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CHAP. XXIX. Of the Lord's Supper. Oo UR Lord Jesus, in the night wherein he was betrayed, instituted

the sacrament of his body and blood, called the Lord's Supper, to be observed in his church unto the end of the world, for the perpetual remembrance of the sacrifice of himself in his death, the seal: ing all benefits thereof unto true believers, their spiritual nourishment and growth in him, their further engagement in and to all duties which they owe unto him, and to be a bond and pledge of their communion with him, and with each other, as members of his mystical body a

II. In this sacrament Christ is not offered up to his Father, nor any real sacrifice made at all for remission of sins of the quick or dead; but only a commemoration of that one offering up of himself, by himself, upon the cross, once for all, and a spiritual oblation of all possible praise unto God for the same c; so that the Popish sacrifice of the mass, as they call it, is most abominably injurious to Christ's one only sacrifice, the alone propitiation for all the sins of the electa

ousness which we have done, but accord. whether we be bond or free; and have ing to his mercy he saved us, by the wash- been all made to drink into one Spirit. ing of regeneration, and renewing of the II. b Heb. ix. 22. And almost all things Holy Ghost. Eph. V. 25. Husbands, love are by the law purged with blood; and your wives, even as Christ also loved the without shedding of blood is no remission. church, and gave himself for it; Ver. 26. Ver. 25. Nor yet that he should offer himThat he might sanctify and cleanse it with self often, as the high priest entereth into the washing of water by the word. Acts the holy place every year with blood of ii. 38. Then Peter said unto them, Repent, others; Ver. 26. (For then must he often and be baptized every one of you in the have suffered since the foundation of the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of world :) but now once, in the end of the sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the world, hath he appeared, to put away sin Holy Ghost. Ver. 41. Then they that gladly by the sacrifice of himself. Ver. 28. So received his word were baptized : and the Christ was once offered to bear the sins same day there were added unto them of many: and unto them that look for him about three thousand souls.

shall he appear the second time without VII. Tit. iii. 5. [See in letter r.]

sin, unto salvation. I. a 1 Cor. xi. 23. For I have received of c1 Cor. xi. 24, 25, 26. [See them in letter a.) the Lord that which also I delivered unto Mat. xxvi. 26. And as they were eating, you, That the Lord Jesus, the same night Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and in which he was betrayed, took bread: brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and Ver. 24. And, when he had given thanks, said, Take, eat; this is my body. Ver. 27. he brake it, and said, Take, eat; this is And he took the cup, and gave thanks, my body, which is broken for you: this do and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye ali in remembrance of me. Ver. 25. After the of it. same manner also he took the cup, when d Heb. vii. 23. And they truly were many he had supped, saying, This cup is the priests, because they were not suffered to new testament in my blood: this do ye, as continue by reason of death: Ver. 24. But oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. this man, because he continueth ever, Ver. 26. For as often as ye eat this bread, hath an unchangeable priesthood. Ver. and drink this cup, ye do show the Lord's 27. Who needeth not daily, as those high death till he come. 1 Cor. x. 16. The cup priests, to offer up sacrifice, first for his of blessing which we bless, is it not the own sins, and then for the people's: for communion of the blood of Christ ? the this he did once, when he offered up himbread which we break, is it not the com- self. Heb. x. 11. And every priest standmunion of the body of Christ ! Ver. 17. eth daily ministering, and offering oftenFor we, being many, are one bread, and times the same sacrifices, which can never one body: for we are all partakers of that take away sins: Ver. 12. But this man, one bread. Ver. 21. Ye cannot drink the after he had offered one sacrifice for sins,

Lord, and the cup of devils: ye for ever sat down on the right hand of cannot be partakers of the Lord's table, God. Ver. 14. For by one offering he hath and of the table of devils. 1 Cor. xii. 13. perfected for ever them that are sancti. For by one Spirit are we all baptized into fied. Ver. 18. Now, where remission of one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, these is, there is no more offering for sin.

