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R. 168. What is the Lord's supper ? A. The Lord's supper is a sacrament of the New Testament 3, wherein, by giving and receiving bread and wine according to the appointment of Jesus Christ, his death is showed forth ; and they that worthily communicate feed upon his body and blood, to their spiritual nourishment and growth in grace a ; have their union and communion with him confirmed "; testify and renew their thankfulness °, and engagement to God 4, and their mutual love and fellowship each with other, as members of the same inystical body e.

R. 169. How hath Christ appointed bread and wine to be given and received in the sacrament of the Lord's supper?

A. Christ hath appointed the ministers of his word, in the administration of this sacrament of the Lord's supper, to set apart the bread and wine from common use, by the word of institution, thanksgiving, and prayer; to take and break the bread, and to give both the bread and the wine to the communicants : who are, by the same appointment, to take and eat the bread, and to drink the wine, in thankful remembrance that the body of Christ was broken and given, and his blood shed, for them?

Q. 170. How do they that worthily communicate in the Lord's supper feed upon the body and blood of Christ therein ?

A. As the body and blood of Christ are not corporally or carnally present in, with, or under the bread and wine in the Lord's supper é, and yet are spiritually present to the faith of the receiver, no less truly and really than the elements themselves are to their outward one for another. Ver. 26. And whether one break, is it not the communion of the member suffer, all the members suffer body of Christ? with it; or one member be honoured, all c I Cor. xi. 24. (See above in a.) the members rejoice with it. Ver. 27. Now d 1 Cor. x. 14. Wherefore, my dearly be. ye are the body of Christ, and members loved, fee from idolatry. Ver. 15. I speak in particular.

as to wise men ; judge ye what I say. Ver. 168. 2 Luke xxii. 20. Likewise also the 16. The cup of blessing which we bless, is cup after supper, saying, This cup is the it not the communion of the blood of new testament in my blood, which is shed Christ? the bread which we break, is it for you.

not the communion of the body of Christ? a Matth. xxvi. 26. And as they were eat- Ver. 21. Ye cannot drink the cup of the ing, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and Lord, and the cup of devils: ye cannot be brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and partakers of the Lord's table, and of the said, Take, eat: this is my body. Ver. table of devils. 27. And he took the cup, and gave thanks, el Cor. x. 17. For we, being many, are and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye ali one oread, and one body: for we are all of it: Ver. 28. For this is my blood of the partakers of that one bread. new testament, which is shed for many 169. f 1 Cor. xi. 23, 24. (See before under a.] for the remission of sins. 1 Cor. xi. 23. Mat. xxvi. 26, 27, 28. (See before at a.) Mark For I have received of the Lord that xiv. 22. And as they did eat, Jesus took which also I delivered unto you, That the bread, and blessed, and brake it, and gave Lord Jesus, the same night in which he to them, and said, Take, eat: this is my was betrayed, took bread: Ver. 24. And, body. Ver. 23. And he took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he brake it, when he had given thanks, he gave it to and said, Take, eat; this is my body, them: and they all drank of it. Ver. 24. which is broken for you: this do in re. And he said unto them, This is my blood membrance of me. Ver. 25. After the of the new testament, which is shed for same manner also he took the cup, when many. Luke xxii. 19. And he took bread, he had supped, saying, This cup is the and gave thanks, and brake it, and gave new testament in my blood: this do ye, unto them, saying, This is my body, which as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of is given for you: this do in remembrance me. Ver. 26. For as often as ye eat this of me. Ver. 20. Likewise also the cup after bread, and drink this cup, ye do show the supper, saying, This cup is the new testaLord's death till he come.

ment in my blood, which is shed for you. b 1 Cor x. 16. The cup of blessing which 170. 6 Acts iii. 21. Whom the heaven we bless, is it not the communion of the must receive until the times of restitution blood of Christ ! the bread which we of all things, which God bath spoken by

senses h; so they that worthily communicate in the sacrament of the Lord's supper, do therein feed upon the body and blood of Christ, not after a corporal and carnal, but in a spiritual manner; yet truly and really ', while by faith they receive and apply unto themselves Christ crucified, and all the benefits of his death k.

