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Is I pointed out yesterday, the remaining film is more difficult to convert because most of it is in the positive form, which means a new negative must be made before a safety-base positive can be prepared. The total amount of film footage that needs to be converted is 18,013,000.

We have made very substantial progress in this conversion program.

Jr. ANDREWS. You say as of July 1, 1967, it is estimated there will be approximately 18 million feet of cellulose nitrate film remaining to be converted to safety base. Is that all of your backlog, 18 million?

Dr. MUMFORD. Yes, sir. It will take about 5 or 6 years to convert.

Mr. ANDREWS. The total amount that you will use during 1968 for the conversion of the film will be $100,000 ?

Dr. MUMFORD. Yes, sir.

INCREASE FOR PRESERVATION OF SOUND RECORDINGS Mr. ANDREWS. Next is the preservation of sound recordings. You are requesting $50,000 increase for this item. Is this a new program? What do you anticipate in 1968 with reference to this program? Is that the total amount you will use for the preservation of sound recordings or is that the increase in the amount to be used ?

Dr. MUMFORD. This is a new program, Mr. Chairman.

Mr. ANDREWS. $50,000 is all you will use for the preservation of sound recordings in 1968 ? Dr. MUMFORD. Yes, sir. Jr. ANDREWS. It is a new program?

Dr. MUMFORD. Yes, sir. As we have indicated, the Library has approximately 183,000 recordings in the regular collection and, in addition to that, in excess of 100,000 recordings in a special Office of War Information collection. Approximately 35,000 of the recordings in the regular collection are on acetate discs or on early forms of magnetic tape, both of which are in danger of physical deterioration. If they are not copied soon on a durable tape they will be lost altogether.

In addition, recordings in the regular collection are in urgent need of cleaning and repackaging. We estimate that with this $50,000 apProximately 4,000 recordings could be re-recorded on durable tape in the fiscal year 1968 and 35,000 could be cleaned and repackaged.

Mr. ANDREWS. What kind of sound recordings are these, Dr. Mumford ?

Dr. MUMFORD. On page 101 of our justification book there are some enamples of the kinds of records that we wish to preserve. May I insert that in the record ?

Mr. ANDREWS. Without objection, we will insert page 101, beginning with the sentence: “Some examples of the kinds of recordings to be preserved with the fiscal year 1968 appropriation are listed below."

(The page follows:) Some examples of the kind of recording to be preserved with the fiscal year 1908 appropriation are listed below:

1. Audioscriptions. A series of recordings of political, theatrical, and artistic personalities, 1935–1945. About 800-12'' discs.*

Sone of the famous figures recorded in the Audioscriptions collection are: W. B. Bank

Uliam E. Borah, Cordell Hull, Frank Knox, William G. McAdoo, Paul V. McNutt. Robert F. Wagner. A sampling of the collection's theatrical personalities includes

Eldridge, Dorothy and Lillian Gish. Walter Hampden, William S. Hart. Helen

Lodlie Howard, Eva Le Gallienne, Frederic March, Mary Pickford. Otis Skinner. Vse West.

2. Metropolitan Opera broadcasts from 1936–1940. About 100–16'' discs.**

3. Gift of Andre Kostelanetz. Chesterfield and Ethyl Hour broadcasts, 1934–1941. About 200-12'' discs.***

4. Gift recordings from General Pershing estate; General Omar Bradley; Josephus Daniels; and Judge Ben Lindsey. About 20-16'' and 10–12" discs.

5. Miscellaneous addresses by Secretary of Navy Frank Knox. About 40_16" and 90-12'' discs.

6. Selected items from Captured German Recordings, excluding speeches by Churchill, Roosevelt, music items, and other material available else

where. About 250-12'' discs; and 50_10'' tapes of 1944 vintage. Mr. YATES. How permanent will the new recordings be? Will they be permanent ad infinitum ?

Mr. MUMFORD. Mr. Nolan, do you have that?

Mr. NOLAN. So far as we know it is the most durable substance. Certainly it is far more durable than the present substance.

Mr. YATES. In what condition are the present recordings in as far as high fidelity is concerned? Are they of a quality that justifies their continuation?

Dr. MUMFORD. I would say that they are still of sufficient fidelity to warrant preservation. As you will observe from the types of recordings that are listed on page 101, it does constitute a valuable archive both of classical recordings and of nonmusical recordings.

Mr. YATES. Are there other examples that you can give other than those listed on page 101?

Dr. MUMFORD. We certainly could provide numerous examples. This was just a selected random list.

Mr. YATES. How did you select this list? I can see historical value in some but I wonder about some of the others.

Dr. MUMFORD. We were trying to give a cross section of the types of recordings that are in the collection.

Mrs. HAMER. More recent high-fidelity records, Mr. Yates, would not require conversion. These measures are for the older materials and for some of the nonmusical recordings.