cup of

III. The Lord Jesus hath, in this ordinance, appointed his ministers to declare his word of institution to the people, to pray, and bless the elements of bread and wine, and thereby to set them apart from a common to an holy use; and to take and break the bread, to take the cup, and (they communicating also themselves) to give both to the communicants •; but to none who are not then present in the congregation'

IV. Private masses, or receiving this sacrament by a priest, or any other, alone 6 ; as likewise the denial of the cup to the people"; worshipping the elements, the lifting them up, or carrying them about for adoration, and the reserving them for any pretended religious use; are all contrary to the nature of this sacrament, and to the institution of Christ i.

V. The outward elements in this sacrament, duly set apart to the uses ordained by Christ, have such relation to him crucified, as that truly, yet sacramentally only, they are sometimes called by the name of the things they represent, to wit, the body and blood of Christ k; albeit, in substance and nature, they still remain truly and only bread and wine, as they were before,

VI. That doctrine which maintains a change of the substance of bread and wine into the substance of Christ's body and blood (commonly called Transubstantiation) by consecration of a priest, or by any other way, is repugnant not to scripture alone, but even to common sense and reason; overthroweth the nature of the sacrament; and hath been and is the cause of manifold superstitions, yea, of gross idolatries m.

III. e Mat. xxvi. 26, 27. [See in letter c.) shall be guilty of the body and blood of Ver. 28. For this is my blood of the new the Lord. Ver. 28. But let a man examine testament, which is shed for many for the himself, and so let him eat of that bread, remission of sins. And Mark xiv. 22. And and drink of that cup. Ver. 29. For le as they did eat, Jesus took bread, and that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eatblessed, and brake it, and gave to them, eth and drinketh damnation to himself, and said, Take, eat: this is my body. Ver. not discerning the Lord's body. 23. And he took the cup, and when he had i Mat. xv. 9. But in vain they do worship given thanks, he gave it to them: and they me, teaching for doctrines the commandall drank of it. Ver. 24. And he said unto ments of men. them, This is my blood of the new testa- V. k Mat. xxvi. 26. And as they were ment, which is shed for many, And Luke eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, xxü. 19. And he took bread, and gave and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, thanks, and brake it, and gave unto them, and said, Take, eat; this is my body. Ver. saying, This is my body, which is given for 27. And he took the cup, and gave thanks, you: this do in remembrance of me. Ver. and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye ali 20. Likewise also the cup after supper, of it: Ver. 28. For this is my blood of the saying, This cup is the new testament in new testament, which is shed for many my blood, which is shed for you. With 1 for the remission of sins. Cor. xi. 23-26. [See all in leiter a.]

11 Cor. xi. 26. For as often as ye eat this f Acts xx. 7. And upon the first day of bread, and drink this cup, ye do show the the week, when the disciples came together Lord's death till he come. Ver. 27. Whereto break bread, Paul preached unto them, fore, whosoever shall eat this bread, and ready to depart on the morrow; and con- drink this cup of the Lord, unworthily, tinued his speech until midnight. 1 Cor. shall be guilty of the body and blood of xi. 20. When ye come together therefore the Lord. Ver. 28. But let a man examine into one place, this is not to eat the Lord's himself, and so let him eat of that breail, Supper.

and drink of that cup. Mat. xxvi. 29. But IV.81 Cor. x, 6. Now these things were I say unto you, I will not drink henceour examples, to the intent we should not forth of this fruit of the vine, until that lust after evil things, as they also lusted. day when I drink it new with you in my

Mark xiv. 23. (See in letter c.) 1 Cor. Father's kingdom. si. 25, 26. (See in letter a.] Ver. 27. Where. VI. m Acts iii. 21. Whom the heaven fore, whosoever shall eat this bread, and must receive until the times of restitution drink this cup of the Lord, unworthily, of all things, which God hath spoken by

VII. Worthy receivers, outwardly partaking of the visible elements in this sacrament", do then also inwardly by faith, really and indeed, yet not carnally and corporally, but spiritually, receive and feed upon Christ crucified, and all benefits of his death : the body and blood of Christ being then not corporally or carnally in, with, or under the bread and wine ; yet as really, but spiritually, present to the faith of believers in that ordinance, as the elements themselves are to their outward senses o.