Q. 171. How are they that receive the sacrament of the Lord's supper to prepare themselves before they come unto it?

A. They that receive the sacrament of the Lord's supper are, before they come, to prepare themselves thereunto, by examining themselves of their being in Christ m, of their sins and wants "; of the truth and measure of their knowledge o, faith P, repentance ? ; love to God and the brethren", charity to all meno, forgiving those that have done them wrong t; of their desires after Christ', and of the mouth of all his holy prophets since drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh the world began.

damnation to himself, not discerning the h Mat. xxvi. 26. And as they were eating, Lord's body. Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and brake p1 Cor. xiii. 5. (See above in letter m.) it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, Mat. xxvi. 28. For this is my blood of the Take, eat; this is my body. Ver. 28. For new testament, which is shed for many this is my blood of the new testament, for the remission of sins. which is shed for many for the remission q Zech. xii. 10. And I will pour upon the of sins.

house of David, and upon the inhabitants il Cor. xi. 24. And, when he had given of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and of thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat; supplications; and they shall look upon this is my body, which is broken for you: me whom they have pierced, and they this do in remembrance of me. Ver. 25. shall mourn for him, as one mourneth for After the same manner also he took the his only son, and shall be in bitterness for cup, when he had supped, saying, This him, as one that is in bitterness for his cup is the new testament in my blood: first-born. 1 Cor. xi. 31. For if we would this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remem- judge ourselves, we should not be judged. brance of me. Ver. 26. For as often as ye ri Cor. x. 16. The cup of blessing which eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do we bless, is it not the communion of the show the Lord's death till he come.Ver. blood of Christ ? the bread which we 27. Wherefore, whosoever shall eat this break, is it not the communion of the bread, and drink this cup of the Lord, body of Christ ? Ver. 17. For we, being unworthily, shall be guilty of the body many, are one bread, and one body: for and blood of the Lord. Ver. 28. But let a we are all partakers of that one bread. man examine himself, and so let him eat Acts ii. 46. And they, continuing daily with of that bread, and drink of that cup. Ver. one accord in the temple, and breaking 29. For he that eateth and drinketh un- bread from house to house, did eat their worthily, eateth and drinketh damnation meat with gladness and singleness of to himself, not discerning the Lord's body. heart, Ver. 47. Praising God, and having

* 1 Cor. x. 16. The cup of blessing which favour with all the people. And the Lord we bless, is it not the communion of the added to the church daily such as should blood of Christ? the bread which we break, be saved. is it not the communion of the body of s 1 Cor. v. 8. Therefore let us keep the Christ

feast, not with old leaven, neither with the 171. 11 Cor. xi. 28. But let a man ex- leaven of malice and wickedness; but with amine himself, and so let him eat of that the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth. bread, and drink of that cup.

1 Cor. xi. 18. For first of all, when ye come m 2 Cor. xiii. 5. Examine yourselves, together in the church, I hear that there whether ye be in the faith ; prove your be divisions among you; and I partly beown selves: know ye not your own selves, lieve it. Ver. 20. When ye come together how that Jesus Christ is in you, except ye therefore into one place, this is not to eat be reprobates !

the Lord's supper. ni Cor. v. 7. Purge out therefore the 1 Mat. v. 23. Therefore, if thou bring thy old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, gift to the altar, and there rememberest as ye are unleavened. For even Christ that thy brother hath ought against thee; our passover is sacrificed for us. Compared Ver. 24. Leave there thy gift before the with Exod. xii. 15. Seven days shall ye eat altar, and go thy way; first be reconciled unleavened bread; even the first day ye to thy brother, and then come and offer shall put away leaven out of your houses: thy gift. for whosoever eateth leavened bread, from i Isa. lv. 1. Ho, every one that thirsteth, the first day until the seventh day, that come ye to the waters, and he that hath soul shall be cut off from Israel.

no money: come ye, buy and eat; yea, xi. 29. For he that eateth and come, buy wine and milk without money,

supper ?

their new obedience ; and by renewing the exercise of these graces », by serious meditation y, and fervent prayer ?

Q. 172. May one who doubteth of his being in Christ, or of his due preparation, come to the Lord's

Á. One who doubteth of his being in Christ, or of his due preparation to the sacrament of the Lord's supper, may have true interest in Christ, though he be not yet assured thereofá; and in God's account hath it, if he be duly affected with the apprehension of the want of it ”, and unfeignedly desires to be found in Christo, and to

and without price. John vii. 37. In the of his servant, that walketh in darkness, last day, that great day of the feast, Jesus and hath no light? let him trust in thó stood and cried, saying, If any man thirst, name of the Lord, and stay upon his God. let him come unto me, and drink.