Mr. ANDREWS. After you preserve the record, what do you do with it, store it?

Dr. MUMFORD. Yes, sir. They are stored, but they are also used by musicians to study scores along with the recordings, or if they are nonmusical recordings, historians and sociologists may wish to use them.

Mr. YATES. Under what conditions are they made available?

Dr. MUMFORD. At the present time we have very limited facilities for making recordings available for reference use. In the Madison Building we expect to have much better facilities.

**Other important musical performances include:

1. Salzburg Opera Festival, 1937, conducted by Arturo Toscanini and Brun Walter. About 50 16" discs.

2. Library of Congress concerts, 1937-1950. Include world premieres of majd works by virtually every well known composer of the period, including Aaron Copland Roy Harris. Igor Stravinsky, Paul Hindemith, and Darius Milhaud. Performance by such artists as keyboard arists Claudio Arrau, Robert Casadesus, Bela Barto Egon Petri, George Szell and E. Power Biggs; violinists Adolf Busch, Joseph Sziget Zino Francescatti, and Nathan Milstein ; singers Roland Hayes, Dorothy Marnors Svanholm, Josh White, and the Golden Gate Quartet, as well as many world-fam chamber groups, such as the Budapest, Coolidge, and Roth string quartets. Abu 500 16' discs. ***Other large groups of radio broadcasts include:

1. NBC Music Appreciation Hour, conducted by Walter Damrosch. 1935-194 About 200 16" discs.

2. General Foods Collection. A large representative selection of dramatic, music and variety radio broadcasts sponsored by the General Foods Corporation from + period 1940-1944. About 300 16'' discs.

3. Boston Symphony Orchestra Broadcasts. 1938-1950. Conducted by Se sevitzky and various guest conductors. About 750 16'' discs.

LOUILLUAN

Mr. ANDREWS. Is there any fee charged for the use of that? Dr. MUMFORD. No, sir. Mr. YATES. May they be used apart from the Library premises ? Dr. MUMFORD. No, sir. It is similar to the use of a book or manuscript or any other type of Library material.

Jr. ANDREWS. Do you think this program is worth the amount it would cost to preserve these recordings?

Dr. MUMFORD. I think the Library probably has the most extensire archival recordings in the country, older material as well as more recent material.

Mr. ANDREWS. How much use is made of these recordings?

Dr. MUMFORD. I could not give you any precise figures, Mr. Chairman, but I would say a fair amount. Perhaps Mr. Nolan can indicate the scope of that.

Mr. SOLAx. The restriction on use is partly the condition of the recording and partly our lack of facilities. We just do not have enough listening rooms.

Mr. ANDREWS. I can see why you won't let them be taken away from the Library.

Dr. MUMFORD. As Mr. Nolan suggested, if frequent use would result in damage or deterioration to the point it could not be preserved, we might have to decline use of it at the present time.

Mr. YATES. Are the same conditions for use in effect for your motion pictures as well as for the sound recordings? Can a person take one of your motion pictures away from the premises?

Dr. MUMFORD. No, sir. They may consult films on a little viewing machine-a Movieola. A scholar doing research work, or someone from a television company or motion picture company who wishes to riew some movie film with the prospect of obtaining footage for a new production can examine it.

Mr. YATES. Can copies be made by a person?
Dr. MUMFORD. Yes, sir; copies may be made.
Mr. YATES. Motion pictures and sound recordings?
Mrs. HAMER. If they are not copyrighted.
Mr. YATES. If they are not copyrighted ?

Dr. MUMFORD. They have to obtain the permission of the copyright ntner.

Mr. Yates. How long does a copyright extend? Mr. KAWINSTEIN. 28 years, with a possibility of renewal for another years.

INCREASE FOR MICROFILMING DETERIORATING MATERIALS

Mr. ANDREWS. The next item is "microfilming and other forms of reproduction," $50,000. You are requesting an additional $50,000.

Dr. MCFORD. Yes, sir. Mr. ANDREWS. How much do you currently have in this program and how would you use the additional $50,000 requested ?

Dr. MrMFORD. We presently have $210,000 for this program. This Toner has been directed primarily toward microfilming our old newsTapers, although it has included at times some deteriorating magazines and brittle books. This is essential for the preservation of the material aanse it is deteriorating so rapidly it simply would not be in existence for any period in the future if we did not microfilm it. We would like osep up this program to the extent of the increase of $50,000.

As we indicate here, we have microfilmed about 30,000 newspaper volumes and we still have around 100,000 to be filmed. In addition to that, we have a collection of brittle books that number over 30,000 at the present time. They have been set aside as being too poor to bind. There are also a number of magazines that are in danger of being lost. If we want to preserve the record of our cultural heritage, it is essential that we do something to preserve these materials. Mr. ANDREWS. What newspapers do you preserve?