VIII. Although ignorant and wicked men receive the outward elements in this sacrament, yet they receive not the thing signified thereby; but by their unworthy coming thereunto are guilty of the body and blood of the Lord, to their own damnation. Wherefore all ignorant and ungodly persons, as they are unfit to enjoy communion with him, so are they unworthy of the Lord's table, and cannot, without great sin against Christ, while they remain such, partake of these holy mysteries P, or be admitted thereunto 4.


CHAP. XXX. Of Church Censures. THE Lord Jesus, as king and head of his church, hath therein ap

pointed a government in the hand of church-officers, distinct from the civil magistrate î. the mouth of all his holy prophets since 91 Cor. v. 6. Your glorying is not good. the world began. With 1 Cor. xi. 24. And, Know ye not that a little leaven leaveneth when he had given thanks, he brake it, the whole lump? Ver. 7. Purge out thereand said, Take, eat; this is my body, fore the old leaven, that ye may be a new which is broken for you: this do in re- lump, as ye are unleavened. For even membrance of me. Ver. 25. After the same Christ our passover is sacrificed for us. manner also he took the cup, when he Ver. 13. But them that are without God had supped, saying, This cup is the new judgeth. Therefore put away from among testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft yourselves that wicked person. 2 Thess. iii. as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. 6. Now we command you, brethren, in Ver. 26. (See in letterl] Luke xxiv. 6. He the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that is not here, but is risen: remember how ye withdraw yourselves from every brother he spake unto you when he was yet in Ga- that walketh disorderly, and not after the lilee. Ver. 39. Behold my hands and my tradition which he received of us. Ver. 14. feet, that it is I myself: "handle me, and And if any man obey not our word by this see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, epistle, note that man, and have no comas ye see me have.

pany with him, that he may be ashamed, VII. n 1 Cor. xi. 28. [See in letterl] Ver. 15. Yet count him not as an enemy, 01 Cor. x. 16. The cup of blessing which but admonish him as a brother. Mat. vii. we bless, is it not the communion of the 6. Give not that which is holy unto the blood of Christ? the bread which we dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before break, is it not the communion of the swine, lest they trample them under their body of Christ ?

feet, and turn again and rend you. VIII. p 1 Cor. xi. 27, 28. [See in letter l.] I. a Isa. ix. 6. For unto us a child is born, Ver. 29. For he that eateth and drinketh unto us a son is given; and the governunworthily, eateth and drinketh damna- ment shall be upon his shoulder: and his țion to himself, not discerning the Lord's name shall be called Wonderful, Counselbody. 2 Cor. vi. 14. Be ye not unequally lor, The mighty God, The everlasting yoked together with unbelievers : for what Father, the Prince of Peace. Ver. 7. Of fellowship hath rigi'teousness with un- the increase of his government and peace righteousness? and what communion there shall be no end, upon the throne of hath light with darkness ? Ver. 15. And David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, what concord hath Christ with Belial? or and to establish it with judgment and what part hath he that believeth with an with justice from henceforth even for ever. infidel ! Ver. 16. And what agreement The zeal of the Lord of hosts will perform hath the temple of God with idols ? for ye this. 1 Tim. v. 17. Let the elders that are the temple of the living God; as God rule well be counted worthy of double hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk honour, especially they who labour in the in them; and I will be their God, and word and doctrine. i Thess. v. 12. And ople.

we beseech you, brethren, to know them

they shall

II. To these officers the keys of the kingdom of heaven are committed, by virtue whereof they have power respectively to retain and remit sins, to shut that kingdom against the impenitent, both by the word and censures; and to open it unto penitent sinners, by the ministry of the gospel, and by absolution from censures, as occasion shall require b.