1 John v. 13. These things have I written w 1 Cor. v. 7. Purge out therefore the unto you that believe on the name of the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as Son of God, that ye may know that ye ye are unleavened. For even Christ our have eternal life, and that ye may believe passover is sacrificed for us : Ver. 8. There- on the name of the Son of God. Psal. fore let us keep the feast, not with uld lxxxviii. throughout. Psal. Ixxvii. to l'erse 12. leaven, neither with the leaven of malice Ver. 1. I cried unto God with my voice, and wickedness; but with the unleavened even unto God with my voice; and he gave bread of sincerity and truth.

ear to nie. Ver. 2. In the day of my x1 Cor. xi. 25. After the same manner trouble I sought the Lord : way sure ran in also he took the cup, when he had supped, the night, and ceased not: my soul refused saying, This cup is the new testament in to be comforted. Ver. 3. I remembered my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, God, and was troubled: I complained, and in remembrance of me. Ver. 26. For as my spirit was overwhelmed. Selah. Ver. 4. often as ye eat this bread, and drink this Thou holdest mine eyes waking: I am so cup, ye do show the Lord's death till he troubled that I cannot speak, dc. Ver. 7. come. Ver. 28. But let a man examine Will the Lord cast off for ever? and will himself, and so let him eat of that bread, he be favourable no more? Ver. 8. Is his and drink of that cup. Heb. x. 21. And mercy clean gone for ever? doth his pro. having an high priest over the house of mise fail for evermore? Ver. 9. Hath God God ; Ver. 22. Let us draw near with a forgotten to be gracious? hath he in anger true heart, in full assurance of faith, hav- shut up his tender mercies ? Jonah ii. 4. ing our hearts sprinkled from an evil con- Then I said, I am cast out of thy sight; science, and our bodies washed with pure yet I will look again toward thy holy temwater. Ver. 21. And let us consider one ple. Ver. 7. When my soul fainted ivithin another, to provoke unto love and to good me I remembered the Lord: and my prayer works. Psal. xxvi. 6. I will wash mine came in unto thee, into thine holy temple. hands in innocency: so will I compass b Isa. liv. 7. For a small moment have I tline altar, O Lord.

forsaken thee; but with great mercies will y 1 Cor. xi. 24. And, when he had given I gather thee. Ver. 8. In a little wrath I thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat; hid my face from thee for a moment; but this is my body, which is broken for you: with everlasting kindness will I have merey this do in remembrance of me. Ver. 25. on thee, saith the Lord thy Redeemer. Ver. After the same manner also he took the 9. For this is as the waters of Noah unto cup, when he had supped, saying; This me: for as I have sworn that the waters cup is the new testament in my blood: of Noah should no more go over the eartis; this ilo ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remem- so have I sworn that I would not be wroth brance of me.

with thee, nor rebuke thee. Ver. 10. For z 2 Chron. xxx. 18. For a multitude of the mountains shall depart, and the hills the people, even many of Ephraim, and be removed; but my kindness shall not Manasseh, Issachar, and Zebulun, had depart from thee, neither shall the covenot cleansed themselves, yet did they eat nant of my peace be removed, saith the the passover otherwise than it was writ- Lord that hath mercy on thee. Mat. v. 5. ten: but Ilezekiah prayed for them, say- Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs Ing, The good Lord pardon every one Ver. is the kingdom of heaven. Ver. 4. Blessed 19. That prepareth his heart to seek God, are they that mourn: for they shall be the Lord God of his fathers, though he be comforted. Psal. xxxi. 22. For I said in not cleansed according to the purification my haste, I am cut off from before thine of the sanctuary. Mat. xxvi. 26. And as eyes: nevertheless thou heardest thie voice they were eating, Jesus took bread, and of my supplications when cried unto blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to the thee. Psal. lxxiii. 13. Verily I have disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is my cleansed my heart in vain, and washed body.

my hands in innocency. Ver. 22. So fool. 172. a Isa. 1. 10. Who is among you that isħ was I, and ignorant: I was as a bea:t leareth the Lord, that obeyeth the voice before thee. Ver. 23. Neveri heless I a

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depart from iniquity a: in which case (because promises are made, and this sacrament is appointed, for the relief even of weak and doubting Christians ) he is to bewail his unbelief', and labour to have his doubts resolved 8 ; and, so doing, he may and ought to come to the Lord's supper, that he may be further strengthened ".

