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CLASSIFICATION OF PREPOSITIONS
Prepositions are classified according to their form into simple, complex, and compound prepositions; as, to, to the extent of, from above.
The object of a preposition is always a noun or pronoun, or some expression so used; as “I go to school." "He ran by me." "He came from on high." "He never thinks of studying his lesson." "He came from under the bridge." "We have been thinking about who will win the contest.”
The word that the prepositional phrase limits is called the antecedent of the preposition. It may be a noun, a pronoun, a verb, an adjective, or an adverb; as, “Send me six tons of coal." "He of the blue had lost an arm.” "Suffer little children to come unto me." "He was white with rage.” “I have read the book sufficiently for my purpose.”
The following are the prepositions most commonly used: about
throughout above before
under against beside in
underneath along between into
until amid betwixt of
unto amidst beyond
up among but (except)
upon amongst by past
with around concerning round
within athwart down through
SPECIAL WORDS REQUIRING SPECIAL PREPOSITIONS Nothing is of more importance in connection with the study of the preposition than to note that certain words require special prepositions, the preposition depending on the meaning to be expressed. acquit of
adapted from (an author) abhorrence of
absolve from (a crime) adapted to (a thing)
accord with (a person) adapted for (by nature)
agree with (a person) agree to (a proposal)
agree upon (a course) appropriate to (ourselves) appropriate for a charity) appropriate from (an author) attend to (listen) attend upon (wait) bestow upon (persons) bestow in (places) bathe in (sea) bathe for (cleanliness) bathe with (water) comply with conform to (in conformity with or to) convenient to (a person) convenient for (a purpose) conversant with correspond to or with (a thing) correspond with (a person) confer on (give to) confer with (talk to) confide in (place confidence in) confide to (entrust to) dependent on (but independent of) derogatory to
differ from or with (in opinion) differ from (in likeness) disappointed of (what we cannot get) disappointed in (what we have got) employed at (a stipulated salary) employed in, on, or upon (a work or busi.
ness) employ for (a purpose) enter into (agreements) enter upon (duties) enter in (a record) enter at (a given point) exception from (a rule) exception to (a statement) familiarize to (scenes) familiarize with (a business) martyr for (a cause) martyr to (a disease) need of or for part from (friend) part with (money) profit by reconcile to (friend) reconcile with (condition) taste of (food) a taste for (art) thirst for or after (knowledge)
Do not use prepositions that are not needed; as, "Where are you going
"Where are you at?"' "'I cannot help from admiring him.”
COMMON ERRORS IN THE USE OF PREPOSITIONS
I shall see you during the week. I shall see you sometime within the
week. I do not approve of his conduct. I do not approve his conduct. Are you angry at me?
Are you angry with me? He fell from off the bridge in the He fell from the bridge into the water water.
"Into” signifies motion from without to within. It is correct, however, to say, “He fell in love."
SAY: He entered the room accompanied He entered the room accompanied by with his father.
his father. The banquet was followed with a The banquet was followed by a dance.
dance. I shall be glad to accept of your hos- I shall be glad to accept your hospipitality.
He cut the stick in tuo.
Get on the train. While the words "on to” and “onto” have been used by some recent writers, they should be avoided. We shall call upon you in the near We shall call on you in the near fufuture.
tuire. We shall depend upon you to do the We shall depend on you to do the work.
work. He put his hat on his head.
He put liis hat upon his head. “Upon” implies superposition. He died with the smallpox.
He died of smallpox. Divide the money between the three Divide the money among the three boys.
boys. "Between” expresses relation between two objects.
Draw one line under the antecedent and two lines under the object of the prepositions in the following sentences: (Deduct two per cent for each error.)
1. This fruit came from across the sea. 2. I will stay until after supper. 3. The man fell from the roof to the ground. 4. The city is ten miles from here. 5. He pleaded in vain for his life. 6. I shall ask him about what he saw. 7. They passed by me and went into the house. 8. The ground is white with snow. 9. This is enough for me. 10. We build the ladder by which we rise,
From the lowly earth to the vaulted skies,
And we mount to the summit round by round. 11. At midnight, in his guarded tent,
The Turk lay dreaming of the hour When Greece, her knee in suppliance bent,
Should tremble at his power.
Strike out the redundant prepositions:
(Deduct eight per cent for each error.) 1. He met a girl of about ten years of age. 2. Napoleon stood pondering upon what he should do. 3. They went on to the train. 4. Look out of the door. 5. A workman fell off of the roof. 6 We must examine into this statement more carefully. 7. That child copies after her teacher. 8. Where is she at? 9. Where are you going to ? 10. He is a young man of from twenty to twenty-six years of age. 11. Here, John, smell of this rose. 12. Did you taste of the food?