III. Church censures are necessary for the reclaiming and gaining of offending brethren; for deterring of others from the like offences ; for purging out of that leaven which might infect the whole lump; for vindicating the honour of Christ, and the holy profession of the gospel; and for preventing the wrath of God, which might justly fall upon the church, if they should suffer his covenant, and"the seals thereof, to be profaned by notorious and obstinate offenders .

IV. For the better attaining of these ends, the officers of the church are to proceed by admonition, suspension from the sacrament of the Lord's Supper for a season, and by excommunication from the church, according to the nature of the crime, and demerit of the persona


which labour among you, and are over earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatyou in the Lord, and admonish you._Acts soever ye shall loose on earth shall be xx. 17. And from Miletus he sent to Ephe- loosed in heaven. John xx. 21. Then said sus, and called the elders of the church. Jesus to them again, Peace be unto you: Ver. 18. And when they were come to him, as my Father hath sent me, even so send I he said unto them, Ye know, from the first you. Ver, 22. And when he had said this, lie day that I came into Asia, after what breathed on them, and saith unto them, manner I have been with you at all sea- Receive ye the Holy Ghost. Ver. 23. Whose sons, Heb. xiii, 7. Remember them which soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unhave the rule over you, who have spoken to them; and whose soever sins ye retain,

; unto you the word of God; whose faith they are retained. 2 Cor ii. 6. Sufficient follow, considering the end of their con- to such a man is this punishment, which versation. Ver. 17. Obey them that have was inflicted of many. Ver. 7. So that the rule over you, and submit yourselves : contrariwise ye ought rather to forgivo for they watch for your souls, as they that him, and comfort him, lest perhaps such must give account; that they may do it an one should be swallowed up with overwith joy, and not with grief: for that is much sorrow. Ver. 8. Wherefore I beseech unprofitable for you. Ver. 24. Salute all you, that ye would confirm your love to. them that have the rule over you, and all ward him. the saints. They of Italy salute you. 1 III. c (1 Cor. v. throughout.] 1 Tim. v. 20. Cor. xii. 28. And God hath set some in the Them that sin rebuke before all, that church, first, apostles; secondarily, pro- others also may fear. Mat, vii. 6. Give not phets; thirdly, teachers; after that mic that which is holy unto the dogs, neither racles; then gifts of healings, helps, go- cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they vernments, diversities of tongues. Mat. trample thern under their feet, and turn xxviii. 18. And Jesus came and spake un- again and rend you. 1 Tim. i. 20. Of whom to them, saying, All power is given unto is Hymeneus and Alexander ; whom have me in heaven and in earth. Ver. 19. Go ye delivered unto Satan, that they may learn therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing not to blaspheme. (1 Cor. xi. 27. to the them in the name of the Father, and of end.) With Jude, Ver. 23. And others sale the Son, and of the Holy Ghost; Ver. 20. with fear, pulling them out of the fire; Teaching them to observe all things what, hating even the garment spotted by the soever I have commanded you: and, lo, I flesh. am with you alway, even unto the end of IV. d 1 Thess. v. 12. And we beseech you, the world. Amen.

brethren, to know them which labour II. b Mat. xvi. 19. And I will give unto among you, and are over you in the Lord, thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and admonish you. 2 Thess. iii. 6. Now we and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth command you, brethren, in the name of shall be bound in heaven; and whatso- our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye withdraw ever thou shalt loose on earth shall be yourselves from every brother that walkloosed in heaven. Mat. xviii. 17. And if eth disorderly, and not after the tradition he shall neglect to hear them, tell it unto which he received of us. Ver. 14. And if the church : but if he neglect to hear the any man obey not our word by this epistle, church, let him be unto thee as an heathen note that man, and have no company with

VER man and a publican. Ver. 18. Verily I say him, that he may be ashamed. unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on Yet count him not as an enemy, 125

CHAP. XXXI. Of Synods and Councils. F ;

there ought to be such assemblies as are commonly called Synods or Councils a.

