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deep waters, and to be broken by the east wind in the midst of the sea. The power of the Papacy is to be brought by its supporters, the beast and the kings of the earth, into great trouble; and to be broken by a violent wind, or dreadful war, in the midst of the symbolical sea, in the eastern region of Palestine *.—7. Finally God will cast the prince out of his holy mountain as profane, and will make him a terror among the nations, and will cause that he shall never be any more. In a similar manner, the dominion of the little papal horn shall be utterly consumed and destroyed; and the kingdom shall be given to the saints of the Most High, or those who constitute that pure millennian church out of which the horn shall be for ever cast: the man of sin shall be consumed by the spirit of the Lord's mouth, and shall be destroyed by the brightness of his coming: the beast and the false prophet shall be taken in arms against the Lord, and shall be cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brims stone: Babylon the great shall become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird, and shall be thrown down, and shall be found no more at all : in short the papal tyrant, who had so often excommunicated and thrust out of what he termed the catholic church, all who refused to partake of his: idolatry and to pollute themselves with his

*" T'empestuous winds, or the motion of clouds, for wars.?! Sir Isaac Newton's Observ, on Dan, and St. John, p. 18.

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abominations, shall now himself be cast with ignominy out of the true church of Christ; and shall be for ever separate from those, who had come out of his spiritual empire, in order that they might not be partakers of his sins, nor receive of his plagues *


* For the manner in which the character of this prince is applied to the literal prince of Tyre, the reader may consult Abp. Newcome's translation of Ezekiel. I confess it

appears to me inapplicable either to Ithobal or any other Phenician sovereign, except in a very lax and merely inchoate manner. According to his grace, the renkling tkorn was removed when Nebuchadnezzar subdued all the ancient enemies of the Jews. But this falls very far short of the plain import of the pro. phecy. The terms, in which it is expressed, extend it to the restoration of the whole house of Israel, Ephraim as well as Judah ; and it positively asserts, that, after the downfall of Tyre, there should be no more a rankling thorn to afflict the ancient people of God. Now, from Babylon Judah alone rea turned ; and, so far from afterwards enjoying a state of uninterrupted tranquillity, or (in the language of the prophet) being freed from the stings of rankling briers and ulcerating thorns, the Jews, after having been subjected to the persecutions of the Syro-Macedonian kings, were at length scattered by the Romans över the face of the whole earth. Formerly they were only chastised with whips; latterly they have been chastised with scorpions.

Mr. Bicheno I believe to be right in referring this prophecy to the yet future era of the restoration of Judah, but I think him mistaken in supposing that Tyre is the type of some great modern commerciul nation. He argues, that the prediction cannot relate to the overthrow of papal Rome, because Rome is not a commercial city and does not possess any naval power; and

When the thorn, that liad so long goaded the house of Israel, shall be removed; when the Lord shall have executed judgments upon all those that despised his people: then will he gather them from all the countries of their dispersion, and bring them into the land which he gave unto his servant Jacob. There they shall dwell safely; and shall build houses, and shall plant vineyards : they shall dwell with confidence, and shall know that theLord is their God.

he censures Mr. Fraser for applying it, like myself, to the dea struction of the Papacy, The argument, on which this censure is founded, is certainly inconclusive. If it prove'any thing, it will prove equally that the apocalyptic Babylon cannot be the Papacy; because the apocalyptic Babylon is described like Tyre, as being a great commercial city, and as having many trading vessels out at sea. But I have already mast fully stated my reasons for interpreting the propbecy as I have done. The reader will find Mr. Bichepo's arguments in favour of his opinion, in his Signs of the Times, part iii. p. 172-176, in the 6th edition, p. 244-99.



The dispersion of Israel through the tyranny of

their shepherds-God will require his people at their hands-The restoration of Judah partly in a converted and partly in an unconverted state --The opposition of the unconverted to the converted, a proof that the unconverted will be restored by Antichrist-Downfall of the mystic Edom-The political revival, restoration, and final union, of Israel and JudahThe overthrow of Gog and Magog at the end of the Millennium.

Ezekiel xxxiv. 1. And the word of the Lord came unto me, saying, 2. Şon of man, prophesy against the shepherds of Israel * should not the

15.... shepherds shepherds feed the flock?--3. But ye feed not the flock.--5. They are scattered so that they have no shepherd * ; and they are become meat to all the beasts of the field when they were scattered, 6. My sheep wander through all the mountains, and upon every high hill; yea, my flock is scattered upon all the face of the earth, and none searcheth or seeketh after them.-9. Therefore, O ye sheplierds, hear the word of the Lord : so. Thus saith the Lord God';' Behold, I am against the shepherds: and I will require any flock at their

* The shepherds of Israel.] These shepherds must certainly be, not theological, but political, shepherds. Corrupt as the Jewish priests, scribes, and pharisees, were in the days of our Saviour, I know not with what propriety it can be said, that they scattered the fock upon the face of the whole earth in the dark and cloudy day, and that from their hands the flock will be required in the day of their restoration: for, that the scattering here spoken of means a literal and not a spiritual dispersion (as that in Isaiah liii. 6. All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way), is manifest from its being placed in opposition to the literal guthering to


gether and return of the Jews. Those then, who literally scattered the Jews, and from whose hands they will be required at their restoration, must undoubtedly be the shepherds here intended. The shepherds therefore must be the Roman beast under his sixth and last heads. The passage is exactly parallel with two prophecies already considered : Jeremi. xii. 9-17; and xxiii, 1-8. Alp. Newcome and Michaelis justly undera stand the shepherds in a temporal sense; but suppose them to mean the king, his counsellors, and the heads of the people. These however do not answer to the prophetic character of the shepherds ; because they certainly never scattered the Israelites. The terms of the prediction are such as to make it very unnatural and far-fetched to say, that the Jewish rulers scattered the people, by so provoking God with their sins as to induce him to send nations' against them who did literally scatter them. See Mr. Lowth in loc.

* They have no shepherd.] They are under no independent government of their own; but have been long subject to the tyranny of shepherds, who preyed upon them, instead of feeding' them. The sceptre is departed from Judah; and they have abode any days without a king, and without a prince, and without a sacrifice. See Gen. xlix: 10. and Hosea iji. 4.


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