Q. 173. May any who profess the faith, and desire to come to the Lord's supper, be kept from it?

A. Such as are found to be ignorant or scandalous, notwithstanding their profession of the faith, and desire to coine to the Lord's supper, may and ought to be kept from that sacrament, by the power which Christ hath left in his church', until they receive instruction, and manifest their reformation k.

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continually with thee; thou hast holden up with wings as eagles ; they shall run, me by my right hand.

and not be weary; and they shall walk, c rhil. iii. 8. Yea doubtless, and I count and not faint. Mat. xi. 28. Come unto me, all things but loss for the excellency of all ye that labour and are heavy laden, the knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord: and I will give you rest. Mat. xii. 20. A for whom I have suffered the loss of all bruised reed shall he not break, and things, and do count them but dung, that smoking flax shall he not quench, till he I may win Christ, Vert 9. And be found send forth judgment unto victory. Mat. in him, not having mine own righteous- xxvi. 28. For this is my blood of the new ness, which is of the law, but that which testament, which is shed for many for the is through the faith of Christ, the righ- remission of sins. teousness which is of God by faith. Psal. f Mark ix. 24. And straightway the fa. x. 17. Lord, thou hast heard the desire of ther of the child cried out, and said with the humble: thou wilt prepare their tears, Lord, I believe; help thou mine un. heart, thou wilt cause thine ear to hear. belief. * Psal. xlii. 1. As the hart panteth after & Acts ii. 37. Now when they heard this, the water-brooks, so panteth my soul they were pricked in their heart, and said after thee, O God. Ver. 2. My soul thirst- unto Peter, and to the rest of the apostles, eth for God, for the living God: when Men and brethren, what shall we do shall I come and appear before God ? Ver. Acts xvi. 30. And brought them out, and 3. Why art thou cast down, o iny soul ! said, Sirs, what must I do to be saved ? and why art thou disquieted in me? hope b Rom. iv, 11. And he received the sign thou in God; for I shall yet praise him of circumcision, a seal of the righteousfor the help of his countenance. Ver. 11. ness of the faith which he had yet being Why art thou cast down, O my soul ? and uncircumcised: that he might be the fawhy art thou disquieted within me? hope ther of all them that believe, though they thou in God; for I shall yet praise him, be not circumcised ; that righteousness who is the health of my countenance, and might be imputed unto them also. 1 Cor.

xi. 28. But let a man examine himself, & 2 Tim. ii. 19. Nevertheless the founda. and so let him eat of that bread, and tion of God standeth sure, having this drink of that cup. seal, The Lord knoweth them that are his. 173. il Cor. xi. 27. to the end. Where And, Let every one that nameth the name fore, whosoever shall eat this bread, and of Christ depart from iniquity; Isa. 1. 10. drink this cup of the Lord, unworthily, Who is among you that feareth the Lord, shall be guilty of the body and blood of that obeyeth the voice of his servant, that the Lord. Ver. 28. But let å man examine walketh in darkness, and hath no light? himself, and so let him eat of that bread, let him trust in the name of the Lord, and and drink of that cup. Ver. 29. For he stay upon his God. Psal. Ixvi. 18. If I re- that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eatgard iniquity in my heart, the Lord will eth and drinketh damnation to himself, not hear me: Ver. 19. But verily God hath not discerning the Lord's body. Ver. 30. heard me; he hath attended to the voice For this cause many are weak and sickly of my prayer.

Ver. 20. Blessed be God, among you, and many sleep. Ver. 31. For which hath not turned away my prayer, if we would judge ourselves, we should nor his mercy from me.

not be judged, dc. to the end of the Chape Isa, xl. 11. He shall feed his flock like ter. Compared with Mat. vii, 6. Give not a shepherd; he shall gather the lambs that which is holy unto the dogs, neither with his arm, and carry them in his cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they bosom, and shall gently lead those that trample them under their feet, and turn are with young. Ver. 29. He giveth power again and rend you. And with 1 Cor. to the faint; and to them that have no Chapter v. to the end. And with Jude, Ver. might he increascth strength. Ver. 31. 23. And others save with fear, pulling But they that wait upon the Lord shall them out of the fire; hating even the vonow their strength; they shall mount garment spotted by the tiesh. And with

my God.