Dr. MUMFORD. They are mainly older papers and, I would say, the majority would be domestic ones.

Mr. ANDREWS. I had in mind domestic papers. How many papers from the United States do you get and preserve?

Dr. MUMFORD. I believe that the number is in the neighborhood of 500 current American newspapers.

Do you have figures on that, Mr. Berry?
Mr. BERRY. We receive about 500 and retain approximately 300.
Mr. ANDREWS. Daily papers ?
Mr. BERRY. Dailies and a few weeklies.
Mr. ANDREWS. How do you get those papers?

Mr. BERRY. Most of the American newspapers are received by gift. Some come in through copyright, and some are purchased.

Mr. Andrews. What do you do with a newspaper when you get it over there? Say, yesterday's newspaper.

Mr. BERRY. We would have it available for service on request. They are held for a period of time.

Mr. ANDREWS. How long?

Mr. BERRY. Usually for a month or 2 months and then they are microfilmed. There are some American papers that are held just for a 30- to 60-day period and then discarded.

Mr. ANDREWS. Do you have a reading room with papers?
Mr. BERRY. Yes, sir.
Mr. ANDREWS. Of those that you keep, what do you do with them?
Mr. BERRY. Microfilm most of them. A few are bound.

Mr. ANDREWS. I was amazed recently when somebody in my office wanted a copy of a Montgomery, Ala., paper of 1918. They got a photostatic copy of that paper there in a few hours. How does that happen?

Mr. YaTEs. Could they have gotten one from 1864?

Dr. MUMFORD. Very likely. I am sure that we have some Civil War papers.

Mr. YATES. That is why I ask the question. I wondered whether or not you also might have newspapers from the Civil War.

Mrs. HAMER. They were publishing them on wallpaper at that time. Mr. YATES. I have seen copies of some. Mr. BERRY. Our collection goes back to the beginning of newspapers in this country, about the early 1700's. We have one of the largest collections of 18th century American newspapers in the country. Our collection increases in strength throughout the 19th century, particularly toward the latter half. We have a rather sizable collection of Civil War papers.

Mr. ANDREWS. How do you preserve those papers? Mr. BERRY. At the moment, sir, the older files are still held in bound form. Some are on excellent paper in a good state of preservation. Others we want to preserve through the microfilming program.

Mr. ANDREWS. It takes a tremendous amount of store space?
Mr. BERRY. Yes, sir; a considerable amount of space.

Dr. MUMFORD. We will save some space and preserve material when these are converted through microfilming. I should add that part of this appropriation goes toward microfilming current papers that are on potentially poor paper so we won't have the problem 25 years or 50 years from now we are now having with the older material. We try to obtain as many current newspapers on microfilm as possible and do this in lieu of binding. The cost of microfilming is offset pretty much by the saving in the cost of binding.

Mr. YATES. You have indicated that you save the Montgomery, Ala., paper. How do you decide which papers to save ?

Dr. MUMFORD. Speaking of more recent and current papers?
Mr. YATES. Yes.

Dr. MUMFORD. We try to get a cross section of the papers of the country—what are considered the more important papers representing a cross section of editorial and political view points.

Mr. YATES. Who makes that decision, the Librarian?

Dr. MUMFORD. We have a committee selection. We have an acquisitions policy statement with respect to them. I approve such statements.

Mr. Nolax. May I add, where we have gaps in our file we try to horrow from other libraries or publishers the missing issues in order to get a complete run of microfilm.

Mr. YATES. Do you have any of the newspapers published in the Confederate States at that time? Mr. BERRY. Yes, sir. Mr. YATES. Going back to the time of the war? Mr. BERRY. Yes, sir. Mr. YATES. What European papers do you have?

Dr. MUMFORD. There again it is a selection of what is considered the more important newspapers from the standpoint of news as well as a cross section of opinion as reflected in editorial comments.

Mr. YATES. Give me an example of what you save from other countries.

Mr. Yolan. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, London Times, and Manchester Guardian.

Mr. LORENZ. Pravda, no doubt.

IXCREASE FOR BINDING, DEACIDIFICATION, AND LAMINATION OF LIBRARY

MATERIALS

Mr. ANDREWS. The next item is for binding, deacidification, and lamination of library materials. You are requesting an increase of $125,000. How much is in the base and what would the total be for 1968, if this increase were allowed ? Describe what this increase will be used for.

Dr. MUMFORD. I think Mr. Berry has a figure for our expenditures

Jr. BERRY. The present base, Mr. Chairman, is $581,000. This request would add another $125,000, making a total of $706,000.

Dr. MUMFORD. The request for increase is occasioned by the reasons given here. The costs in commercial binding went from an average

bindinges. The presents 125,000, makin is occasioned on an av

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