11. As magistrates may lawfully call a synod of ministers, and other fit persons, to consult and advise with about matters of religion; so if magistrates be open enemies to the church, the ministers of Christ, of themselves, by virtue of their office, or they, with other fit persons upon delegation from their churches, may meet together in such assemblies

III. It belongeth to synods and councils ministerially to determine controversies of faith, and cases of conscience; to set down rules and directions for the better ordering of the publick worship of God, and government of his church; to receive complaints in cases of mal-administration, and authoritatively to determine the same : which decrees and determinations, if consonant to the word of God, are to be received with reverence and submission, not only for their agreement with the word, but also for the power whereby they are made, as being an ordinance of God, appointed thereunto in his wordd

IV. All synods or councils since the apostles' times, whether general or particular, may err, and many have erred ; therefore they

monish him as a brother. 1 Cor. v. 4. In supplications, prayers, intercessions, and the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, when giving of thanks, be made for all men; ye are gathered together, and my spirit, Ver. 2. For kings, and for all that are in with the power of our Lord Jesus Christ, authority; that we may lead a quiet and Ver. 5. To deliver such an one unto Satan peaceable life in all godiiness and honesty for the destruction of the tiesh, that the 12 Chron. xix. 8. to the end. 2 Chron. Chapspirit may be saved in the day of the Lord ters xxix. and xxx, throughout.] Mat. ii. 4. Jesus. Ver. 13. But them that are without And when he had gathered all the chief God judgeth. Therefore put away from priests and scribes of the people together, among yourselves that wicked person. Mat. he demanded of them where Christ xviii. 1;. And if he shall neglect to hear should be born. Ver. 5. And they said them, tell it unto the church: but if he ne- unto him, In Bethlehem of Judea : for glect to hear the church, let him be unto thus it is written by the prophet. Prov. thee as an heathen man and a publican. xi. 14. Where no counsel is, the people fall: Tit. iii. 10. A man that is an heretick, but in the multitude of counseilors there is atter the first and second admonition, re- safety. ject.

c Acts xv. 2, 4. (See in leiter a.] Ver. 22. 1. a Acts xv. 2. When therefore Paul and then pleased it the apostles and elders, Barnabas had no small dissension and with the whole church, to send chosen disputation with them, they determined men of their own company to Antioch that Paul and Barnabas, and certain with Paul and Barnabas, namely, Judas other of them, should go up to Jerusalem surnamed Barsabas, and Silas, chief men unto the apostles and elders about this among the brethren : Ver. 23. And they question. Ver. 4. And when they were wrote letters by them after this manner; come to Jerusalem, they were received of The apostles, and elders, and brethren, the church, and of the apostles and elders, send greeting unto the brethren which are and they declared all things that God had of the Gentiles in Antioch, and Syria, and done with them. Ver. 6. And the apostles Cilicia. Ver. 25. It seemed good unto us, and elders came together for to consider being assembled with one accord, to send of this matter.

chosen men unto you with our beloved II. b Isa. xlix. 23. And kings shall be thy Barnabas and Paul. nursing-fathers, and their queens thy III, d Acts xv. 15, 19, 24, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, nursing-mothers : they shall bow down to [See in the Bible.) Acts xvi. 4. And as they thee with their face toward the earth, and went through the cities, they delivered lick up the dust of thy feet; and thou shalt them the decrees for to keep, that were know that I am the Lord: for they shall ordained of the apostles and elders which not be ashamed that wait for me. Tim.

were at Jerusalem. Mat. xviii. 17. And if ii. 1. I exhort therefore, that, first of all, he shall neglect to hear them, tell it auto

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