Q. 174. What is required of them that receive the sacrament of the Lord's supper in the time of the administration of it?

d. It is required of them that receive the sacrament of the Lord's supper, that, during the time of the administration of it, with all holy reverence and attention they wait upon God in that ordinance", diligently observe the sacramental elements and actions m, heedfully discern the Lord's body", and affectionately meditate on his death and sufferingso, and thereby stir up themselves to a vigorous exercise of their graces P; in judging themselves 9, and sorrowing for sin"; in earnest hungering and thirsting after Christs, feeding on him by faith “, receiving of his fulness", trusting in his merits ", rejoicing in his love *, giving thanks for his graces; in renewing of their covenant with God ?, and love to all the saints a.

1 Tim. v. 22. Lay hands suddenly on no of them God was not well pleased ; for man, neither be partaker of other men's they were overthrown in the wilderness. sins: keep thyself pure.

Ver. 11. Now all these things happened * 2 Cor. ii. 7. So that contrariwise ye unto them for ensamples : and they are ought rather to forgive him, and comfort written for our admonition, upon whom him, lest perhaps such an one should be the ends of the world are come. Ver. 14. swallowed up with overmuch sorrow. Wherefore, my dearly beloved, fee from

174. ! Lev. x. 3. Then Moses said unto idolatry. Aaron, This is it that the Lord spake, say- 91 Cor. xi. 31. For if we would judyo ing, I will be sanctified in them that come ourselves, we should not be judged. nigh me, and before all the people I will rZech. xii. 10. And I will pour upon the be glorified.--Heb. xii. 28. Wherefore, we house of David, and upon the inhabitants receiving a kingdom which cannot be of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and of mored, let us have grace, whereby we supplications; and they shall look upon may serve God acceptably with reverence me whom they have pierced, and they and godly fear. Psal. v. 7. But as for me, shall mourn for him, as one mourneth for I will come into thy house in the multitude his only son, and shall be in bitterness of thy mercy; and in thy fear will I wor- for him, as one that is in bitterness for ship toward thy holy temple. 1 Cor. xi. 17. his first-born. Now in this that I declare unto you I s Rev. xxii. 17. And the Spirit and the praise you not, that ye come together not bride say, Come. And let him that hearfor the better, but for the worse. Ver. 26. eth say, Come. And let him that is athirst For as often as ye eat this bread, and come. And whosoever will, let him take drink this cup, ye do show the Lord's the water of life freely. death till he come. Ver. 27. Wherefore, t John vi. 35. And Jesus said unto wliosoever shall eat this bread, and drink them, I am the bread of life: he that this cup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be cometh to me shall never hunger ; and he guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. that believeth on me shall never thirst.

m Exod. xxiv. 8. And Moses took the v John i. 16. And of his fulness have blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and all we received, and grace for grace. said, Behold the blood of the covenant, w Phil. iii. 9. And be found in him, not which the Lord hath made with you con- having mine own righteousness, which is cerning all these words. Compared with of the law, but that which is through the Mat. xxvi. 28. For this is my blood of the faith of Christ, the righteousness which new testament, which is shed for many is of God by faith. for the remission of sins.

x Psal. lxiii. 4. Thus will I bless thee n1 Cor. xi. 29. For he that eateth and while I live: I will lift up my hands in drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh thy name. Ver. 5. My soul shall be satisdamnation to himself, not discerning the fied as with marrow and fatness; and iny Lord's body.

mouth shall praise thee with joyful lips. o Luke xxii. 19. And he took bread, and 2 Chron. xxx. 21. And the children of Isgave thanks, and brake it, and gave unto rael, that were present at Jerusalem, kept them, saying, This is my body, which is the feast of unleavened bread seven days given for you: this do in remembrance of 'with great gladness: and the Levites and me.

the priests praised the Lord day by day, p 1 Cor. xi. 26. For as often as ye eat singing with loud instruments unto the this bread, and drink this cup, ye do show Lord. the Lord's death till he come. 1 Cor. x. 3. y Psal. xxii. 26. The meek shall eat and And did all eat the same spiritual meat; be satisfied; they shall praise the Lord Ver. 4. And did all drink the sanie spiri- that seek him: your heart shall live for tual drink; (for they drank of that spiri. ever. tual Rock that followed them; and that z Jer. l. 5. They shall ask the way to Rock was Christ :) Ver. 5. But with many Zion, with their faces thitherward, say

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