, by repeating it reverently after him.

OF THE CONFESSION. Almighty and most merciful

Father, &c.

We learn from Holy Scripture, that such as would pray with effect always began by Confession, Ezra. ix. 5, 6, Dan. ix. 4, 5, to the end, that their guilt being removed by penitence, there might be no bar to God's Grace and Mercy. The Church has, therefore, rightly placed this Confession at the beginning of our prayers. It is conceived in a very general form, in order that it may suit the whole congregation; and that every individual, while he pronounces this general Confession with his lips, may mentally unfold the misery of his own heart, by reason of particular sins.


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